Agreement between the Government of the State of Eritrea and the Government of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (Algiers Agreement)

Country/entity
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Region
Africa (excl MENA)
Agreement name
Agreement between the Government of the State of Eritrea and the Government of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (Algiers Agreement)
Date
12/12/2000
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Interim arrangement
No
Agreement/conflict level
Interstate/interstate conflict (Eritrean Border Conflicts (1998 - 2018)
Eritrean Border Conflicts (1998 - 2019)

Eritrea - Ethiopia (1998 - 2018)

In 1991, the Eritrean People’s Liberation Front (EPLF) defeated the communist military junta (‘Derg’) in Ethiopia and proclaimed independence for Eritrea. At the same time, Derg itself was overthrown by the Ethiopian Peoples’ Revolutionary Democratic Forces (EPRDF), which established a transitional government in Ethiopia. Eritrea was granted an independence referendum, which resulted in a 99.8 per cent pro-independence vote. However, border tensions and heavy disputes, in particular on minority rights and economic issues, between EPLF and EPRDF led to new fighting between the two countries in 1998. A mediation by the US administration led to a difficult truce and in 2000 a peace agreement was signed. The agreement established two commission, Border Commission and the Claims Commission. The delimitation ruling of the Border Commission was rejected by Ethiopia. The border continued to be heavily occupied by troops on both sides and border skirmishes continue into 2016. In June 2018, after a series of summits, the state of war was declared over in a Joint Declaration of Peace and Friendship, as Ethiopia finally agreed to honour the ruling of the Border Commission. This followed by a series of steps to improve political, economic and diplomatic ties. Transport and telephone links have been re-established, and borders reopened. In July 2018, the countries have signed the ‘Agreement on Peace, Friendship and Comprehensive Cooperation’ reiterating their commitment to achieving long-lasting peace in the region.



Sudanese-Eritrean Relations (1994 - 1999)

Eritrea broke diplomatic contact with neighbouring Sudan after accusing the country of attempting to destabilize the Eritrean regime. At the time it was believed that Sudan trained and armed the Eritrean Islamic Jihad Group, which aimed to establish a caliphate in the Horn of Africa. After breaking diplomatic relations, Khartoum accused Eritrea of providing support for armed Sudanese opposition groups. Indeed, Eritrea help a conference for the Sudanese opposition in 1995 in an attempt to unite them. Relations were normalized in 1999. Sudan sent troops to its eastern border (region of Kassala) with Eritrea amid security concerns involving Egyptian troops deployed in Eritrea.
Eritrean Border Conflicts (1998 - 2018) )
Stage
Framework/substantive - partial (Other)
Conflict nature
Territory
Peace process
37: Eritrea-Ethiopia border dispute peace process
Parties
- FOR THE GOVERNMENT OF THE STATE OF ERITREA: Isais Afwerki, Pressident
- FOR THE GOVERNMENT OF THE FEDERAL DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF ETHIOPIA: Meles Zenawi, Prime Minister
Third parties
WITNESSED BY:
- For the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA, President of the Republic
- For the United States of America, Mme Madelcinc K. ALBRIGHT, Secretary of State
- For the United Nations M. Kofi ANNAN, Secretary General
- For the Organisation of African Unity, M. Salim Ahmed Salim, Secretary General
- For the European Union, M. Rino SERRI, Special Representative of the Presidency
Description
This agreement provides for permanent cessation of hostilities and the setting up of a Boundary Commission.

Agreement document
EH_ER_001212_Agrement between Eritrea and Ethiopa (Algiers Agreement).pdf []

Groups

Children/youth
No specific mention.
Disabled persons
No specific mention.
Elderly/age
No specific mention.
Migrant workers
No specific mention.
Racial/ethnic/national group
No specific mention.
Religious groups
No specific mention.
Indigenous people
No specific mention.
Other groups
No specific mention.
Refugees/displaced persons
Rhetorical
Page 1, Untitled Preamble:
Welcoming the commitment of the OAU and United Nations, through their endorsement of the Framework Agreement and Agreement on Cessation of Hostilities, to work closely with the international community to mobilize resources for the resettlement of displaced persons, as well as rehabilitation and peacebuilding in both countries,
Substantive
Page 6, Article 5:
1. Consistent with the Framework Agreement, in which the parties commit themselves to addressing the negative socio-economic of the crisis on the civilian population including the impact on those persons who have been deported, a neutral Claims Commission shall be established. The mandate of the Commission is to decide through binding arbitration all claims for loss, damage or injury by one Government against the other, and by nationals (including both natural and juridical persons) of one party against the Government of the other party or entities owned or controlled by the other party that are (a) related to the conflict that was the subject of the Framework Agreement, the Modalities for its Implementation and the Cessation of Hostilities Agreement, and (b) result from violations of international humanitarian law, including the 1949 Geneva Conventions, or other violations of international law. The Commission shall not hear claims arising from the cost of military operations, preparing for military operations, or the use of force, except to the extent that such claims involve violations of international humanitarian law.
Social class
No specific mention.

Gender

Women, girls and gender
No specific mention.
Men and boys
No specific mention.
LGBTI
No specific mention.
Family
No specific mention.

State definition

State definition
Border delimitation
Page 3-5, Article 4:
1. Consistent with the provisions of the Framework Agreement and the Agreement on Cessation of Hostilities, the parties reaffirm the principle of respect for the borders existing at independence as stated in resolution AHG/Res. 16(1) adopted by the OAU Summit in Cairo in 1964, and, in this regard, that they shall be determined on the basis of pertinent colonial treaties and applicable international law.
2. The patties agree that a neutral Boundary Commission composed of five members shall be established with a mandate to delimit and demarcate the colonial treaty border based on pertinent colonial treaties (1900, 1902 and 1908) and applicable international law. The Commission shall not have the power to make decisions ex aequo et bono.
3. The Commission shall be located in The Hague.
4. Each party shall, by written notice to the United Nations Secretary General, appoint two commissioners within 45 days from the effective date of this Agreement, neither of whom shall be nationals or permanent residents of the party making the appointment. In the event that a party fails to name one or both of its party-appointed commissioners within the specified time. The Secretary General of the United Nations shall make the appointment.
5. The president of the Commission shall be selected by the party appointed commissioners or, failing their agreement within 30 days of the date of appointment of the latest party-appointed commissioner, by the Secretary General of the United Nations after consultation with the parties. The president shall be neither a national nor permanent resident of either party.
6. In the event of the death or resignation of a commissioner in the course of the proceedings, a substitute commissioner shall be appointed or chosen pursuant to the procedure set forth in this article that was applicable to the appointment or choice of the commissioner being replaced.
6. In the event of the death or resignation of a commissioner in the course of the proceedings, a substitute commissioner shall be appointed or chosen pursuant to the procedure set forth in this article that was applicable to the appointment or choice of the commissioner being replaced.
7. The UN Cartographer shall serve as Secretary to the Commission and undertake such tasks as assigned to him by the Commission, making use of the technical expertise of the UN Cartographic Unit. The Commission may also engage the services of additional experts as it necessary.
8. Within 45 days after the effective date of this Agreement, each party shall provide to the Secretary its claims and evidence relevant to the mandate of the Commission. These shall be provided to the other party by the Secretary.
9. After reviewing such evidence and within 45 days of its receipt, but not earlier than 15 days after the Commission is constituted, the Secretary shall transmit to the Commission and the parties any materials relevant to the mandate of the Commission as well as his findings identifying those portions of the border as to which there appears to be no dispute between the parties. The Secretary shall also transmit to the Commission all the claims and evidence presented by the parties.
10. With regard to those portions of the border about which there appears to be controversy, as well as any p01tions of the border identified pursuant to paragraph 9 with respect to which either party believes there to be controversy, the pa1ties shall present their written and oral submissions and any additional evidence directly to the Commission, in accordance with its procedures.
11. The Commission shall adopt its own rules of procedure based upon the 1992 Permanent Court of Arbitration Optional Rules for Arbitrating Disputes Between Two States. Filing deadlines tor the parties’ written submissions shall be simultaneous rather than consecutive. All decisions of the Commission sh,:lll be made by a majority of the commissioners.
12. The Commission shall commence its work not more than 15 days after it is constituted and shall endeavour to make its decision concerning delimitation of the border within six months of its first meeting. The Commission shall take this objective into consideration when establishing its schedule. At its discretion, the Commission may extend this deadline.
13. Upon reaching a final decision regarding delimitation of the borders, the Commission shall transmit its decision to the parties and Secretaries General of the OAU and the United Nations for publication, and the Commission shall arrange for expeditious demarcation.
14. The parties agree to cooperate with the Commission, its experts and other staff in all respects during the process of delimitation and demarcation, including the facilitation of access to territory they control. Each party shall accord to the commission and its employees the same privileges and immunities as are accorded to diplomatic agents under the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations.
15. The parties agree that the delimitation and demarcation determinations of the Commission shall be final and biding. Each party shall respect the border so determined, as well as the territorial integrity and sovereignty of the other party.
16. Recognizing that the results of the delimitation and demarcation process are not yet known, the parties request the United Nations to facilitate resolutions of problems which may arise due to the transfer of territorial control, including the consequences for individuals residing in previously disputed territory.
17. The expenses of the Commission shall be borne equally by the two parties. To defray its expenses, the Commission may accept donations from the United Nations Trust Fund established under paragraph 8 of Security Council Resolution 1177 of 26 June 1998.
Cross-border provision
Summary: See also page 3-5, Article 4 on Boundary Commission

Governance

Political institutions (new or reformed)
No specific mention.
Constitution's affirmation/renewal
No specific mention.
Constitutional reform/making
No specific mention.
Elections
No specific mention.
Electoral commission
No specific mention.
Political parties reform
No specific mention.
Civil society
Page 1-2, Article 2:
1. In fulfilling their obligations under international humanitarian law, including the 1949 Geneva Conventions relative to the protection of victims of armed conflict ("1949 Geneva Conventions") and in cooperation with the International Committee of the Red Cross, the parties shall without delay release and repatriate all prisoners of war.
2. In fulfilling their obligations under international humanitarian law, including the 1949 Geneva Conventions, and in cooperation with the International Committee of the Red Cross, the parties shall without delay, release and repatriate or return to their last place of residence all other persons detained as a result of the armed conflict.
Traditional/religious leaders
No specific mention.
Public administration
No specific mention.

Power sharing

Political power sharing
No specific mention.
Territorial power sharing
No specific mention.
Economic power sharing
No specific mention.
Military power sharing
No specific mention.

Human rights and equality

Human rights/RoL
Page 1, Article 2:
...
3. The parties shall afford human treatment to each other's nationals and persons of each other's national origin within their respective territories.
Equality
No specific mention.
Democracy
No specific mention.
Protection measures
Protection of groups
Page 1-2, Article 2:
1. In fulfilling their obligations under international humanitarian law, including the 1949 Geneva Conventions relative to the protection of victims of armed conflict ("1949 Geneva Conventions") and in cooperation with the International Committee of the Red Cross, the parties shall without delay release and repatriate all prisoners of war.
Human rights framework
Treaty incorporation
Page 1-2, Article 2:
I. In fulfilling their obligations under international humanitarian law, including the 1949 Geneva Conventions relative to the protection of victims of armed conflict ("1949 Geneva Conventions") and in cooperation with the International Committee of the Red Cross, the parties shall without delay release and repatriate all prisoners of war.
2. In fulfilling their obligations under international humanitarian law, including the 1949 Geneva Conventions, and in cooperation with the International Committee of the Red Cross, the parties shall without delay, release and repatriate or return to their last place of residence all other persons detained as a result of the armed conflict.

Page 3, Article 4:
1. Consistent with the provisions of the Framework Agreement and the Agreement on Cessation of Hostilities, the parties reaffirm the principle of respect for the borders existing at independence as stated in resolution AHG/Res. 16(1) adopted by the OAU Summit in Cairo in 1964, and, in this regard, that they shall be determined on the basis of pertinent colonial treaties and applicable international law.
2. The patties agree that a neutral Boundary Commission composed of five members shall be established with a mandate to delimit and demarcate the colonial treaty border based on pertinent colonial treaties (1900, 1902 and 1908) and applicable international law. The Commission shall not have the power to make decisions ex aequo et bono.

Page 5, Article 4:
...
14. The parties agree to cooperate with the Commission, its experts and other staff in all respects during the process of delimitation and demarcation, including the facilitation of access to territory they control. Each party shall accord to the commission and its employees the same privileges and immunities as are accorded to diplomatic agents under the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations.

Page 6-9, Article 5:
1. Consistent with the Framework Agreement, in which the parties commit themselves to addressing the negative socio-economic of the crisis on the civilian population including the impact on those persons who have been deported, a neutral Claims Commission shall be established. The mandate of the Commission is to decide through binding arbitration all claims for loss, damage or injury by one Government against the other, and by nationals (including both natural and juridical persons) of one party against the Government of the other party or entities owned or controlled by the other party that are (a) related to the conflict that was the subject of the Framework Agreement, the Modalities for its Implementation and the Cessation of Hostilities Agreement, and (b) result from violations of international humanitarian law, including the 1949 Geneva Conventions, or other violations of international law. The Commission shall not hear claims arising from the cost of military operations, preparing for military operations, or the use of force, except to the extent that such claims involve violations of international humanitarian law.
...
8. Claims shall be submitted to the Commission by each of the parties on its own behalf and on behalf of its nationals, including both natural and juridical persons. All claims submitted to the Commission shall be filed no later than one year from the effective date of this Agreement. Except tor claims submitted to another mutually agreed settlement mechanism in accordance with paragraph 16 or filed in another forum prior to the effective date to this Agreement, the Commission shall be the sole forum for adjudicating claims described in paragraph l or filed under paragraph 9 of this article, and any such claims which could have been and not submitted by that deadline shall be extinguished, in accordance with international law.
...
13. In considering claims, the Commission shall apply relevant rules of international law. The Commission shall not have the power to make decisions ex aequo er bono.
...
18. Each party shall accord to members of the Commission and its employees the privileges and immunities that are accorded to diplomatic agents under the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations.

Page 9, Article 6:
...
2. The parties authorize the Secretary General of the OAU to register this Agreement with the Secretariat of the United Nations in accordance with Article 102(l) of the Charter of the United Nations.
Civil and political rights
No specific mention.
Socio-economic rights
No specific mention.
NHRI
No specific mention.
Regional or international human rights institutions
No specific mention.
Mobility/access
Page 3-5, Article 4:
...
14. The parties agree to cooperate with the Commission, its experts and other staff in all respects during the process of delimitation and demarcation, including the facilitation of access to territory they control. Each party shall accord to the commission and its employees the same privileges and immunities as are accorded to diplomatic agents under the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations.
Detention procedures
No specific mention.
Media and communication
No specific mention.
Citizenship
Citizens, specific rights
Page 6-8, Article 5:
1. Consistent with the Framework Agreement, in which the parties commit themselves to addressing the negative socio-economic of the crisis on the civilian population including the impact on those persons who have been deported, a neutral Claims Commission shall be established. The mandate of the Commission is to decide through binding arbitration all claims for loss, damage or injury by one Government against the other, and by nationals (including both natural and juridical persons) of one party against the Government of the other party or entities owned or controlled by the other party that are (a) related to the conflict that was the subject of the Framework Agreement, the Modalities for its Implementation and the Cessation of Hostilities Agreement, and (b) result from violations of international humanitarian law, including the 1949 Geneva Conventions, or other violations of international law. The Commission shall not hear claims arising from the cost of military operations, preparing for military operations, or the use of force, except to the extent that such claims involve violations of international humanitarian law.
2. The Commission shall consist of five arbitrators. Each party shall, by written notice to the United Nations secretary General, appoint two members within 45 days from the effective date of this Agreement, neither of whom shall be nationals or permanent residents of the party making the appointment. In the event that a party fails to name one or both of its party-appointed arbitrators within the specified time, the Secretary General of the United Nations shall make the appointment.
3. The president of the Commission shall be selected by the party-appointed arbitrators or, failing their agreement within 30 days of the date of appointment of the latest party-appointed arbitrator, by the Secretary General of The United Nations after consultations with the parties. The president shall be neither a national nor permanent resident of either party.
...
8. Claims shall be submitted to the Commission by each of the parties on its own behalf and on behalf of its nationals, including both natural and juridical persons. All claims submitted to the Commission shall be filed no later than one year from the effective date of this Agreement. Except tor claims submitted to another mutually agreed settlement mechanism in accordance with paragraph 16 or filed in another forum prior to the effective date to this Agreement, the Commission shall be the sole forum for adjudicating claims described in paragraph l or filed under paragraph 9 of this article, and any such claims which could have been and not submitted by that deadline shall be extinguished, in accordance with international law.
9. In appropriate cases, each party may file claims on behalf of persons of Eritrean or Ethiopian origin who may not be its nationals. Such claims shall be considered by the Commission on the same basis as claims submitted on behalf of that party's nationals.
Citizenship other
Page 3-5, Article 4:
...
4. Each party shall, by written notice to the United Nations Secretary General, appoint two commissioners within 45 days from the effective date of this Agreement, neither of whom shall be nationals or permanent residents of the party making the appointment. In the event that a party fails to name one or both of its party-appointed commissioners within the specified time. The Secretary General of the United Nations shall make the appointment.
5. The president of the Commission shall be selected by the party appointed commissioners or, failing their agreement within 30 days of the date of appointment of the latest party-appointed commissioner, by the Secretary General of the United Nations after consultation with the parties. The president shall be neither a national nor permanent resident of either party.
...
16. Recognizing that the results of the delimitation and demarcation process are not yet known, the parties request the United Nations to facilitate resolutions of problems which may arise due to the transfer of territorial control, including the consequences for individuals residing in previously disputed territory.

Page 6-8, Article 5:
1. Consistent with the Framework Agreement, in which the parties commit themselves to addressing the negative socio-economic of the crisis on the civilian population including the impact on those persons who have been deported, a neutral Claims Commission shall be established. The mandate of the Commission is to decide through binding arbitration all claims for loss, damage or injury by one Government against the other, and by nationals (including both natural and juridical persons) of one party against the Government of the other party or entities owned or controlled by the other party that are (a) related to the conflict that was the subject of the Framework Agreement, the Modalities for its Implementation and the Cessation of Hostilities Agreement, and (b) result from violations of international humanitarian law, including the 1949 Geneva Conventions, or other violations of international law. The Commission shall not hear claims arising from the cost of military operations, preparing for military operations, or the use of force, except to the extent that such claims involve violations of international humanitarian law.
2. The Commission shall consist of five arbitrators. Each party shall, by written notice to the United Nations secretary General, appoint two members within 45 days from the effective date of this Agreement, neither of whom shall be nationals or permanent residents of the party making the appointment. In the event that a party fails to name one or both of its party-appointed arbitrators within the specified time, the Secretary General of the United Nations shall make the appointment.
3. The president of the Commission shall be selected by the party-appointed arbitrators or, failing their agreement within 30 days of the date of appointment of the latest party-appointed arbitrator, by the Secretary General of The United Nations after consultations with the parties. The president shall be neither a national nor permanent resident of either party.
...
8. Claims shall be submitted to the Commission by each of the parties on its own behalf and on behalf of its nationals, including both natural and juridical persons. All claims submitted to the Commission shall be filed no later than one year from the effective date of this Agreement. Except tor claims submitted to another mutually agreed settlement mechanism in accordance with paragraph 16 or filed in another forum prior to the effective date to this Agreement, the Commission shall be the sole forum for adjudicating claims described in paragraph l or filed under paragraph 9 of this article, and any such claims which could have been and not submitted by that deadline shall be extinguished, in accordance with international law.
9. In appropriate cases, each party may file claims on behalf of persons of Eritrean or Ethiopian origin who may not be its nationals. Such claims shall be considered by the Commission on the same basis as claims submitted on behalf of that party's nationals.

Justice sector reform

Criminal justice and emergency law
No specific mention.
State of emergency provisions
No specific mention.
Judiciary and courts
Page 7, Article 5:
...
7. The Commission shall adopt its own rules of procedure based upon the 1992 Permanent Court of Arbitration Optional Rules for Arbitrating Disputes Between Two States. All decisions of the Commission shall be made by a majority of the commissioners.
Prisons and detention
No specific mention.
Traditional Laws
No specific mention.

Socio-economic reconstruction

Development or socio-economic reconstruction
No specific mention.
National economic plan
No specific mention.
Natural resources
No specific mention.
International funds
Page 1, Untitled Preamble:
Welcoming the commitment of the OAU and United Nations, through their endorsement of the Framework Agreement and Agreement on Cessation of Hostilities, to work closely with the international community to mobilize resources for the resettlement of displaced persons, as well as
rehabilitation and peacebuilding in both countries,

Page 5, Article 4:
...
17. The expenses of the Commission shall be borne equally by the two parties. To defray its expenses, the Commission may accept donations from the United Nations Trust Fund established under paragraph 8 of Security Council Resolution 1177 of 26 June 1998.
Business
No specific mention.
Taxation
No specific mention.
Banks
No specific mention.

Land, property and environment

Land reform/rights
No specific mention.
Pastoralist/nomadism rights
No specific mention.
Cultural heritage
No specific mention.
Environment
No specific mention.
Water or riparian rights or access
No specific mention.

Security sector

Security Guarantees
No specific mention.
Ceasefire
Ceasefire provision
Page 1, Article l:
l. The parties shall permanently terminate military hostilities between themselves. Each party shall refrain from the threat or use of force
against the other.
2. The parties shall respect and fully implement the provisions of the Agreement on Cessation of Hostilities.
Police
No specific mention.
Armed forces
No specific mention.
DDR
No specific mention.
Intelligence services
No specific mention.
Parastatal/rebel and opposition group forces
No specific mention.
Withdrawal of foreign forces
No specific mention.
Corruption
No specific mention.
Crime/organised crime
No specific mention.
Drugs
No specific mention.
Terrorism
No specific mention.

Transitional justice

Transitional justice general
No specific mention.
Amnesty/pardon
No specific mention.
Courts
No specific mention.
Mechanism
Page 2, Article 3:
l. In order to determine the origins of the conflict, an investigation will be carried out of the incidents of 6 May 1998 and on any other incident prior to that date which could have contributed to a misunderstanding between the parties regarding their common border, including the incidents of July and August 1997.
2. The investigation will be carried out by an independent, impartial body appointed by the Secretary General of the OAU, in consultation with the Secretary General of the United Nations and the two parties.
3. The independent body will endeavor to submit its report to the Secretary General of the OAU in a timely fashion.
4. The parties shall cooperate fully with the independent body.
5. The Secretary General of the OAU will communicate a copy of the report to each of the two parties, which shall consider it in accordance with the letter and spirit of the Framework Agreement and the Modalities.

Page 6-9, Article 5:
1. Consistent with the Framework Agreement, in which the parties commit themselves to addressing the negative socio-economic of the crisis on the civilian population including the impact on those persons who have been deported, a neutral Claims Commission shall be established. The mandate of the Commission is to decide through binding arbitration all claims for loss, damage or injury by one Government against the other, and by nationals (including both natural and juridical persons) of one party against the Government of the other party or entities owned or controlled by the other party that are (a) related to the conflict that was the subject of the Framework Agreement, the Modalities for its Implementation and the Cessation of Hostilities Agreement, and (b) result from violations of international humanitarian law, including the 1949 Geneva Conventions, or other violations of international law. The Commission shall not hear claims arising from the cost of military operations, preparing for military operations, or the use of force, except to the extent that such claims involve violations of international humanitarian law.
2. The Commission shall consist of five arbitrators. Each party shall, by written notice to the United Nations secretary General, appoint two members within 45 days from the effective date of this Agreement, neither of whom shall be nationals or permanent residents of the party making the appointment. In the event that a party fails to name one or both of its party-appointed arbitrators within the specified time, the Secretary General of the United Nations shall make the appointment.
3. The president of the Commission shall be selected by the party-appointed arbitrators or, failing their agreement within 30 days of the date of appointment of the latest party-appointed arbitrator, by the Secretary General of The United Nations after consultations with the parties. The president shall be neither a national nor permanent resident of either party.
4. In the event of the death or resignation of a member of the Commission in the course of the proceedings, a substitute member shall be appointed or chosen pursuant to the procedure set forth in this article that was applicable to the appointment or choice of the arbitrator being replaced.
5. The Commission shall be located in The Hague. At its discretion it may hold hearings and conduct investigations in the territory of either party, or at such other location as it deems expedient.
6. The Commission shall be empowered to employ such professional, administrative and clerical staff as it deems necessary to accomplish its work, including establishment of a Registry. The Commission may also retain consultants and experts to facilitate the expeditious completion of its works.
7. The Commission shall adopt its own rules of procedure based upon the 1992 Permanent Court of Arbitration Optional Rules for Arbitrating Disputes Between Two States. All decisions of the
Commission shall be made by a majority of the commissioners.
8. Claims shall be submitted to the Commission by each of the parties on its own behalf and on behalf of its nationals, including both natural and juridical persons. All claims submitted to the Commission shall be filed no later than one year from the effective date of this Agreement. Except tor claims submitted to another mutually agreed settlement mechanism in accordance with paragraph 16 or filed in another forum prior to the effective date to this Agreement, the Commission shall be the sole forum for adjudicating claims described in paragraph l or filed under paragraph 9 of this article, and any such claims which could have been and not submitted by that deadline shall be extinguished, in accordance with international law.
9. In appropriate cases, each party may file claims on behalf of persons of Eritrean or Ethiopian origin who may not be its nationals.
Such claims shall be considered by the Commission on the same basis as claims submitted on behalf of that party's nationals.
10. In order to facilitate the expeditious resolution of these disputes, the Commission shall be authorized to adopt such methods off efficient case management and mass claims processing as it deems appropriate, such as expedited procedures for processing claims and checking on a sample basis for further verification only if circumstances warrant.
11. Upon application of either of the parties, the Commission may decide to consider specific claims, or categories of claims, on a priority basis.
12. The Commission shall commence its work not more than 15 days after it is constituted and shall endeavour to complete its work within three years of the date when the period for filing claims closes pursuant to paragraph 8.
13. In considering claims, the Commission shall apply relevant rules of international law. The Commission shall not have the power to make decisions ex aequo er bono.
14. Interest, costs and fees may be awarded.
15. The expenses of the Commission shall be borne equally by the parties. Each party shall pay any invoice from the Commission within 30 days of its receipt.
16. The parties may agree at any time to settle outstanding claims, individually or by categories, through direct negotiation or by reference to another mutually agreed settlement mechanism.
17. Decisions and awards of the Commission shall be final and binding. The parties agree to honor all decisions and to pay any monetary awards rendered against them promptly.
18. Each party shall accord to members of the Commission and its employees the privileges and immunities that are accorded to diplomatic agents under the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations.
Prisoner release
Page 1-2, Article 2:
1. In fulfilling their obligations under international humanitarian law, including the 1949 Geneva Conventions relative to the protection of victims of armed conflict ("1949 Geneva Conventions") and in cooperation with the International Committee of the Red Cross, the parties shall without delay release and repatriate all prisoners of war.
2. In fulfilling their obligations under international humanitarian law, including the 1949 Geneva Conventions, and in cooperation with the International Committee of the Red Cross, the parties shall without delay, release and repatriate or return to their last place of residence all other persons detained as a result of the armed conflict.
Vetting
No specific mention.
Victims
No specific mention.
Missing persons
No specific mention.
Reparations
Material reparations
Page 6, Article 5:
1. Consistent with the Framework Agreement, in which the parties commit themselves to addressing the negative socio-economic of the crisis on the civilian population including the impact on those persons who have been deported, a neutral Claims Commission shall be established. The mandate of the Commission is to decide through binding arbitration all claims for loss, damage or injury by one Government against the other, and by nationals (including both natural and juridical persons) of one party against the Government of the other party or entities owned or controlled by the other party that are (a) related to the conflict that was the subject of the Framework Agreement, the Modalities for its Implementation and the Cessation of Hostilities Agreement, and (b) result from violations of international humanitarian law, including the 1949 Geneva Conventions, or other violations of international law. The Commission shall not hear claims arising from the cost of military operations, preparing for military operations, or the use of force, except to the extent that such claims involve violations of international humanitarian law.
Reconciliation
No specific mention.

Implementation

UN signatory
WITNESSED BY:
- For the United Nations M. Kofi ANNAN, Secretary General
Other international signatory
WITNESSED BY:
- For the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA, President of the Republic
- For the United States of America, Mme Madelcinc K. ALBRIGHT, Secretary of State
...
- For the Organisation of African Unity, M. Salim Ahmed Salim, Secretary General
- For the European Union, M. Rino SERRI, Special Representative of the Presidency
Referendum for agreement
No specific mention.
International mission/force/similar
Page 2, Article 3:
l. In order to determine the origins of the conflict, an investigation will be carried out of the incidents of 6 May 1998 and on any other incident prior to that date which could have contributed to a misunderstanding between the parties regarding their common border, including the incidents of July and August 1997.
2. The investigation will be carried out by an independent, impartial body appointed by the Secretary General of the OAU, in consultation with
the Secretary General of the United Nations and the two parties.
3. The independent body will endeavor to submit its report to the Secretary General of the OAU in a timely fashion.
4. The parties shall cooperate fully with the independent body.
5. The Secretary General of the OAU will communicate a copy of the report to each of the two parties, which shall consider it in accordance
with the letter and spirit of the Framework Agreement and the Modalities.

Page 3-5, Article 4:
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4. Each party shall, by written notice to the United Nations Secretary General, appoint two commissioners within 45 days from the effective date of this Agreement, neither of whom shall be nationals or permanent residents of the party making the appointment. In the event that a party fails to name one or both of its party-appointed commissioners within the specified time. The Secretary General of the United Nations shall make the appointment.
5. The president of the Commission shall be selected by the party appointed commissioners or, failing their agreement within 30 days of the date of appointment of the latest party-appointed commissioner, by the Secretary General of the United Nations after consultation with the parties. The president shall be neither a national nor permanent resident of either party.
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7. The UN Cartographer shall serve as Secretary to the Commission and undertake such tasks as assigned to him by the Commission, making use of the technical expertise of the UN Cartographic Unit. The Commission may also engage the services of additional experts as it necessary.
8. Within 45 days after the effective date of this Agreement, each party shall provide to the Secretary its claims and evidence relevant to the mandate of the Commission. These shall be provided to the other party by the Secretary.
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13. Upon reaching a final decision regarding delimitation of the borders, the Commission shall transmit its decision to the parties and Secretaries General of the OAU and the United Nations for publication, and the Commission shall arrange for expeditious demarcation.
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Page 5, Article 4:
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16. Recognizing that the results of the delimitation and demarcation process are not yet known, the parties request the United Nations to facilitate resolutions of problems which may arise due to the transfer of territorial control, including the consequences for individuals residing in previously disputed territory.
17. The expenses of the Commission shall be borne equally by the two parties. To defray its expenses, the Commission may accept donations from the United Nations Trust Fund established under paragraph 8 of Security Council Resolution 1177 of 26 June 1998.

Page 6, Article 5:
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2. The Commission shall consist of five arbitrators. Each party shall, by written notice to the United Nations secretary General, appoint two members within 45 days from the effective date of this Agreement, neither of whom shall be nationals or permanent residents of the party making the appointment. In the event that a party fails to name one or both of its party-appointed arbitrators within the specified time, the Secretary General of the United Nations shall make the appointment.
3. The president of the Commission shall be selected by the party-appointed arbitrators or, failing their agreement within 30 days of the date of appointment of the latest party-appointed arbitrator, by the Secretary General of The United Nations after consultations with the parties. The president shall be neither a national nor permanent resident of either party.

Page 9, Article 6:
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2. The parties authorize the Secretary General of the OAU to register this Agreement with the Secretariat of the United Nations in accordance with Article 102(l) of the Charter of the United Nations.
Enforcement mechanism
Article 3. Establishes independent impartial body appointed by the Secretary-General of the OAU, in consultation with the Secretary General of the UN and the two parties, to investigate incidents of 6 May 1998 and earlier which could have contributed to a misunderstanding between the parties regarding their common border; Article 4 establishes a Boundary Commission with a mandate to delimit and demarcate the colonial treaty border based on pertinent colonial treaties (1900,1902 and 1908) and applicable intl law, with out the power to make decisions ex aequo et bono, each party shall appoint of the five commissioners, neither of whom shall be nationals of that party's state, the fifth member to be selected by the party-appointed commissioners. Upon reaching its decision, the Commission shall arrange for expeditious demarcation. Article 5 establishes a Claims Commission to compensate the civilian population and govts for loss, damage or injury suffered during the armed conflict that result from violations of intl humanitarian law (incl. Geneva Conventions) or other violations of intl law, membership and powers on the same terms as the Boundary Commission

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