Agreement between Lieutenant General Ante Roso, HVO Commander and Brigadier General JG Reith, CBE, British Forces Commander Reached at the Meeting Held on Monday, 22 November 1993 in Tomislavgrad

Country/entity
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Yugoslavia (former)
Region
Europe and Eurasia
Agreement name
Agreement between Lieutenant General Ante Roso, HVO Commander and Brigadier General JG Reith, CBE, British Forces Commander Reached at the Meeting Held on Monday, 22 November 1993 in Tomislavgrad
Date
22/11/1993
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Interim arrangement
No
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Balkan Conflicts (1991 - 1995) (1998 - 2001)
Former Yugoslavia

The disintegration of former Yugoslavia post cold war saw conflicts which became mediated and produced peace agreements in Slovenia (where the brief independence conflict was mediated by the EC Troika in 1991), Croatia (between Croatian and Serb populations 1991-1995), in Bosnia (between Croatian, Serb and Bosniak populations 1992-1995), in Macedonia (where mediation played a key pre-emptive role in preventing large scale conflict in 2001), in Kosovo (between Kosovar Albanians and Serbian population and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY), but also between FRY and NATO, 1998-1999), and a conflict in the Presevo Valley (between Albanians in South Serbia and FRY, 2000-2001). The continued fall-out of the disintegration of former Yugoslavia also saw mediated agreement and ultimate dissolution of the Union between Serbia and Montenegro.

Bosnia-Herzegovina

In 1991, after nationalist parties won the first multi-party elections in the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, a violent process of disintegration commenced. With its mixed population, Bosnia-Herzegovina became the centre of the following civil war that began in 1992 between the newly formed army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (mostly Muslim Bosniacs), and the parastatal forces of self-declared Bosnian Croat (Herzeg-Bosnia) and Bosnian Serb (Republika Srpska) entities within Bosnia-Herzegovina, supported by Croatia and Serbia, with various, often short-lived, coalitions. The General Framework Agreement (Dayton Peace Agreement), signed in 1995, split the country into two ethno-federal entities, the Bosniak-Croat Federation and the Republika Srpska, and included continued peacekeeping and institutional administration by international actors.

Kosovo

The conflict between Serbs and Kosovar Albanians has a long history and always involved territorial disputes as well as ethno-political, cultural and linguistic factors. The most recent phase of the conflict began in November 1997 when the Albanian Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA or UCK) began their campaign for the independence of Kosovo from the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY – then Serbia and Montenegro). The subsequent war lasted until the NATO intervention, which undertook bombing campaigns of Belgrade and other places in Serbia during spring 1999. The main agreements solving the conflict were internationally driven and, finally, a UNSC resolution imposed a post-conflict arrangement in the wake of what was essentially a NATO military victory. In February 2008, Kosovo’s parliament declared independence, but independence is still internationally disputed.

Balkan Conflicts (1991 - 1995) (1998 - 2001) )
Stage
Pre-negotiation/process (Confidence building measure)
Conflict nature
Government/territory
Peace process
125: Bosnia peace process
Parties
Lieutenant General Ante Roso, HVO Commander in Chief [signature]
Brigadier General JG Reith, CBE, British Forces Commander [signed separate copy]
Third parties
Description
This agreement concerns the re‐establishment of supplies of humanitarian aid to Central Bosnia. The parties agree to exchange liaison officers, free movement for UNHCR and other humanitarian convoys. The agreement also contains conditions for moving humanitarian aid.

Agreement document
BA_931122_Sporazum izmedu General Pukovnika Ante Rose i Brigadnog Generala JG Reitha_tr.pdf []

Agreement document (original language)
BA_931122_Sporazum izmedu General Pukovnika Ante Rose i Brigadnog Generala JG Reitha_CR.pdf []

Groups

Children/youth
No specific mention.
Disabled persons
No specific mention.
Elderly/age
No specific mention.
Migrant workers
No specific mention.
Racial/ethnic/national group
No specific mention.
Religious groups
No specific mention.
Indigenous people
No specific mention.
Other groups
No specific mention.
Refugees/displaced persons
No specific mention.
Social class
No specific mention.

Gender

Women, girls and gender
No specific mention.
Men and boys
No specific mention.
LGBTI
No specific mention.
Family
No specific mention.

State definition

State definition
No specific mention.

Governance

Political institutions (new or reformed)
No specific mention.
Constitution's affirmation/renewal
No specific mention.
Constitutional reform/making
No specific mention.
Elections
No specific mention.
Electoral commission
No specific mention.
Political parties reform
No specific mention.
Civil society
Page 1, 2.d.
Brigadier Reith will supply a map with marked routes which will be used by the UNHCR and other UNHCR‐accredited humanitarian organisations to supply humanitarian aid. He also agreed that they will maintain and clear the road from the LIPA checkpoint to the VARVARA quarry checkpoint as much as possible, under the condition that the UNHCR and other UNHCR accredited humanitarian agencies are guaranteed free passage.
Traditional/religious leaders
No specific mention.
Public administration
No specific mention.

Power sharing

Political power sharing
No specific mention.
Territorial power sharing
No specific mention.
Economic power sharing
No specific mention.
Military power sharing
No specific mention.

Human rights and equality

Human rights/RoL
No specific mention.
Equality
No specific mention.
Democracy
No specific mention.
Protection measures
No specific mention.
Human rights framework
No specific mention.
Civil and political rights
No specific mention.
Socio-economic rights
No specific mention.
NHRI
No specific mention.
Regional or international human rights institutions
No specific mention.
Mobility/access
Page 1, 2.d.
Brigadier Reith will supply a map with marked routes which will be used by the UNHCR and other UNHCR‐accredited humanitarian organisations to supply humanitarian aid. He also agreed that they will maintain and clear the road from the LIPA checkpoint to the VARVARA quarry checkpoint as much as possible, under the condition that the UNHCR and other UNHCR‐accredited humanitarian agencies are guaranteed free passage.

Page 1, 2.e.
BRITFOR will provide information on convoys that will use the routes, as well as details on the time of movement and types of vehicles in the convoy, to the HVO HQ in POSUŠJE.

Page 1, 2.f.
UNHCR convoys will not transport military equipment and weapons, but UNPROFOR vehicles
which are used to supply armed forces may continue working as normal.

Page 1, 2.g.
In accordance with the orders that he received, General Roso guarantees free movement to
all UNHCR and UNPROFOR convoys, and personally guarantees the safety of all convoys that
pass through areas under his control.

Page 1, 2.h.
It was agreed that General Roso will need some time to make his orders clear and for them to start being implemented at the lowest levels of his command, while BRITFOR will start clearing the road between LIPA and VARVARA tomorrow, Tuesday 23 November 1993. The first convoy will leave Tomislavgrad on Wednesday 24 November 1993, at 0630hrs.

Page 1, 2.i.
The first convoy which will test the accessibility of the route will be a British forces convoy with army vehicles driven by British drivers, and will transport humanitarian aid.

Page 2, 2.j.
Brigadier Reith could not agree to a helicopter protection for the convoys, as movement of helicopters within Central Bosnia is under strict control from the air operation centre in the UNPROFOR HQ in KISELJAK. It was decided that General Roso should contact General Briquemont if he wants to discuss this issue further. Brigadier Reith said that the use of HVO helicopters for the above task would be in violation of UN Resolution number 783 (dated 10 Nov 1992) and number 816 (dated 31 March 1993), which would place the helicopters at risk.Page 1, 2.a.
The following was agreed: Even though General Roso and Brigadier Reith have different missions, there are no significant conflicts of interest regarding keeping the roads open.
Detention procedures
No specific mention.
Media and communication
No specific mention.
Citizenship
No specific mention.

Justice sector reform

Criminal justice and emergency law
No specific mention.
State of emergency provisions
No specific mention.
Judiciary and courts
No specific mention.
Prisons and detention
No specific mention.
Traditional Laws
No specific mention.

Socio-economic reconstruction

Development or socio-economic reconstruction
Humanitarian assistance
Page 1, 2.d.
Brigadier Reith will supply a map with marked routes which will be used by the UNHCR and other UNHCR‐accredited humanitarian organisations to supply humanitarian aid. He also agreed that they will maintain and clear the road from the LIPA checkpoint to the VARVARA quarry checkpoint as much as possible, under the condition that the UNHCR and other UNHCR‐accredited humanitarian agencies are guaranteed free passage.

Page 1, 2.i.
The first convoy which will test the accessibility of the route will be a British forces convoy with army vehicles driven by British drivers, and will transport humanitarian aid.
National economic plan
No specific mention.
Natural resources
No specific mention.
International funds
No specific mention.
Business
No specific mention.
Taxation
No specific mention.
Banks
No specific mention.

Land, property and environment

Land reform/rights
No specific mention.
Pastoralist/nomadism rights
No specific mention.
Cultural heritage
No specific mention.
Environment
No specific mention.
Water or riparian rights or access
No specific mention.

Security sector

Security Guarantees
No specific mention.
Ceasefire
No specific mention.
Police
No specific mention.
Armed forces
No specific mention.
DDR
No specific mention.
Intelligence services
No specific mention.
Parastatal/rebel and opposition group forces
Page 1, 2.b.
They will exchange liaison officers. From Monday 22 November 1993, Captain Eaton, UKLO,
will be placed in HVO HQ, in Posušje, and will be under HVO command. General Roso agreed
to send a liaison officer to the British Forces HQ in Tomislavgrad, where he will stay as long as required. He will be under the British Squadron command.

Page 1, 2.g.
In accordance with the orders that he received, General Roso guarantees free movement to
all UNHCR and UNPROFOR convoys, and personally guarantees the safety of all convoys that
pass through areas under his control.

Page 1, 2.h.
It was agreed that General Roso will need some time to make his orders clear and for them to start being implemented at the lowest levels of his command, while BRITFOR will start clearing the road between LIPA and VARVARA tomorrow, Tuesday 23 November 1993. The first convoy will leave Tomislavgrad on Wednesday 24 November 1993, at 0630hrs.
Withdrawal of foreign forces
No specific mention.
Corruption
No specific mention.
Crime/organised crime
No specific mention.
Drugs
No specific mention.
Terrorism
No specific mention.

Transitional justice

Transitional justice general
No specific mention.
Amnesty/pardon
No specific mention.
Courts
No specific mention.
Mechanism
No specific mention.
Prisoner release
No specific mention.
Vetting
No specific mention.
Victims
No specific mention.
Missing persons
No specific mention.
Reparations
No specific mention.
Reconciliation
No specific mention.

Implementation

UN signatory
No specific mention.
Other international signatory
No specific mention.
Referendum for agreement
No specific mention.
International mission/force/similar
Page 1, 2.b.
They will exchange liaison officers. From Monday 22 November 1993, Captain Eaton, UKLO,
will be placed in HVO HQ, in Posušje, and will be under HVO command. General Roso agreed
to send a liaison officer to the British Forces HQ in Tomislavgrad, where he will stay as long as required. He will be under the British Squadron command.

Page 1, 2.c.
The British Military Police will be placed alongside the HVO Military Police on the roads used by convoys at the following locations:
(1) Checkpoint by LIPA
(2) Checkpoint next to the VARVARA quarry.

Page 1, 2.d.
Brigadier Reith will supply a map with marked routes which will be used by the UNHCR and other UNHCR‐accredited humanitarian organisations to supply humanitarian aid. He also agreed that they will maintain and clear the road from the LIPA checkpoint to the VARVARA quarry checkpoint as much as possible, under the condition that the UNHCR and other UNHCR‐accredited humanitarian agencies are guaranteed free passage.

Page 1, 2.e.
BRITFOR will provide information on convoys that will use the routes, as well as details on the time of movement and types of vehicles in the convoy, to the HVO HQ in POSUŠJE.

Page 1, 2.f.
UNHCR convoys will not transport military equipment and weapons, but UNPROFOR vehicles
which are used to supply armed forces may continue working as normal.

Page 1, 2.h.
It was agreed that General Roso will need some time to make his orders clear and for them to start being implemented at the lowest levels of his command, while BRITFOR will start clearing the road between LIPA and VARVARA tomorrow, Tuesday 23 November 1993. The first convoy will leave Tomislavgrad on Wednesday 24 November 1993, at 0630hrs.

Page 1, 2.i.
The first convoy which will test the accessibility of the route will be a British forces convoy with army vehicles driven by British drivers, and will transport humanitarian aid.
Enforcement mechanism
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh