Text of US/Russia/UK/France/Spain Joint Action Programme (JAP) on Bosnia

Country/entity
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Yugoslavia (former)
Region
Europe and Eurasia
Agreement name
Text of US/Russia/UK/France/Spain Joint Action Programme (JAP) on Bosnia
Date
22/05/1993
Agreement status
Unilateral document
Interim arrangement
No
Agreement/conflict level
Interstate/intrastate conflict(s) (Balkan Conflicts (1991 - 1995) (1998 - 2001)
Former Yugoslavia

The disintegration of former Yugoslavia post cold war saw conflicts which became mediated and produced peace agreements in Slovenia (where the brief independence conflict was mediated by the EC Troika in 1991), Croatia (between Croatian and Serb populations 1991-1995), in Bosnia (between Croatian, Serb and Bosniak populations 1992-1995), in Macedonia (where mediation played a key pre-emptive role in preventing large scale conflict in 2001), in Kosovo (between Kosovar Albanians and Serbian population and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY), but also between FRY and NATO, 1998-1999), and a conflict in the Presevo Valley (between Albanians in South Serbia and FRY, 2000-2001). The continued fall-out of the disintegration of former Yugoslavia also saw mediated agreement and ultimate dissolution of the Union between Serbia and Montenegro.

Bosnia-Herzegovina

In 1991, after nationalist parties won the first multi-party elections in the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, a violent process of disintegration commenced. With its mixed population, Bosnia-Herzegovina became the centre of the following civil war that began in 1992 between the newly formed army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (mostly Muslim Bosniacs), and the parastatal forces of self-declared Bosnian Croat (Herzeg-Bosnia) and Bosnian Serb (Republika Srpska) entities within Bosnia-Herzegovina, supported by Croatia and Serbia, with various, often short-lived, coalitions. The General Framework Agreement (Dayton Peace Agreement), signed in 1995, split the country into two ethno-federal entities, the Bosniak-Croat Federation and the Republika Srpska, and included continued peacekeeping and institutional administration by international actors.

Kosovo

The conflict between Serbs and Kosovar Albanians has a long history and always involved territorial disputes as well as ethno-political, cultural and linguistic factors. The most recent phase of the conflict began in November 1997 when the Albanian Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA or UCK) began their campaign for the independence of Kosovo from the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY – then Serbia and Montenegro). The subsequent war lasted until the NATO intervention, which undertook bombing campaigns of Belgrade and other places in Serbia during spring 1999. The main agreements solving the conflict were internationally driven and, finally, a UNSC resolution imposed a post-conflict arrangement in the wake of what was essentially a NATO military victory. In February 2008, Kosovo’s parliament declared independence, but independence is still internationally disputed.

Balkan Conflicts (1991 - 1995) (1998 - 2001) )
Stage
Implementation/renegotiation (Extends the agreement to new parties)
Conflict nature
Government/territory
Peace process
125: Bosnia peace process
Parties
France, the Russian Federation, Spain, the United Kingdom, and the United States of
America
Third parties
Description

Agreement document
BA_930522_Text of US, Russia, UK, France, Spain Joint Action Programme on Bosnia.pdf []

Groups

Children/youth
No specific mention.
Disabled persons
No specific mention.
Elderly/age
No specific mention.
Migrant workers
No specific mention.
Racial/ethnic/national group
Rhetorical
Page 3, 8.
Central Bosnia-Herzegovina. We are deeply concerned about the fighting between Bosnian Croatian and Bosnian Government Forces and the related 'ethnic cleansing,' and we agree that Croatia should be put on notice that assistance to Bosnian Croatian forces engaged in these activities could result in the international community imposing sanctions on Croatia.
Religious groups
No specific mention.
Indigenous people
No specific mention.
Other groups
No specific mention.
Refugees/displaced persons
No specific mention.
Social class
No specific mention.

Gender

Women, girls and gender
No specific mention.
Men and boys
No specific mention.
LGBTI
No specific mention.
Family
No specific mention.

State definition

State definition
Independence/secession
Page 4, 11.
Kosovo. We favour an increase in the international monitoring presence in Kosovo. International standards of human rights should be strictly respected in the Formerly-autonomous region of Kosovo, although we do not support declarations of independence there.

Governance

Political institutions (new or reformed)
No specific mention.
Constitution's affirmation/renewal
No specific mention.
Constitutional reform/making
No specific mention.
Elections
No specific mention.
Electoral commission
No specific mention.
Political parties reform
No specific mention.
Civil society
No specific mention.
Traditional/religious leaders
No specific mention.
Public administration
No specific mention.

Power sharing

Political power sharing
No specific mention.
Territorial power sharing
No specific mention.
Economic power sharing
No specific mention.
Military power sharing
No specific mention.

Human rights and equality

Human rights/RoL
No specific mention.
Equality
No specific mention.
Democracy
No specific mention.
Protection measures
No specific mention.
Human rights framework
Treaty incorporation
Page 4, 11.
Kosovo. We favour an increase in the international monitoring presence in Kosovo. International standards of human rights should be strictly respected in the Formerly-autonomous region of Kosovo, although we do not support declarations of independence there.
Civil and political rights
No specific mention.
Socio-economic rights
No specific mention.
NHRI
No specific mention.
Regional or international human rights institutions
No specific mention.
Mobility/access
Page 1, 1.
Humanitarian assistance. We will continue providing humanitarian assistance for the people of Bosnia-Herzegovina, and will insist that all parties allow humanitarian aid to pass without hindrance.

Page 2, 3.
Sealing borders. We note the pledge of the Belgrade authorities to close the border with Bosnia-Herzegovina, in order to put pressure on the Bosnian Serbs to accept the Peace Plan. We are watching to see if the border closure is effective. Although the primary responsibility for enforcing this step belongs to Belgrade, we can assist, for instance by placing monitors on the borders or providing technical expertise or conducting aerial surveillance. We also note the willingness expressed by the Zagreb authorities for monitoring to take place along the border between Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina.
Detention procedures
No specific mention.
Media and communication
No specific mention.
Citizenship
No specific mention.

Justice sector reform

Criminal justice and emergency law
No specific mention.
State of emergency provisions
No specific mention.
Judiciary and courts
No specific mention.
Prisons and detention
No specific mention.
Traditional Laws
No specific mention.

Socio-economic reconstruction

Development or socio-economic reconstruction
Humanitarian assistance
Page 1, 1.
Humanitarian assistance. We will continue providing humanitarian assistance for the people of Bosnia-Herzegovina, and will insist that all parties allow humanitarian aid to pass without hindrance.
National economic plan
No specific mention.
Natural resources
No specific mention.
International funds
Page 1, 1.
Humanitarian assistance. We will continue providing humanitarian assistance for the people of Bosnia-Herzegovina, and will insist that all parties allow humanitarian aid to pass without hindrance.
Business
No specific mention.
Taxation
No specific mention.
Banks
No specific mention.

Land, property and environment

Land reform/rights
No specific mention.
Pastoralist/nomadism rights
No specific mention.
Cultural heritage
No specific mention.
Environment
No specific mention.
Water or riparian rights or access
No specific mention.

Security sector

Security Guarantees
No specific mention.
Ceasefire
General commitments
Page 4, 12.
Croatia. The same considerations apply to the Serb-populated areas of Croatia. We will work for the renewal added and strengthening of UNPROFOR's mandate. The Croatian Government and the local Serb Authorities should maintain the cease-fire and constructively pursue their dialogue leading to settling practical, economic, and, eventually, political problems between them.
Police
No specific mention.
Armed forces
No specific mention.
DDR
No specific mention.
Intelligence services
No specific mention.
Parastatal/rebel and opposition group forces
Page 1-2, 2.
The economic sanctions imposed by the United Nations Security Council against Serbia and Montenegro must be rigorously enforced by all members of the UN until the necessary conditions set out in Security Council Resolution 820, including the withdrawal of Bosnian Serb troops from territories occupied by force, are met for lifting the sanctions.

Page 3, 8.
Central Bosnia-Herzegovina. We are deeply concerned about the fighting between Bosnian Croatian and Bosnian Government Forces and the related 'ethnic cleansing,' and we agree that Croatia should be put on notice that assistance to Bosnian Croatian forces engaged in these activities could result in the international community imposing sanctions on Croatia.

Page 4, 12.
Croatia. The same considerations apply to the Serb-populated areas of Croatia. We will work for the renewal added and strengthening of UNPROFOR's mandate. The Croatian Government and the local Serb Authorities should maintain the cease-fire and constructively pursue their dialogue leading to settling practical, economic, and, eventually, political problems between them.
Withdrawal of foreign forces
No specific mention.
Corruption
No specific mention.
Crime/organised crime
No specific mention.
Drugs
No specific mention.
Terrorism
No specific mention.

Transitional justice

Transitional justice general
No specific mention.
Amnesty/pardon
No specific mention.
Courts
International courts
Page 3, 6.
War Crimes Tribunal. We support the rapid establishment of the War Crimes Tribunal, so that those guilty of atrocities may be brought to justice.
Mechanism
No specific mention.
Prisoner release
No specific mention.
Vetting
No specific mention.
Victims
No specific mention.
Missing persons
No specific mention.
Reparations
No specific mention.
Reconciliation
No specific mention.

Implementation

UN signatory
Agreement ends: We five members of the united Nations Security Council are firmly united and firmly committed to taking these immediate steps. We will work closely with the UNited Nations and the involved regional organizations as we carry out these efforts.
Other international signatory
No specific mention.
Referendum for agreement
No specific mention.
International mission/force/similar
Page 2, 3.
Sealing borders. We note the pledge of the Belgrade authorities to close the border with Bosnia-Herzegovina, in order to put pressure on the Bosnian Serbs to accept the Peace Plan. We are watching to see if the border closure is effective. Although the primary responsibility for enforcing this step belongs to Belgrade, we can assist, for instance by placing monitors on the borders or providing technical expertise or conducting aerial surveillance. We also note the willingness expressed by the Zagreb authorities for monitoring to take place along the border between Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina.

Page 3, 4.
'Safe areas.' The concept of 'safe areas' in Bosnia-Herzegovina, as France and others have proposed, could make a valuable contribution. We will work to secure early adoption of the new UN Security Council Resolution now under discussion. The United Kingdom and France along with other nations already have forces serving with UNPROFOR in 'safe areas.' troops from other countries, including Spain and Canada, are playing an important role on the ground. The Russian Federation is considering making forces available in Bosnia in addition to its forces presently in Croatia. The United States is prepared to meet its commitment to help protect UNPROFOR forces in the event they are attacked and request such action. Further contributions from other countries would be most welcome.

Page 4, 10.
Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. It is essential that everyone in the region understands that aggression against the former Yugoslav republic of Macedonia would have grave consequences. We will support an increase in the international presence there in consultation with the authorities in Skopje. The United States is considering a contribution to this effort.

Page 4, 11.
Kosovo. We favour an increase in the international monitoring presence in Kosovo. International standards of human rights should be strictly respected in the Formerly-autonomous region of Kosovo, although we do not support declarations of independence there.

Page 4, 12.
Croatia. The same considerations apply to the Serb-populated areas of Croatia. We will work for the renewal added and strengthening of UNPROFOR's mandate. The Croatian Government and the local Serb Authorities should maintain the cease-fire and constructively pursue their dialogue leading to settling practical, economic, and, eventually, political problems between them.
Enforcement mechanism
Page 2, 3.
Sealing borders. We note the pledge of the Belgrade authorities to close the border with Bosnia-Herzegovina, in order to put pressure on the Bosnian Serbs to accept the Peace Plan. We are watching to see if the border closure is effective. Although the primary responsibility for enforcing this step belongs to Belgrade, we can assist, for instance by placing monitors on the borders or providing technical expertise or conducting aerial surveillance. We also note the willingness expressed by the Zagreb authorities for monitoring to take place along the border between Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina.

The University of Edinburgh