Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation, the Government of the People's Republic of China, and the Government of Mongolia on the determination of the points of junction of the national borders of the three states

Country/entity
China
Mongolia
Russia
Region
Cross-regional
Agreement name
Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation, the Government of the People's Republic of China, and the Government of Mongolia on the determination of the points of junction of the national borders of the three states
Date
27/01/1994
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Interim arrangement
No
Agreement/conflict level
Interstate/interstate conflict (Sino-Soviet Border Conflict (1969 - 1991)
Lasting 7 months, this undeclared border war erupted at the height of the Sino-Soviet split in March 1969 in the area of Zhenbao on the Wusuli River. Ten years earlier, the two allies had stood as champions of communism. Indeed, Soviet Russia played a key role in supporting Communist rebels against the nationalist Koumintang. However, relations soured over differences in ideology and leadership and although a border treaty was drawn up in 1965, Nikita Krushchev refused to sign after allegations by Mao Zedong were leaked that Tsarist Russia had stripped China of its historical territory. Accounts of the conflict vary between Chinese and Russian historians. Nonetheless, a People's Liberation Army raid on a Soviet border outpost on March 2, 1969 left over a hundred dead. Although, the conflict brought both countries to the brink of a greater war, with troops amassing on both sides, this outcome was avoided. The conflict was formally ended in September 1991 with the first border demarcation agreement.Other agreements were signed with formerly-Soviet States included Kazakhstan.
Sino-Soviet Border Conflict (1969 - 1991) )
Stage
Framework/substantive - partial (Core issue)
Conflict nature
Territory
Peace process
19: Russia-China-Central Asian borders interstate process
Parties
Governments of Russian Federation; People's Republic of China; People's Republic of Mongolia
Third parties
Description
Agreement delineating the border junction of Mongolia, Russia and China and establishes a joint working group to be located at the eastern border junction to describe and establish protocols for the two junctions.

Agreement document
CN_RU_940127_Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation, the Government of the People's Republic of China, and the Government of Mongolia on the determination of the points of junction.pdf []

Agreement document (original language)
CN_RU_940127_Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation, the Government of the People's Republic of China, and the Government of Mongolia on the determination of the points of junction_RU.pdf []

Groups

Children/youth
No specific mention.
Disabled persons
No specific mention.
Elderly/age
No specific mention.
Migrant workers
No specific mention.
Racial/ethnic/national group
No specific mention.
Religious groups
No specific mention.
Indigenous people
No specific mention.
Other groups
No specific mention.
Refugees/displaced persons
No specific mention.
Social class
No specific mention.

Gender

Women, girls and gender
No specific mention.
Men and boys
No specific mention.
LGBTI
No specific mention.
Family
No specific mention.

State definition

State definition
Nature of state (general)
Page 1, Guided by the principles of mutual respect for sovereignty, territorial integrity, equality and mutual benefit, and peaceful coexistence,
Border delimitation
Page 1, Article 1
The eastern junction of the border between China, Russia and Mongolia is located in the centre of Tarbes-Dah at the height of 645. This point is located about 5km south of the territory of the Russian Federation marked at height 741.4, approximately 14.8km north of the territory of Mount Xilin Haolayin-Ula located in the People’s Republic of China at 709 and approximately 6.1km east-north-east of the territory in Mongolia at 692.4.

At the east junction of the three borders (Tarbes-Dah) a boundary marker will be set, consisting of a single border post at number ‘0’). The rectangular coordinates of the east point of junction of the frontiers of the three states are determined instrumentally.


Page 2, Article 2
The west point of junction between Russia, China and Mongolia is on the top of Mt. Tavan Bogd-Ula (Kuytunshan, Tavan Bogd-Ula) marked at 4082.0 and (4104.0). This point is located approximately 9.4km west-southwest of the Russian territory marked at 3511.5, about 4.8km north-northeast of the Chinese territory marked at 3608.0 and approximately 6.1km west-northwest of Mongolian territory marked at the height of 3884.0.
The Contracting Parties have agreed not to mark the west point junction on the ground between the three states. The Rectangular coordinates of the west point junction the borders of three states is determined instrumentally.

Page 2, Article 3
Referred to in article 1 of this Agreement the Eastern Point border junction of the three states is shown on the map of the Russian party with the scale of 1:100000, the 1981 edition (annex 1).
1. Referred to in article 2 of this Agreement the Western border junction point of the three states is shown on the map of the Russian party with the scale of 1:100000, the 1982 edition (annex 2).
2. These maps are the annexed to this Agreement. The above-mentioned distance and points heights are on the Maps.
The geographical names are designated in the Russian, Chinese and Mongolian languages.

Page 2, Article 4
[Summary] Article establishes a joint working group to be stationed at East border junction 'Tarbes-Dah' to establish protocols and descriptions of the two border junctions.
Cross-border provision
Page 2, Article 4
[Summary] Article establishes a joint working group to be stationed at East border junction 'Tarbes-Dah' to establish protocols and descriptions of the two border junctions.

Governance

Political institutions (new or reformed)
No specific mention.
Constitution's affirmation/renewal
No specific mention.
Constitutional reform/making
No specific mention.
Elections
No specific mention.
Electoral commission
No specific mention.
Political parties reform
No specific mention.
Civil society
No specific mention.
Traditional/religious leaders
No specific mention.
Public administration
No specific mention.

Power sharing

Political power sharing
No specific mention.
Territorial power sharing
No specific mention.
Economic power sharing
No specific mention.
Military power sharing
No specific mention.

Human rights and equality

Human rights/RoL
No specific mention.
Equality
No specific mention.
Democracy
No specific mention.
Protection measures
No specific mention.
Human rights framework
No specific mention.
Civil and political rights
No specific mention.
Socio-economic rights
No specific mention.
NHRI
No specific mention.
Regional or international human rights institutions
No specific mention.
Mobility/access
No specific mention.
Detention procedures
No specific mention.
Media and communication
No specific mention.
Citizenship
No specific mention.

Justice sector reform

Criminal justice and emergency law
No specific mention.
State of emergency provisions
No specific mention.
Judiciary and courts
No specific mention.
Prisons and detention
No specific mention.
Traditional Laws
No specific mention.

Socio-economic reconstruction

Development or socio-economic reconstruction
No specific mention.
National economic plan
No specific mention.
Natural resources
No specific mention.
International funds
No specific mention.
Business
No specific mention.
Taxation
No specific mention.
Banks
No specific mention.

Land, property and environment

Land reform/rights
No specific mention.
Pastoralist/nomadism rights
No specific mention.
Cultural heritage
No specific mention.
Environment
No specific mention.
Water or riparian rights or access
No specific mention.

Security sector

Security Guarantees
No specific mention.
Ceasefire
No specific mention.
Police
No specific mention.
Armed forces
No specific mention.
DDR
No specific mention.
Intelligence services
No specific mention.
Parastatal/rebel and opposition group forces
No specific mention.
Withdrawal of foreign forces
No specific mention.
Corruption
No specific mention.
Crime/organised crime
No specific mention.
Drugs
No specific mention.
Terrorism
No specific mention.

Transitional justice

Transitional justice general
No specific mention.
Amnesty/pardon
No specific mention.
Courts
No specific mention.
Mechanism
No specific mention.
Prisoner release
No specific mention.
Vetting
No specific mention.
Victims
No specific mention.
Missing persons
No specific mention.
Reparations
No specific mention.
Reconciliation
No specific mention.

Implementation

UN signatory
No specific mention.
Other international signatory
No specific mention.
Referendum for agreement
No specific mention.
International mission/force/similar
No specific mention.
Enforcement mechanism
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh