Agreement between the HVO Santici and representatives of the Muslim people of Ahmici, concluded at the home of Nenad Santic on 22 October 1992

Country/entity
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Yugoslavia (former)
Region
Europe and Eurasia
Agreement name
Agreement between the HVO Santici and representatives of the Muslim people of Ahmici, concluded at the home of Nenad Santic on 22 October 1992
Date
22/10/1992
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Interim arrangement
No
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/local conflict (Balkan Conflicts (1991 - 1995) (1998 - 2001)
Former Yugoslavia

The disintegration of former Yugoslavia post cold war saw conflicts which became mediated and produced peace agreements in Slovenia (where the brief independence conflict was mediated by the EC Troika in 1991), Croatia (between Croatian and Serb populations 1991-1995), in Bosnia (between Croatian, Serb and Bosniak populations 1992-1995), in Macedonia (where mediation played a key pre-emptive role in preventing large scale conflict in 2001), in Kosovo (between Kosovar Albanians and Serbian population and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY), but also between FRY and NATO, 1998-1999), and a conflict in the Presevo Valley (between Albanians in South Serbia and FRY, 2000-2001). The continued fall-out of the disintegration of former Yugoslavia also saw mediated agreement and ultimate dissolution of the Union between Serbia and Montenegro.

Bosnia-Herzegovina

In 1991, after nationalist parties won the first multi-party elections in the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, a violent process of disintegration commenced. With its mixed population, Bosnia-Herzegovina became the centre of the following civil war that began in 1992 between the newly formed army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (mostly Muslim Bosniacs), and the parastatal forces of self-declared Bosnian Croat (Herzeg-Bosnia) and Bosnian Serb (Republika Srpska) entities within Bosnia-Herzegovina, supported by Croatia and Serbia, with various, often short-lived, coalitions. The General Framework Agreement (Dayton Peace Agreement), signed in 1995, split the country into two ethno-federal entities, the Bosniak-Croat Federation and the Republika Srpska, and included continued peacekeeping and institutional administration by international actors.

Kosovo

The conflict between Serbs and Kosovar Albanians has a long history and always involved territorial disputes as well as ethno-political, cultural and linguistic factors. The most recent phase of the conflict began in November 1997 when the Albanian Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA or UCK) began their campaign for the independence of Kosovo from the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY – then Serbia and Montenegro). The subsequent war lasted until the NATO intervention, which undertook bombing campaigns of Belgrade and other places in Serbia during spring 1999. The main agreements solving the conflict were internationally driven and, finally, a UNSC resolution imposed a post-conflict arrangement in the wake of what was essentially a NATO military victory. In February 2008, Kosovo’s parliament declared independence, but independence is still internationally disputed.

Balkan Conflicts (1991 - 1995) (1998 - 2001) )
Stage
Pre-negotiation/process (Confidence building measure)
Conflict nature
Government/territory
Peace process
128: Bosnia Local peace processes
Parties
For the HVO [signatures illegible]; For the Muslim People [signatures illegible]
Third parties
Description
In this short agreement, the Muslim inhabitants of Ahmici agree to surrender weapons to the HVO-Santici, under the guarantee of safety and that the HVO will form a mixed Muslim-Croat unit. The agreement also provides for the safe return of Muslim and Croatian refugees.

Agreement document
BA_921022_Agreement between the HVO and representatives of the Muslim people of Ahmici.PDF []

Groups

Children/youth
No specific mention.
Disabled persons
No specific mention.
Elderly/age
No specific mention.
Migrant workers
No specific mention.
Racial/ethnic/national group
Substantive
Page 1
The Muslim inhabitants of Ahmici are required to make a list of their weapons and submit them to the HVO in the interest of preserving the peace in Santici and Ahmici. To this end, the HVO-Santici shall provide every guarantee to and ensure the safety of the Muslim people in these areas. The HVO will, in the foreseeable future, establish a mixed unit of Croats and Muslims for the purpose of defending the area from the aggressor (Chetniks). This mixed unit, that is to say, the Muslims from this unit, will not be used in combat actions against the Muslims or Croats in any area. On the basis of the above, the return of both Muslim and Croatian refugees to their homes is guaranteed, as is their peaceful coexistence (this guarantee shall be provided by the mixed unit of both parties).
Religious groups
No specific mention.
Indigenous people
No specific mention.
Other groups
No specific mention.
Refugees/displaced persons
Substantive
Page 1
...This mixed unit, that is to say, the Muslims from this unit, will not be used in combat actions against the Muslims or Croats in any area. On the basis of the above, the return of both Muslim and Croatian refugees to their homes is guaranteed, as is their peaceful coexistence (this guarantee shall be provided by the mixed unit of both parties).
Social class
No specific mention.

Gender

Women, girls and gender
No specific mention.
Men and boys
No specific mention.
LGBTI
No specific mention.
Family
No specific mention.

State definition

State definition
No specific mention.

Governance

Political institutions (new or reformed)
No specific mention.
Constitution's affirmation/renewal
No specific mention.
Constitutional reform/making
No specific mention.
Elections
No specific mention.
Electoral commission
No specific mention.
Political parties reform
No specific mention.
Civil society
No specific mention.
Traditional/religious leaders
No specific mention.
Public administration
No specific mention.

Power sharing

Political power sharing
No specific mention.
Territorial power sharing
No specific mention.
Economic power sharing
No specific mention.
Military power sharing
Merger of forces
Page 1
...The HVO will, in the foreseeable future, establish a mixed unit of Croats and Muslims for the purpose of defending the area from the aggressor (Chetniks). This mixed unit, that is to say, the Muslims from this unit, will not be used in combat actions against the Muslims or Croats in any area...

Human rights and equality

Human rights/RoL
No specific mention.
Equality
No specific mention.
Democracy
No specific mention.
Protection measures
No specific mention.
Human rights framework
No specific mention.
Civil and political rights
No specific mention.
Socio-economic rights
No specific mention.
NHRI
No specific mention.
Regional or international human rights institutions
No specific mention.
Mobility/access
No specific mention.
Detention procedures
No specific mention.
Media and communication
No specific mention.
Citizenship
No specific mention.

Justice sector reform

Criminal justice and emergency law
No specific mention.
State of emergency provisions
No specific mention.
Judiciary and courts
No specific mention.
Prisons and detention
No specific mention.
Traditional Laws
No specific mention.

Socio-economic reconstruction

Development or socio-economic reconstruction
No specific mention.
National economic plan
No specific mention.
Natural resources
No specific mention.
International funds
No specific mention.
Business
No specific mention.
Taxation
No specific mention.
Banks
No specific mention.

Land, property and environment

Land reform/rights
No specific mention.
Pastoralist/nomadism rights
No specific mention.
Cultural heritage
No specific mention.
Environment
No specific mention.
Water or riparian rights or access
No specific mention.

Security sector

Security Guarantees
No specific mention.
Ceasefire
No specific mention.
Police
No specific mention.
Armed forces
No specific mention.
DDR
Demilitarisation provisions
Page 1
The Muslim inhabitants of Ahmici are required to make a list of their weapons and submit them to the HVO in the interest of preserving the peace in Santici and Ahmici...
Intelligence services
No specific mention.
Parastatal/rebel and opposition group forces
Page 1
The Muslim inhabitants of Ahmici are required to make a list of their weapons and submit them to the HVO in the interest of preserving the peace in Santici and Ahmici. To this end, the HVO-Santici shall provide every guarantee to and ensure the safety of the Muslim people in these areas. The HVO will, in the foreseeable future, establish a mixed unit of Croats and Muslims for the purpose of defending the area from the aggressor (Chetniks). This mixed unit, that is to say, the Muslims from this unit, will not be used in combat actions against the Muslims or Croats in any area...
Withdrawal of foreign forces
No specific mention.
Corruption
No specific mention.
Crime/organised crime
No specific mention.
Drugs
No specific mention.
Terrorism
No specific mention.

Transitional justice

Transitional justice general
No specific mention.
Amnesty/pardon
No specific mention.
Courts
No specific mention.
Mechanism
No specific mention.
Prisoner release
No specific mention.
Vetting
No specific mention.
Victims
No specific mention.
Missing persons
No specific mention.
Reparations
No specific mention.
Reconciliation
No specific mention.

Implementation

UN signatory
No specific mention.
Other international signatory
No specific mention.
Referendum for agreement
No specific mention.
International mission/force/similar
No specific mention.
Enforcement mechanism
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh