Agreement (Economic Agreement)

Country/entity
Croatia
Yugoslavia (former)
Region
Europe and Eurasia
Agreement name
Agreement (Economic Agreement)
Date
02/12/1994
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Interim arrangement
No
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Balkan Conflicts (1991 - 1995) (1998 - 2001)
Former Yugoslavia

The disintegration of former Yugoslavia post cold war saw conflicts which became mediated and produced peace agreements in Slovenia (where the brief independence conflict was mediated by the EC Troika in 1991), Croatia (between Croatian and Serb populations 1991-1995), in Bosnia (between Croatian, Serb and Bosniak populations 1992-1995), in Macedonia (where mediation played a key pre-emptive role in preventing large scale conflict in 2001), in Kosovo (between Kosovar Albanians and Serbian population and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY), but also between FRY and NATO, 1998-1999), and a conflict in the Presevo Valley (between Albanians in South Serbia and FRY, 2000-2001). The continued fall-out of the disintegration of former Yugoslavia also saw mediated agreement and ultimate dissolution of the Union between Serbia and Montenegro.

Bosnia-Herzegovina

In 1991, after nationalist parties won the first multi-party elections in the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, a violent process of disintegration commenced. With its mixed population, Bosnia-Herzegovina became the centre of the following civil war that began in 1992 between the newly formed army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (mostly Muslim Bosniacs), and the parastatal forces of self-declared Bosnian Croat (Herzeg-Bosnia) and Bosnian Serb (Republika Srpska) entities within Bosnia-Herzegovina, supported by Croatia and Serbia, with various, often short-lived, coalitions. The General Framework Agreement (Dayton Peace Agreement), signed in 1995, split the country into two ethno-federal entities, the Bosniak-Croat Federation and the Republika Srpska, and included continued peacekeeping and institutional administration by international actors.

Kosovo

The conflict between Serbs and Kosovar Albanians has a long history and always involved territorial disputes as well as ethno-political, cultural and linguistic factors. The most recent phase of the conflict began in November 1997 when the Albanian Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA or UCK) began their campaign for the independence of Kosovo from the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY – then Serbia and Montenegro). The subsequent war lasted until the NATO intervention, which undertook bombing campaigns of Belgrade and other places in Serbia during spring 1999. The main agreements solving the conflict were internationally driven and, finally, a UNSC resolution imposed a post-conflict arrangement in the wake of what was essentially a NATO military victory. In February 2008, Kosovo’s parliament declared independence, but independence is still internationally disputed.

Balkan Conflicts (1991 - 1995) (1998 - 2001) )
Stage
Framework/substantive - partial (Core issue)
Conflict nature
Government/territory
Peace process
127: Croatia negotiation process
Parties
H. SARINIC; B. MIKELIC; D. OWEN; T. STOLTENBERG; P. PEETERS; P. J. von STÜLPNAGEL
Third parties
Witnessed by: P. GALBRAITH; L. KERESTEDZHIYANTS
Description
This agreement provides for assessing and repairing the water and electricity systems across the United Nations Protected Areas. It also establishes reopening of highways and railways, and unrestricted use of the oil pipeline passing through the UNPAs.

Agreement document
HR_941202_Economic Agreement.pdf []

Groups

Children/youth
No specific mention.
Disabled persons
No specific mention.
Elderly/age
No specific mention.
Migrant workers
No specific mention.
Racial/ethnic/national group
No specific mention.
Religious groups
No specific mention.
Indigenous people
No specific mention.
Other groups
No specific mention.
Refugees/displaced persons
Substantive
Page 6, V. FURTHER NEGOTIATIONS, 1.1
Negotiations shall be continued immediately in order to reach agreement on the following topics: The return of refugees and displaced persons.
Social class
No specific mention.

Gender

Women, girls and gender
No specific mention.
Men and boys
No specific mention.
LGBTI
No specific mention.
Family
No specific mention.

State definition

State definition
No specific mention.

Governance

Political institutions (new or reformed)
No specific mention.
Constitution's affirmation/renewal
No specific mention.
Constitutional reform/making
No specific mention.
Elections
No specific mention.
Electoral commission
No specific mention.
Political parties reform
No specific mention.
Civil society
No specific mention.
Traditional/religious leaders
No specific mention.
Public administration
No specific mention.

Power sharing

Political power sharing
No specific mention.
Territorial power sharing
No specific mention.
Economic power sharing
No specific mention.
Military power sharing
No specific mention.

Human rights and equality

Human rights/RoL
No specific mention.
Equality
No specific mention.
Democracy
No specific mention.
Protection measures
No specific mention.
Human rights framework
No specific mention.
Civil and political rights
No specific mention.
Socio-economic rights
No specific mention.
NHRI
No specific mention.
Regional or international human rights institutions
No specific mention.
Mobility/access
Page 2, I. WATER, 3.5
UNPROFOR and experts appointed by UNPROFOR shall be given full access to all facilities in order to carry out such inspections.

Page 3, II. ELECTRICITY, 4.1
Requirements following the opening of the transmission lines: UNPROFOR and/or international experts shall have free access to the transmission lines and related facilities for the purpose of verifying and securing unimpeded and regular use.

Page 4-5, III. THE HIGHWAY, 3.1
(a) All traffic under the Agreement will be granted free and safe passage. Vehicles may travel separately or together; (b) In order to ensure free and safe passage through UNPAs Sectors West and/or East UNPROFOR will, within its mandate, monitor these parts of the Highway. UNPROFOR may stop and inspect any vehicles and/or individuals, whenever it considers that such vehicles and/or individuals may endanger the implementation of this
Agreement. Local police shall be obliged to provide assistance whenever required by UNPROFOR in order to ensure the free and safe traffic through UNPAs Sectors West and/or East; (c) A bus service may be established between UNPAs Sectors West and East and may also be established along the other parts of the Highway covered by this Agreement...

Page 5, IV. THE OIL PIPELINE, 3.3
The requirements identified through the inspections mentioned above as well as any maintenance work required will be carried out without delay, under the supervision and with the assistance of UNPROFOR or experts or contractors appointed by UNPROFOR where appropriate. Free access will be given to all persons and equipment involved in carrying
out this work.
Detention procedures
No specific mention.
Media and communication
No specific mention.
Citizenship
No specific mention.

Justice sector reform

Criminal justice and emergency law
No specific mention.
State of emergency provisions
No specific mention.
Judiciary and courts
No specific mention.
Prisons and detention
No specific mention.
Traditional Laws
No specific mention.

Socio-economic reconstruction

Development or socio-economic reconstruction
Infrastructure and reconstruction
Page 1, I. WATER, 3.1
All technical information requested by the United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR) in order to make the above-mentioned water supply systems operational shall be made available without delay. This will in particular include: (a) Layout and technical specifications for installations, pipelines, power lines and associated facilities; (b) Information concerning assessments of damage; (c) Assessments concerning repair work needed as well as requirements for such work...

Page 2, I. WATER, 3.3
Full security will be guaranteed for all installations, facilities and working teams involved during the period of restoration of the water supply systems as well as after they have been put into operation. Within the Zone of Separation UNPROFOR will, for the duration of its mandate, provide this security in accordance with the Cease-fire Agreement.

Page 2, I. WATER, 3.4
UNPROFOR or experts appointed by UNPROFOR, with the cooperation of the signatories to this Agreement, will carry out inspections of all facilities and installations in order to assess damage, requirements for repair work and spare parts as well as the time required to make the water supply systems operational.

Page 2, I. WATER, 3.6
A timetable will be established by UNPROFOR after consultations for the repair work of each water supply system.

Page 2, I. WATER, 3.7
The repair work required will be commenced as soon as the results of the inspections of each supply system are available. Wherever such inspections have already been carried out, repair work will commence immediately. UNPROFOR will supervise the repair work and assist where appropriate.

Page 2, I. WATER, 4.1
Requirements following the completion of repair work of the water supply systems: The regular supply of water will commence immediately after the completion of work required at each supply system and when the Joint Commission has declared each system operational.

Page 2, I. WATER, 4.2
Requirements following the completion of repair work of the water supply systems:... The methods and location for measuring the quantity and monitoring the quality of water shall be determined for each water system of the areas listed by the Joint Commission based on relevant technical considerations. The price of the water to the user will be agreed in the Joint Commission before the beginning of delivery of the water.

Page 2-3, II. ELECTRICITY, 2.1
The following high-tension transmission lines shall be opened for unimpeded and regular use. (a) The Mraclin-Brinje 220 kV transmission line; (b) The Gradiška-Meduric 100 kV transmission line; (c) The Obrovac-Zadar 110 kV transmission line; (d) The Meline-Obrovac-Konjsko 400 kV transmission line; (e) The Tumbri-Ernestinovo 400 kV transmission line; (f) The construction of a new [400 kV transformer station] [transmission facility on the 400 kV transmission line] at Ernestinovo.

Page 3, II. ELECTRICITY, 3.1
Requirements prior to the restoration of the objects mentioned in paragraph 2.1: International expert teams, where appropriate under the auspices of UNPROFOR, shall inspect all segments of the transmission lines that are subject to this Agreement.

Page 3, II. ELECTRICITY, 3.2
Requirements prior to the restoration of the objects mentioned in paragraph 2.1: These inspections shall assess the repair work and de-mining required for the unimpeded and regular use of the transmission lines.

Page 3, II. ELECTRICITY, 3.3
Requirements prior to the restoration of the objects mentioned in paragraph 2.1: The de-mining and repair of the transmission lines will commence as soon as the results of the inspection of each line are available, under the supervision and with the assistance of UNPROFOR and/or international experts where appropriate.

Page 3, II. ELECTRICITY, 3.4
Requirements prior to the restoration of the objects mentioned in paragraph 2.1: The transmission lines shall be opened as soon as they are declared operational by the Joint Commission.

Page 3, II. ELECTRICITY, 4.1
Requirements following the opening of the transmission lines: UNPROFOR and/or international experts shall have free access to the transmission lines and related facilities for the purpose of verifying and securing unimpeded and regular use.

Page 3, II. ELECTRICITY, 5.1
The Joint Commission will discuss and agree on the terms of payment as well as, where necessary, other questions relating to the work required to make the objects mentioned in paragraph 2.1 operational and to secure their unimpeded and regular use.

Page 3, II. ELECTRICITY, 5.2
The Joint Commission will discuss and agree on the opening of additional transmission lines.

Page 4, II. ELECTRICITY, 6.1
The generator poles for the Obrovac power plant, which have been repaired at the Koncar plant in Zagreb and are currently stored in Rijeka, shall be returned to the Obrovac power plant.

Page 4, II. ELECTRICITY, 7.1
Requirements prior to the return of the generator poles to the Obrovac power plant: The generator poles mentioned above shall be tested at the Koncar plant in the presence of international experts, to verify that they are in working order.

Page 4, II. ELECTRICITY, 8.1
Timing of the return of the generator poles: The generator poles shall be returned to the Obrovac power plant as soon as the Co-Chairmen of the International Conference on the Former Yugoslavia declare that the highway is operating according to this Agreement.

Page 4, II. ELECTRICITY, 9.1
Requirements following the return of the generator poles to the Obrovac power plant: The generator poles, once installed in the Obrovac power plant, shall be inspected by UNPROFOR and/or international experts prior to being put into operation.

Page 4, IV. THE OIL PIPELINE, 3.2
This inspection will identify any repair work and any de-mining operations required in order to recommence the usage of the pipeline.
National economic plan
No specific mention.
Natural resources
Page 5, IV. THE OIL PIPELINE, 1.1
The segment of the oil pipeline passing through UNPA Sectors North, West and East.

Page 5, IV. THE OIL PIPELINE, 2.
The pipeline shall be open for unrestricted and regular usage at this stage only through UNPA North.

Page 5, IV. THE OIL PIPELINE, 3.1
An international expert team under the auspices of UNPROFOR or experts appointed by UNPROFOR shall be allowed to inspect the entire length of the segments subject to this Agreement.

Page 5, IV. THE OIL PIPELINE, 3.2
This inspection will identify any repair work and any de-mining operations required in order to recommence the usage of the pipeline.

Page 5, IV. THE OIL PIPELINE, 3.3
The requirements identified through the inspections mentioned above as well as any maintenance work required will be carried out without delay, under the supervision and with the assistance of UNPROFOR or experts or contractors appointed by UNPROFOR where appropriate. Free access will be given to all persons and equipment involved in carrying
out this work.

Page 5, IV. THE OIL PIPELINE, 3.4
A joint commercial company will be established as soon as possible to sell and distribute oil and oil products at market prices in the UNPAs. The pipeline through UNPA North will be opened as soon as this company is established and the Joint Commission has declared that the pipeline is operational. The other segment of the pipeline will be opened when circumstances permit.
International funds
No specific mention.
Business
Page 5, IV. THE OIL PIPELINE, 3.4
A joint commercial company will be established as soon as possible to sell and distribute oil and oil products at market prices in the UNPAs. The pipeline through UNPA North will be opened as soon as this company is established and the Joint Commission has declared that the pipeline is operational. The other segment of the pipeline will be opened when circumstances permit.
Taxation
Reform of taxation
Page 5, III. THE HIGHWAY, 3.2
Until otherwise agreed, no road toll will be charged inside the UNPAs from vehicles originating outside the UNPAs and outside the UNPAs from vehicles originating inside them.
Banks
No specific mention.

Land, property and environment

Land reform/rights
No specific mention.
Pastoralist/nomadism rights
No specific mention.
Cultural heritage
No specific mention.
Environment
No specific mention.
Water or riparian rights or access
Page 1, I. WATER, 1.1
The following water supply systems: (a) Obrovac-Zadar-Benkovac-Kakma-Biograd-Filip Jakov; (b) Cikola-Drniš; (c) Medak-Gospic-Korenica; (d) Petrinja-Sisak; (e) Gacka-Vrhovine; (f) Sumetlica-Pakrac-Lipik. The Joint Commission will be examining other water-supply systems, using the same criteria for inclusion.

Page 1, I. WATER, 2.
The systems mentioned in paragraph 1.1 shall be restored and opened for the unimpeded and regular supply of water within the optimal capacity of the existing systems.

Page 1, I. WATER, 3.1
All technical information requested by the United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR) in order to make the above-mentioned water supply systems operational shall be made available without delay. This will in particular include: (a) Layout and technical specifications for installations, pipelines, power lines and associated facilities; (b) Information concerning assessments of damage; (c) Assessments concerning repair work needed as well as requirements for such work; (d) Information concerning requirements for de-mining of any installations connected to these water supply systems and their surrounding areas.

Page 2, I. WATER, 3.3
Full security will be guaranteed for all installations, facilities and working teams involved during the period of restoration of the water supply systems as well as after they have been put into operation. Within the Zone of Separation UNPROFOR will, for the duration of its mandate, provide this security in accordance with the Cease-fire Agreement.

Page 2, I. WATER, 3.4
UNPROFOR or experts appointed by UNPROFOR, with the cooperation of the signatories to this Agreement, will carry out inspections of all facilities and installations in order to assess damage, requirements for repair work and spare parts as well as the time required to make the water supply systems operational.

Page 2, I. WATER, 3.6
A timetable will be established by UNPROFOR after consultations for the repair work of each water supply system.

Page 2, I. WATER, 3.7
The repair work required will be commenced as soon as the results of the inspections of each supply system are available. Wherever such inspections have already been carried out, repair work will commence immediately. UNPROFOR will supervise the repair work and assist where appropriate.

Page 2, I. WATER, 4.1
Requirements following the completion of repair work of the water supply systems: The regular supply of water will commence immediately after the completion of work required at each supply system and when the Joint Commission has declared each system operational.

Page 2, I. WATER, 4.2
Requirements following the completion of repair work of the water supply systems:... The methods and location for measuring the quantity and monitoring the quality of water shall be determined for each water system of the areas listed by the Joint Commission based on relevant technical considerations. The price of the water to the user will be agreed in the Joint Commission before the beginning of delivery of the water.

Security sector

Security Guarantees
Page 1, I. WATER, 3.1
All technical information requested by the United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR) in order to make the above-mentioned water supply systems operational shall be made available without delay. This will in particular include:...(d) Information concerning requirements for de-mining of any installations connected to these water supply systems and their surrounding areas.

Page 1, I. WATER, 3.2
De-mining will be carried out where necessary.

Page 2, I. WATER, 3.3
Full security will be guaranteed for all installations, facilities and working teams involved during the period of restoration of the water supply systems as well as after they have been put into operation. Within the Zone of Separation UNPROFOR will, for the duration of its mandate, provide this security in accordance with the Cease-fire Agreement.

Page 3, II. ELECTRICITY, 3.2
Requirements prior to the restoration of the objects mentioned in paragraph 2.1: These inspections shall assess the repair work and de-mining required for the unimpeded and regular use of the transmission lines.

Page 3, II. ELECTRICITY, 3.3
Requirements prior to the restoration of the objects mentioned in paragraph 2.1: The de-mining and repair of the transmission lines will commence as soon as the results of the inspection of each line are available, under the supervision and with the assistance of UNPROFOR and/or international experts where appropriate.

Page 5, IV. THE OIL PIPELINE, 3.2
This inspection will identify any repair work and any de-mining operations required in order to recommence the usage of the pipeline.
Ceasefire
No specific mention.
Police
No specific mention.
Armed forces
No specific mention.
DDR
No specific mention.
Intelligence services
No specific mention.
Parastatal/rebel and opposition group forces
No specific mention.
Withdrawal of foreign forces
No specific mention.
Corruption
No specific mention.
Crime/organised crime
No specific mention.
Drugs
No specific mention.
Terrorism
No specific mention.

Transitional justice

Transitional justice general
No specific mention.
Amnesty/pardon
No specific mention.
Courts
No specific mention.
Mechanism
No specific mention.
Prisoner release
No specific mention.
Vetting
No specific mention.
Victims
No specific mention.
Missing persons
No specific mention.
Reparations
No specific mention.
Reconciliation
No specific mention.

Implementation

UN signatory
Signed by UNSG Representative T Stoltenberg
Other international signatory
No specific mention.
Referendum for agreement
No specific mention.
International mission/force/similar
Page 2, I. WATER, 3.3
Full security will be guaranteed for all installations, facilities and working teams involved during the period of restoration of the water supply systems as well as after they have been put into operation. Within the Zone of Separation UNPROFOR will, for the duration of its mandate, provide this security in accordance with the Cease-fire Agreement.

Page 2, I. WATER, 3.4
UNPROFOR or experts appointed by UNPROFOR, with the cooperation of the signatories to this Agreement, will carry out inspections of all facilities and installations in order to assess damage, requirements for repair work and spare parts as well as the time required to make the water supply systems operational.

Page 2, I. WATER, 3.5
UNPROFOR and experts appointed by UNPROFOR shall be given full access to all facilities in order to carry out such inspections.

Page 2, I. WATER, 3.6
A timetable will be established by UNPROFOR after consultations for the repair work of each water supply system.

Page 2, I. WATER, 3.7
The repair work required will be commenced as soon as the results of the inspections of each supply system are available. Wherever such inspections have already been carried out, repair work will commence immediately. UNPROFOR will supervise the repair work and assist where appropriate.

Page 3, II. ELECTRICITY, 3.1
Requirements prior to the restoration of the objects mentioned in paragraph 2.1: International expert teams, where appropriate under the auspices of UNPROFOR, shall inspect all segments of the transmission lines that are subject to this Agreement.

Page 3, II. ELECTRICITY, 3.3
Requirements prior to the restoration of the objects mentioned in paragraph 2.1: The de-mining and repair of the transmission lines will commence as soon as the results of the inspection of each line are available, under the supervision and with the assistance of UNPROFOR and/or international experts where appropriate.

Page 3, II. ELECTRICITY, 4.1
Requirements following the opening of the transmission lines: UNPROFOR and/or international experts shall have free access to the transmission lines and related facilities for the purpose of verifying and securing unimpeded and regular use.

Page 4, II. ELECTRICITY, 9.1
Requirements following the return of the generator poles to the Obrovac power plant: The generator poles, once installed in the Obrovac power plant, shall be inspected by UNPROFOR and/or international experts prior to being put into operation.

Page 5, III. THE HIGHWAY, 3.1
(a) All traffic under the Agreement will be granted free and safe passage. Vehicles may travel separately or together; (b) In order to ensure free and safe passage through UNPAs Sectors West and/or East UNPROFOR will, within its mandate, monitor these parts of the Highway. UNPROFOR may stop and inspect any vehicles and/or individuals, whenever it considers that such vehicles and/or individuals may endanger the implementation of this
Agreement. Local police shall be obliged to provide assistance whenever required by UNPROFOR in order to ensure the free and safe traffic through UNPAs Sectors West and/or East; (c) A bus service may be established between UNPAs Sectors West and East and may also be established along the other parts of the Highway covered by this Agreement; (d) UNPROFOR/European Community Monitoring Mission (ECMM) will conduct unarmed patrols of the Highway between UNPAs Sectors West and East and between UNPA Sector West and Zagreb in order to verify compliance with this Agreement; (e) UNPROFOR/ECMM will, in consultation with the relevant authorities, establish procedures in order to provide assistance in case of accidents, breakdowns of vehicles, violations of traffic regulations, etc.

Page 5, IV. THE OIL PIPELINE, 3.1
An international expert team under the auspices of UNPROFOR or experts appointed by UNPROFOR shall be allowed to inspect the entire length of the segments subject to this Agreement.

Page 5, IV. THE OIL PIPELINE, 3.3
The requirements identified through the inspections mentioned above as well as any maintenance work required will be carried out without delay, under the supervision and with the assistance of UNPROFOR or experts or contractors appointed by UNPROFOR where appropriate. Free access will be given to all persons and equipment involved in carrying
out this work.
Enforcement mechanism
Page 6, VI. PROVISIONS FOR IMPLEMENTATION, A. Joint Commission, 2.
The Joint Commission will be responsible for implementing all parts of this document as well as other and similar agreements which may be concluded as a follow-up to this document.

Page 6, VI. PROVISIONS FOR IMPLEMENTATION, A. Joint Commission, 3.1
Membership of the Joint Commission will be as follows: Two Co-Chairmen of the Joint Commission appointed by the Co-Chairmen of the Steering Committee of the International Conference on the Former Yugoslavia. One representative appointed by each of the signatories to this Agreement. One representative of UNPROFOR. Each member of the Joint Commission will be accompanied by one associate and may call on other experts to attend the meetings.

Page 6-7, VI. PROVISIONS FOR IMPLEMENTATION, A. Joint Commission, 4.1
Any disputes or breach of the provisions of this Agreement as well as any other matter that requires further clarification or deliberation shall be brought to the attention of and resolution by the Joint Commission. Should any dispute or breach of the provisions of this Agreement occur, no retaliation or unilateral action shall take place. In cases where agreement cannot be reached by consensus, the Co-Chairmen of the Joint Commission will try to arbitrate. In the event that their proposal is not acceptable, an appeal can be made to the Co-Chairmen of the Steering Committee of the International Conference on the Former Yugoslavia, whose arbitration shall be final.

The University of Edinburgh