Agreement of 5 June 1992 on the reopening of the Sarajevo Airport for humanitarian purposes

Country/entity
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Yugoslavia (former)
Region
Europe and Eurasia
Agreement name
Agreement of 5 June 1992 on the reopening of the Sarajevo Airport for humanitarian purposes
Date
05/06/1992
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Interim arrangement
No
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Balkan Conflicts (1991 - 1995) (1998 - 2001)
Former Yugoslavia

The disintegration of former Yugoslavia post cold war saw conflicts which became mediated and produced peace agreements in Slovenia (where the brief independence conflict was mediated by the EC Troika in 1991), Croatia (between Croatian and Serb populations 1991-1995), in Bosnia (between Croatian, Serb and Bosniak populations 1992-1995), in Macedonia (where mediation played a key pre-emptive role in preventing large scale conflict in 2001), in Kosovo (between Kosovar Albanians and Serbian population and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY), but also between FRY and NATO, 1998-1999), and a conflict in the Presevo Valley (between Albanians in South Serbia and FRY, 2000-2001). The continued fall-out of the disintegration of former Yugoslavia also saw mediated agreement and ultimate dissolution of the Union between Serbia and Montenegro.

Bosnia-Herzegovina

In 1991, after nationalist parties won the first multi-party elections in the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, a violent process of disintegration commenced. With its mixed population, Bosnia-Herzegovina became the centre of the following civil war that began in 1992 between the newly formed army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (mostly Muslim Bosniacs), and the parastatal forces of self-declared Bosnian Croat (Herzeg-Bosnia) and Bosnian Serb (Republika Srpska) entities within Bosnia-Herzegovina, supported by Croatia and Serbia, with various, often short-lived, coalitions. The General Framework Agreement (Dayton Peace Agreement), signed in 1995, split the country into two ethno-federal entities, the Bosniak-Croat Federation and the Republika Srpska, and included continued peacekeeping and institutional administration by international actors.

Kosovo

The conflict between Serbs and Kosovar Albanians has a long history and always involved territorial disputes as well as ethno-political, cultural and linguistic factors. The most recent phase of the conflict began in November 1997 when the Albanian Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA or UCK) began their campaign for the independence of Kosovo from the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY – then Serbia and Montenegro). The subsequent war lasted until the NATO intervention, which undertook bombing campaigns of Belgrade and other places in Serbia during spring 1999. The main agreements solving the conflict were internationally driven and, finally, a UNSC resolution imposed a post-conflict arrangement in the wake of what was essentially a NATO military victory. In February 2008, Kosovo’s parliament declared independence, but independence is still internationally disputed.

Balkan Conflicts (1991 - 1995) (1998 - 2001) )
Stage
Pre-negotiation/process (Other: Agreement on restoration of services)
Conflict nature
Government/territory
Peace process
125: Bosnia peace process
Parties
Members of Bosnian Presidency, signed separately by Radovan Karadzic
For UNPROFOR: Cedric Thornberry
Third parties
Description
This short agreement provides for the implementation of a previously declared ceasefire. It contains modalities for the demilitarization of Sarajevo Airport, removal of obstacles currently preventing the airport from operating, and guarantees from all parties for mobility of aircraft, airport workers and humanitarian personnel.

Agreement document
BA_920605_SarajevoAirportAgreement.pdf []

Groups

Children/youth
No specific mention.
Disabled persons
No specific mention.
Elderly/age
No specific mention.
Migrant workers
No specific mention.
Racial/ethnic/national group
No specific mention.
Religious groups
No specific mention.
Indigenous people
No specific mention.
Other groups
No specific mention.
Refugees/displaced persons
No specific mention.
Social class
No specific mention.

Gender

Women, girls and gender
No specific mention.
Men and boys
No specific mention.
LGBTI
No specific mention.
Family
No specific mention.

State definition

State definition
No specific mention.

Governance

Political institutions (new or reformed)
No specific mention.
Constitution's affirmation/renewal
No specific mention.
Constitutional reform/making
Page 2, 10.
This agreement shall be without prejudice to the settlement of constitutional questions now under negotiation; and to the safety and security of all inhabitation of Sarajevo and its surrounding area.
Elections
No specific mention.
Electoral commission
No specific mention.
Political parties reform
No specific mention.
Civil society
No specific mention.
Traditional/religious leaders
No specific mention.
Public administration
No specific mention.

Power sharing

Political power sharing
No specific mention.
Territorial power sharing
No specific mention.
Economic power sharing
No specific mention.
Military power sharing
No specific mention.

Human rights and equality

Human rights/RoL
No specific mention.
Equality
Page 2, 7.
All local civilian personnel airport will be employed on a basis of non-discrimination, and will be supervised and controlled by UNPROFOR. To the extent possible, such personnel will comprise the current employees of the airport.
Democracy
No specific mention.
Protection measures
No specific mention.
Human rights framework
No specific mention.
Civil and political rights
No specific mention.
Socio-economic rights
No specific mention.
NHRI
No specific mention.
Regional or international human rights institutions
No specific mention.
Mobility/access
[Summary: The agreement in its entirety provides for a ceasefire in the area of the Sarajevo airport with the purpose of facilitating air traffic, including humanitarian iad flows.]

Page 1, 3.
The parties undertake not to attempt to interfere in any way with the free movement of UNPROFOR supervised air traffic into and out of Sarajevo airport. Such traffic will consist of:
(a) Humanitarian and re-supply missions.
(b) United Nations and European Community or related missions.
(c) Official missions.
All possible measures will be taken to give advance notice to all concerned regarding such flights.

Page 2, 8.
Humanitarian aid will be delivered to Sarajevo and beyond, under the supervision of the United Nations, in a non-discriminatory manner and on a sole basis of need. The parties undertake to facilitate such deliveries, to place no obstacle in their way, and to ensure the security of those engaged in this humanitarian work.

Page 2, 9.
To endure the safe movement of humanitarian aid and related personnel, security corridors between the airport and the city will be established and will function under the control of UNPROFOR.
Detention procedures
No specific mention.
Media and communication
No specific mention.
Citizenship
No specific mention.

Justice sector reform

Criminal justice and emergency law
No specific mention.
State of emergency provisions
No specific mention.
Judiciary and courts
No specific mention.
Prisons and detention
No specific mention.
Traditional Laws
No specific mention.

Socio-economic reconstruction

Development or socio-economic reconstruction
Humanitarian assistance
Page 1, 3.
The parties undertake not to attempt to interfere in any way with the free movement of UNPROFOR supervised air traffic into and out of Sarajevo airport. Such traffic will consist of:
(a) Humanitarian and re-supply missions...
All possible measures will be taken to give advance notice to all concerned regarding such flights.

Page 2, 6.
UNPROFOR will control all incoming personnel, aid, cargo and other items to ensure that no warlike materials are imported, and that the airport's opening is not otherwise abused in any way. The parties' humanitarian organizations will each establish an office at the airport to facilitate UNPROFOR's related tasks.

Page 2, 8.
Humanitarian aid will be delivered to Sarajevo and beyond, under the supervision of the United Nations, in a non-discriminatory manner and on a sole basis of need. The parties undertake to facilitate such deliveries, to place no obstacle in their way, and to ensure the security of those engaged in this humanitarian work.

Page 2, 9.
To endure the safe movement of humanitarian aid and related personnel, security corridors between the airport and the city will be established and will function under the control of UNPROFOR.
National economic plan
No specific mention.
Natural resources
No specific mention.
International funds
No specific mention.
Business
No specific mention.
Taxation
No specific mention.
Banks
No specific mention.

Land, property and environment

Land reform/rights
No specific mention.
Pastoralist/nomadism rights
No specific mention.
Cultural heritage
No specific mention.
Environment
No specific mention.
Water or riparian rights or access
No specific mention.

Security sector

Security Guarantees
Page 2, 5.
Facilities, organizations and security inside the airport, including perimeter security, will be supervised and controlled by UNPROFOR with its civil, military and police personnel.

Page 2, 9.
To ensure the safe movement of humanitarian aid and related personnel, security corridors between the airport and the city will be established and will function under the control of UNPROFOR.

Page 2, 10.
This agreement shall be without prejudice to the settlement of constitutional questions now under negotiation; and to the safety and security of all inhabitation of Sarajevo and its surrounding area.
Ceasefire
Ceasefire provision
Page 1, 1.
The cease-fire declared for 1800 hours on l June 1992 in and around Sarajevo is reaffirmed. The cease-fire will be monitored by UNPROFOR, and the parties will provide liaison officers and escorts to assist in its verification.

Page 1, 2.
To provide physical guarantees that fire will not be brought to bear against the airport, flying aircraft, or aircraft on the ground, they agree that:
(a) All anti-aircraft weapon systems will be withdrawn from positions from which they can engage the airport and its air approaches and be placed under UNPROFOR supervision.
(b) All artillery, mortar, ground-to-ground missile systems and tanks within range of the airport will be concentrated in areas agreed by UNPROFOR and subject to UNPROFOR observation at the firing line.

Page 2, 5.
Facilities, organization and security inside the airport. Including perimeter security, will be supervised and controlled by UNPROFOR with its civil, military and police personnel.
Police
No specific mention.
Armed forces
No specific mention.
DDR
No specific mention.
Intelligence services
No specific mention.
Parastatal/rebel and opposition group forces
No specific mention.
Withdrawal of foreign forces
No specific mention.
Corruption
No specific mention.
Crime/organised crime
No specific mention.
Drugs
No specific mention.
Terrorism
No specific mention.

Transitional justice

Transitional justice general
No specific mention.
Amnesty/pardon
No specific mention.
Courts
No specific mention.
Mechanism
No specific mention.
Prisoner release
No specific mention.
Vetting
No specific mention.
Victims
No specific mention.
Missing persons
No specific mention.
Reparations
No specific mention.
Reconciliation
No specific mention.

Implementation

UN signatory
For UNPROFOR: Cedric Thornberry
Other international signatory
No specific mention.
Referendum for agreement
No specific mention.
International mission/force/similar
Page 1, 1.
The cease-fire declared for 1800 hours on l June 1992 in and around Sarajevo is reaffirmed. The cease-fire will be monitored by UNPROFOR, and the parties will provide liaison officers and escorts to assist in its verification.

Page 1, 2.
To provide physical guarantees that fire will not be brought to bear against the airport, flying aircraft, or aircraft on the ground, they agree that:
(a) All anti-aircraft weapon systems will be withdrawn from positions from which they can engage the airport and its air approaches and be placed under UNPROFOR supervision.
(b) All artillery, mortar, ground-to-ground missile systems and tanks within range of the airport will be concentrated in areas agreed by UNPROFOR and subject to UNPROFOR observation at the firing line.

Page 1, 3.
The parties undertake not to attempt to interfere in any way with the free movement of UNPROFOR supervised air traffic into and out of Sarajevo airport. Such traffic will consist of:...
(b) United Nations and European Community or related missions...
All possible measures will be taken to give advance notice to all concerned regarding such flights.

Page 1, 4.
UNPROFOR will establish a special regime tor the airport and will supervise and control its implementation and functioning. This regime will be established at the earliest possible date after the approval of all concerned, with preparatory work beginning immediately after signature. All parties undertake to facilitate these processes together with the handover of the airport to UNPROFOR.

Page 2, 5.
Facilities. organization and security inside the airport. Including perimeter security, will be supervised and controlled by UNPROFOR with its civil, military and police personnel.

Page 2, 6.
UNPROFOR will control all incoming personnel, aid, cargo and other items to ensure that no warlike materials are imported, and that the airport's opening is not otherwise abused in any way. The parties' humanitarian organizations will each establish an office at the airport to facilitate UNPROFOR's related tasks.

Page 2, 7.
All local civilian personnel airport will be employed on a basis of non-discrimination, and will be supervised and controlled by UNPROFOR. To the extent possible, such personnel will comprise the current employees of the airport.

Page 2, 8.
Humanitarian aid will be delivered to Sarajevo and beyond, under the supervision of the United Nations, in a non-discriminatory manner and on a sole basis of need. The parties undertake to facilitate such deliveries, to place no obstacle in their way, and to ensure the security of those engaged in this humanitarian work.

Page 2, 9.
To endure the safe movement of humanitarian aid and related personnel, security corridors between the airport and the city will be established and will function under the control of UNPROFOR.
Enforcement mechanism
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh