Agreement on the cessation of hostilities in Bosnia and Herzegovina concluded between Gen. Milivoj Petkovic and Gen. Sefer Halilovic on 12 May 1993, in the presene of Lt. Gen. Philippe Morillon and ECMM.HRC Jean-Pierre Thebault

Country/entity
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Yugoslavia (former)
Region
Europe and Eurasia
Agreement name
Agreement on the cessation of hostilities in Bosnia and Herzegovina concluded between Gen. Milivoj Petkovic and Gen. Sefer Halilovic on 12 May 1993, in the presene of Lt. Gen. Philippe Morillon and ECMM.HRC Jean-Pierre Thebault
Date
12/05/1993
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Interim arrangement
No
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Balkan Conflicts (1991 - 1995) (1998 - 2001)
Former Yugoslavia

The disintegration of former Yugoslavia post cold war saw conflicts which became mediated and produced peace agreements in Slovenia (where the brief independence conflict was mediated by the EC Troika in 1991), Croatia (between Croatian and Serb populations 1991-1995), in Bosnia (between Croatian, Serb and Bosniak populations 1992-1995), in Macedonia (where mediation played a key pre-emptive role in preventing large scale conflict in 2001), in Kosovo (between Kosovar Albanians and Serbian population and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY), but also between FRY and NATO, 1998-1999), and a conflict in the Presevo Valley (between Albanians in South Serbia and FRY, 2000-2001). The continued fall-out of the disintegration of former Yugoslavia also saw mediated agreement and ultimate dissolution of the Union between Serbia and Montenegro.

Bosnia-Herzegovina

In 1991, after nationalist parties won the first multi-party elections in the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, a violent process of disintegration commenced. With its mixed population, Bosnia-Herzegovina became the centre of the following civil war that began in 1992 between the newly formed army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (mostly Muslim Bosniacs), and the parastatal forces of self-declared Bosnian Croat (Herzeg-Bosnia) and Bosnian Serb (Republika Srpska) entities within Bosnia-Herzegovina, supported by Croatia and Serbia, with various, often short-lived, coalitions. The General Framework Agreement (Dayton Peace Agreement), signed in 1995, split the country into two ethno-federal entities, the Bosniak-Croat Federation and the Republika Srpska, and included continued peacekeeping and institutional administration by international actors.

Kosovo

The conflict between Serbs and Kosovar Albanians has a long history and always involved territorial disputes as well as ethno-political, cultural and linguistic factors. The most recent phase of the conflict began in November 1997 when the Albanian Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA or UCK) began their campaign for the independence of Kosovo from the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY – then Serbia and Montenegro). The subsequent war lasted until the NATO intervention, which undertook bombing campaigns of Belgrade and other places in Serbia during spring 1999. The main agreements solving the conflict were internationally driven and, finally, a UNSC resolution imposed a post-conflict arrangement in the wake of what was essentially a NATO military victory. In February 2008, Kosovo’s parliament declared independence, but independence is still internationally disputed.

Balkan Conflicts (1991 - 1995) (1998 - 2001) )
Stage
Ceasefire/related (Ceasefire)
Conflict nature
Government/territory
Peace process
125: Bosnia peace process
Parties
Gen. Milivoj Petkovic and Gen. Sefer Halilovic
Third parties
Signed in the presence of Lt. Gen. Philippe Morillon and ECMM.HRC Jean-Pierre Thebault
Description

Agreement document
BA_930512_Agreement on the cessation of hostilities in Bosnia and Herzegovina.pdf []

Groups

Children/youth
No specific mention.
Disabled persons
No specific mention.
Elderly/age
No specific mention.
Migrant workers
No specific mention.
Racial/ethnic/national group
No specific mention.
Religious groups
No specific mention.
Indigenous people
No specific mention.
Other groups
No specific mention.
Refugees/displaced persons
Rhetorical
Page 2, Article 5, Return of displaced persons
Both sides will provide all assistance in restoring displaced persons to their own properties or places of residence. Both sides also guarantee the safety and security of displaced persons.
Social class
No specific mention.

Gender

Women, girls and gender
No specific mention.
Men and boys
No specific mention.
LGBTI
No specific mention.
Family
No specific mention.

State definition

State definition
No specific mention.

Governance

Political institutions (new or reformed)
No specific mention.
Constitution's affirmation/renewal
No specific mention.
Constitutional reform/making
No specific mention.
Elections
No specific mention.
Electoral commission
No specific mention.
Political parties reform
No specific mention.
Civil society
Page 1, Article 1, Freedom of movement
Absolute freedom of movement to be restored and guaranteed, not only for UNPROFOR, ECMM and Humanitarian Aid agencies, but also for all logistic supply and support convoys of both parties on all routes and especially on the routes:
1. Doljani - Mostar - Jablanica - Konijc - Pazaric - Tarcin - Kiseljak - Visoko - Tuzla and
2. Posusje - Prozor - Gornji Vazuf - Travnik - Zenica - Vitez - Busovaca.

Page 2, Article 4, Release of prisoners
Both parties agree to the immediate release of all civilian detainees without any conditions and to be fully completed on 13 May 1993. This will be followed by an exchange of all Prisoners of War. A list of all Prisoners of War will be presented to the International Committee of the Red Cross no later than 1200 hours 13 May 1993.
Traditional/religious leaders
No specific mention.
Public administration
No specific mention.

Power sharing

Political power sharing
No specific mention.
Territorial power sharing
No specific mention.
Economic power sharing
No specific mention.
Military power sharing
No specific mention.

Human rights and equality

Human rights/RoL
No specific mention.
Equality
No specific mention.
Democracy
No specific mention.
Protection measures
Protection of groups
Page 1, Preamble

Reconfirming also that the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and the protocol additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and elating to the protection of victims of international armed conflicts (Protocol 1) are fully applicable in the conflict in Bosnia and Herzegovina have agreed on the following:
Human rights framework
Treaty incorporation
Page 1, Untitled Preamble
Reconfirming also that the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and the protocol additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and elating to the protection of victims of international armed conflicts (Protocol 1) are fully applicable in the conflict in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Civil and political rights
No specific mention.
Socio-economic rights
No specific mention.
NHRI
No specific mention.
Regional or international human rights institutions
No specific mention.
Mobility/access
Page 1, Article 1, Freedom of movement
Absolute freedom of movement to be restored and guaranteed, not only for UNPROFOR, ECMM and Humanitarian Aid agencies, but also for all logistic supply and support convoys of both parties on all routes and especially on the routes:
1. Doljani - Mostar - Jablanica - Konijc - Pazaric - Tarcin - Kiseljak - Visoko - Tuzla and
2. Posusje - Prozor - Gornji Vazuf - Travnik - Zenica - Vitez - Busovaca.
Freedom of movement will also be guaranteed for civilians to travel throughout the country. Control of routes will be maintained by civilian police only. Check Points and route patrols will be manned by mixed police units with the assistance of UNCIVPOL who, in case of necessity, will resolve disputes between the police of the two sides. Military units will not exercise any control. On a temporary basis, until the implementation of the Vance Owen Plan, these mixed units will be established in MOSTAR, TRAVNIK and ZENICA after agreement between the existing police forces.


Detention procedures
No specific mention.
Media and communication
No specific mention.
Citizenship
No specific mention.

Justice sector reform

Criminal justice and emergency law
No specific mention.
State of emergency provisions
No specific mention.
Judiciary and courts
No specific mention.
Prisons and detention
No specific mention.
Traditional Laws
No specific mention.

Socio-economic reconstruction

Development or socio-economic reconstruction
Humanitarian assistance
Page 1, Article 1, Freedom of movement
Absolute freedom of movement to be restored and guaranteed, not only for UNPROFOR, ECMM and Humanitarian Aid agencies, but also for all logistic supply and support convoys of both parties on all routes and especially on the routes:
1. Doljani - Mostar - Jablanica - Konijc - Pazaric - Tarcin - Kiseljak - Visoko - Tuzla and
2. Posusje - Prozor - Gornji Vazuf - Travnik - Zenica - Vitez - Busovaca.
National economic plan
No specific mention.
Natural resources
No specific mention.
International funds
No specific mention.
Business
No specific mention.
Taxation
No specific mention.
Banks
No specific mention.

Land, property and environment

Land reform/rights
No specific mention.
Pastoralist/nomadism rights
No specific mention.
Cultural heritage
No specific mention.
Environment
No specific mention.
Water or riparian rights or access
No specific mention.

Security sector

Security Guarantees
Page 1, Untitled Preamble
Reconfirming that all persons and property should be free from armed attacks and from any other hostile act;

Page 2, Article 5, Return of displaced persons
Both sides will provide all assistance in restoring displaced persons to their own properties or places of residence. Both sides also guarantee the safety and security of displaced persons.
Ceasefire
Ceasefire provision
[Summary: The agreement is titled as a cessation of hostilities, and provides for withdrawal of troops and other mechanisms to support a ceasefire.]
Police
Page 1, Article 1, Freedom of movement
...Freedom of movement will also be guaranteed for civilians to travel throughout the country. Control of routes will be maintained by civilian police only. Check Points and route patrols will be manned by mixed police units with the assistance of UNCIVPOL who, in case of necessity, will resolve disputes between the police of the two sides. Military units will not exercise any control. On a temporary basis, until the implementation of the Vance Owen Plan, these mixed units will be established in MOSTAR, TRAVNIK and ZENICA after agreement between the existing police forces.
Armed forces
No specific mention.
DDR
Demilitarisation provisions
Page 1-2, Article 3, Withdrawal of armed forces
In MOSTAR, all military units will be withdrawn and confined in their barracks; the BiH Army in the Southern Camp and in Konsk Barracks, the HVO units and the HQ of the Operational Zone of South East Herzegovina in the Northern Camp and at the Halidrom. The withdrawal will take place after the deployment of UNPROFOR and by 1200 hours on 13 May 1993. In the area of KOSTAJNICA and KONJIC, HVO units will be deployed in a few villages in the area marked on the attached map. BH Army will withdraw out of this area to their own villages.

Intelligence services
No specific mention.
Parastatal/rebel and opposition group forces
Page 1-2, Article 3, Withdrawal of armed forces
In MOSTAR, all military units will be withdrawn and confined in their barracks; the BiH Army in the Southern Camp and in Konsk Barracks, the HVO units and the HQ of the Operational Zone of South East Herzegovina in the Northern Camp and at the Halidrom. The withdrawal will take place after the deployment of UNPROFOR and by 1200 hours on 13 May 1993. In the area of KOSTAJNICA and KONJIC, HVO units will be deployed in a few villages in the area marked on the attached map. BH Army will withdraw out of this area to their own villages.
Withdrawal of foreign forces
No specific mention.
Corruption
No specific mention.
Crime/organised crime
No specific mention.
Drugs
No specific mention.
Terrorism
No specific mention.

Transitional justice

Transitional justice general
No specific mention.
Amnesty/pardon
No specific mention.
Courts
No specific mention.
Mechanism
No specific mention.
Prisoner release
Page 2, Article 4, Release of prisoners
Both parties agree to the immediate release of all civilian detainees without any conditions and to be fully completed on 13 May 1993. This will be followed by an exchange of all Prisoners of War. A list of all Prisoners of War will be presented to the International Committee of the Red Cross no later than 1200 hours 13 May 1993.
Vetting
No specific mention.
Victims
No specific mention.
Missing persons
No specific mention.
Reparations
No specific mention.
Reconciliation
No specific mention.

Implementation

UN signatory
No specific mention.
Other international signatory
No specific mention.
Referendum for agreement
No specific mention.
International mission/force/similar
Page 1, Article 1, Freedom of movement
Absolute freedom of movement to be restored and guaranteed, not only for UNPROFOR, ECMM and Humanitarian Aid agencies, but also for all logistic supply and support convoys of both parties on all routes and especially on the routes:
1. Doljani - Mostar - Jablanica - Konijc - Pazaric - Tarcin - Kiseljak - Visoko - Tuzla and
2. Posusje - Prozor - Gornji Vazuf - Travnik - Zenica - Vitez - Busovaca.
Freedom of movement will also be guaranteed for civilians to travel throughout the country. Control of routes will be maintained by civilian police only. Check Points and route patrols will be manned by mixed police units with the assistance of UNCIVPOL who, in case of necessity, will resolve disputes between the police of the two sides. Military units will not exercise any control. On a temporary basis, until the implementation of the Vance Owen Plan, these mixed units will be established in MOSTAR, TRAVNIK and ZENICA after agreement between the existing police forces.

Page 1, Article 2, Deployment of UNPROFOR
One Company of the Spanish Battalion will be deployed and accommodated in MOSTAR at the airport until more suitable accommodation can be found. The deployment will be on both sides of the NERETVA river. Deployment will begin 1800 hours 12 May 1993. The Company located in JABLANICA will continue to patrol the routes between JABLANICA-TARCIN, JABLANICA-KOSTAJNICA and start patrolling between OSTROZAC-TRUSINA-SEONICA-VRCI. The British Battalion will continue to patrol the route JABLANICA-PROZOR-GORNJI VAKUF.

Page 1-2, Article 3, Withdrawal of armed forces
In MOSTAR, all military units will be withdrawn and confined in their barracks; the BiH Army in the Southern Camp and in Konsk Barracks, the HVO units and the HQ of the Operational Zone of South East Herzegovina in the Northern Camp and at the Halidrom. The withdrawal will take place after the deployment of UNPROFOR and by 1200 hours on 13 May 1993. In the area of KOSTAJNICA and KONJIC, HVO units will be deployed in a few villages in the area marked on the attached map. BH Army will withdraw out of this area to their own villages.

Page 2, Article 6
All areas of dispute will be solved by negotiations by both parties in the presence of UNPROFOR and ECMM.
Enforcement mechanism
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh