Accord des Retour Voluntaire des DPIs des Koui

Country/entity
Central African Republic
Region
Africa (excl MENA)
Agreement name
Accord des Retour Voluntaire des DPIs des Koui
Date
03/10/2018
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Interim arrangement
No
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/local conflict (Central African Republic Conflicts (1996 - )
The Central African Republic conflict is one of a set of regionally connected conflicts addressed by the African Great Lakes process. After the country gained independence from France in 1960 it has been ruled by a sequence of autocratic leaders that principally gained power through coups. Since the mid-1990s several waves of internal conflict took place in the Central African Republic, primarily along tribal, and later-on increasingly sectarian, lines. In 1996 and 1997, French troops and soldiers from neighbouring countries intervened to end a mutiny in the capital, Bangui, by factions of the army. The fighting was predominantly along tribal lines, with southern tribes in revolt against the ‘northern’ government. A UN mission was installed in 1998 to secure the truce.
After General Bozizé took control of the country after several coup attempts in 2003, a ‘bush war’ began led by armed opposition forces. From late 2006 onward, government troops with French military support severely weakened the rebels. Following this, a number of agreements were signed during 2007-2008, but not all factions have accepted them. In 2011, Bozizé was re-elected in supposedly fraudulent elections, which resulted in a new wave of uprisings. Séléka, an alliance of northern rebel groups, took over parts of the country and forced Bozizé to agree to a power-sharing deal. However, after this agreement broke down, Séléka took control of Bangui and Bozizé had to flee the country in 2013. Leader of Séléka, Michel Djotodia, took office and officially disbanded Séléka. However, continual violence between ex-Séléka groups and opposing militias, collectively known as ‘anti-balaka’, persisted and Djotodia was forced to resign less than a year later. Catherine Samba-Panza was installed as interim president until Faustin Archange Touadéra was elected in January 2016. In February 2019 an agreement was signed between the government and fourteen armed groups, including ex-Seleka groups, committed to disarmament. However, violence between ex-Seleka groups and anti-balaka continues.
Central African Republic Conflicts (1996 - ) )
Stage
Framework/substantive - partial (Multiple issues)
Conflict nature
Inter-group
Peace process
155: CAR: Local Processes
Various local processes.
Parties
For the 3R, Mr. Sidiki Abassi

For the Anti-Balaka, Mr. Hamadou Ndale

For the DPIs [Personnes Deplacees internes], Mr Ngaibona Maxime
Third parties
Witnesses:
Mayor of the Koui CC, Mr Yaya [illegible] Daouda
Religious leaders, Imam Abassi Modibq, Pastor Nefonyam Samuel
Youth representative (Koui), Gambo Amadou
Women's representative, Ms Bangue Pauline

Representatives of civil society:
Executive president of ONG GDAP [NGO Groupement pour le Developpement Agro Pastoral], Mr Mohamadou Dahirou
President of UDAPE, Mr Bindowo Ibrahim
Description
In this agreement, the CAR armed groups active in the Koui sub-prefecture agree to take measures that would allow for safe return of internally displaced persons, by committing to refraining from violence, and ensuring free movement for people and goods in the area.

Agreement document
CF_181003_Accord des Retour Voluntaire des DPIs des Koui_Translation-1.pdf []

Agreement document (original language)
CF_181003_Accord des Retour Voluntaire des DPIs des Koui.pdf []

Groups

Children/youth
No specific mention.
Disabled persons
No specific mention.
Elderly/age
No specific mention.
Migrant workers
No specific mention.
Racial/ethnic/national group
Rhetorical
Page 1:
Aware of the fact that the responsibility for determining the destiny of our region falls on us, according to the realities of our country and based on the values of justice, rule of law, democracy, good governance, respect for people’s fundamental freedom and rights, unity and solidarity, mutual understanding and cooperation among different ethnic communities, and religious groups;
Religious groups
Rhetorical
Page 1:
Aware of the fact that the responsibility for determining the destiny of our region falls on us, according to the realities of our country and based on the values of justice, rule of law, democracy, good governance, respect for people’s fundamental freedom and rights, unity and solidarity, mutual understanding and cooperation among different ethnic communities, and religious groups;
Indigenous people
No specific mention.
Other groups
No specific mention.
Refugees/displaced persons
Rhetorical
Page 1:
Reaffirm our commitment to renounce violence and cattle theft, and agreeing resolutely through the present document to engage in the voluntary return of IDPs, to restore peace, cohabitation, and reconciliation for the socio-economic well-being of the population of the Koui sub-prefecture.

Page 1:
We agree to the following:

Article 1: the parties undertake to agree to the final return of IDPs to their places of origin from the date of signature of this agreement.
...
Article 4: to aid the definitive return of IDPs to their places of origin to consolidate peace, rebuilding, and social cohesion [illegible], the parties commit to:

Ensuring free movement of people and goods in the Koui sub-prefecture;
Refraining from damaging, stealing, or trespassing on private property (houses, [illegible], livestock, etc.);
Resorting to traditional local mechanisms of conflict agreements between farmers and herders.

Article 5: the parties undertake to respect and implement the provisions of the Agreement to successfully ensure the definitive return of IDPs to their respective localities.

Article 6: As soon as the agreement is signed, the parties individually and collectively must take joint measures to sensitize the populations of the Koui sub-prefecture to accepting the voluntary return of IDPs to their localities of origin.
Social class
No specific mention.

Gender

Women, girls and gender
Page 2,
Witnesses:
...
Women's representative, Ms Bangue Pauline
Men and boys
No specific mention.
LGBTI
No specific mention.
Family
No specific mention.

State definition

State definition
No specific mention.

Governance

Political institutions (new or reformed)
No specific mention.
Constitution's affirmation/renewal
No specific mention.
Constitutional reform/making
No specific mention.
Elections
No specific mention.
Electoral commission
No specific mention.
Political parties reform
No specific mention.
Civil society
No specific mention.
Traditional/religious leaders
No specific mention.
Public administration
No specific mention.

Power sharing

Political power sharing
No specific mention.
Territorial power sharing
No specific mention.
Economic power sharing
No specific mention.
Military power sharing
No specific mention.

Human rights and equality

Human rights/RoL
Page 1:
Aware of the fact that the responsibility for determining the destiny of our region falls on us, according to the realities of our country and based on the values of justice, rule of law, democracy, good governance, respect for people’s fundamental freedom and rights, unity and solidarity, mutual understanding and cooperation among different ethnic communities, and religious groups;
Equality
No specific mention.
Democracy
Page 1:
Aware of the fact that the responsibility for determining the destiny of our region falls on us, according to the realities of our country and based on the values of justice, rule of law, democracy, good governance, respect for people’s fundamental freedom and rights, unity and solidarity, mutual understanding and cooperation among different ethnic communities, and religious groups;
Protection measures
No specific mention.
Human rights framework
No specific mention.
Civil and political rights
No specific mention.
Socio-economic rights
Property
Page 1:
We agree to the following:
...

Article 4: to aid the definitive return of IDPs to their places of origin to consolidate peace, rebuilding, and social cohesion [illegible], the parties commit to:

Ensuring free movement of people and goods in the Koui sub-prefecture;
Refraining from damaging, stealing, or trespassing on private property (houses, [illegible], livestock, etc.);
Resorting to traditional local mechanisms of conflict agreements between farmers and herders.
NHRI
No specific mention.
Regional or international human rights institutions
No specific mention.
Mobility/access
Page 1:
We agree to the following:
...
Article 4: to aid the definitive return of IDPs to their places of origin to consolidate peace, rebuilding, and social cohesion [illegible], the parties commit to:

Ensuring free movement of people and goods in the Koui sub-prefecture;
Refraining from damaging, stealing, or trespassing on private property (houses, [illegible], livestock, etc.);
Resorting to traditional local mechanisms of conflict agreements between farmers and herders.
Detention procedures
No specific mention.
Media and communication
Other
Page 1:
We agree to the following:
...
Article 7: This Agreement shall be communicated to the civilian population through the media, as well as through other means of communication.
Citizenship
No specific mention.

Justice sector reform

Criminal justice and emergency law
No specific mention.
State of emergency provisions
No specific mention.
Judiciary and courts
No specific mention.
Prisons and detention
No specific mention.
Traditional Laws
Page 1:
We agree to the following:
...

Article 4: to aid the definitive return of IDPs to their places of origin to consolidate peace, rebuilding, and social cohesion [illegible], the parties commit to:

Ensuring free movement of people and goods in the Koui sub-prefecture;
Refraining from damaging, stealing, or trespassing on private property (houses, [illegible], livestock, etc.);
Resorting to traditional local mechanisms of conflict agreements between farmers and herders.

Socio-economic reconstruction

Development or socio-economic reconstruction
Socio-economic development
Page 1:
Reaffirm our commitment to renounce violence and cattle theft, and agreeing resolutely through the present document to engage in the voluntary return of IDPs, to restore peace, cohabitation, and reconciliation for the socio-economic well-being of the population of the Koui sub-prefecture.
National economic plan
No specific mention.
Natural resources
No specific mention.
International funds
No specific mention.
Business
No specific mention.
Taxation
No specific mention.
Banks
No specific mention.

Land, property and environment

Land reform/rights
Other land rights
Page 1:
We agree to the following:
...

Article 4: to aid the definitive return of IDPs to their places of origin to consolidate peace, rebuilding, and social cohesion [illegible], the parties commit to:

Ensuring free movement of people and goods in the Koui sub-prefecture;
Refraining from damaging, stealing, or trespassing on private property (houses, [illegible], livestock, etc.);
Resorting to traditional local mechanisms of conflict agreements between farmers and herders.
Pastoralist/nomadism rights
No specific mention.
Cultural heritage
No specific mention.
Environment
No specific mention.
Water or riparian rights or access
No specific mention.

Security sector

Security Guarantees
No specific mention.
Ceasefire
No specific mention.
Police
No specific mention.
Armed forces
No specific mention.
DDR
No specific mention.
Intelligence services
No specific mention.
Parastatal/rebel and opposition group forces
No specific mention.
Withdrawal of foreign forces
No specific mention.
Corruption
No specific mention.
Crime/organised crime
Page 1,
We agree to the following:
...
Article 4: to aid the definitive return of IDPs to their places of origin to consolidate peace, rebuilding, and social cohesion [illegible], the parties commit to:

1. Ensuring free movement of people and goods in the Koui sub-prefecture;
2. Refraining from damaging, stealing, or trespassing on private property (houses, [illegible], livestock, etc.);
3. Resorting to traditional local mechanisms of conflict agreements between farmers and herders.
Drugs
No specific mention.
Terrorism
No specific mention.

Transitional justice

Transitional justice general
No specific mention.
Amnesty/pardon
No specific mention.
Courts
No specific mention.
Mechanism
No specific mention.
Prisoner release
No specific mention.
Vetting
No specific mention.
Victims
No specific mention.
Missing persons
No specific mention.
Reparations
No specific mention.
Reconciliation
Page 1:
Reaffirm our commitment to renounce violence and cattle theft, and agreeing resolutely through the present document to engage in the voluntary return of IDPs, to restore peace, cohabitation, and reconciliation for the socio-economic well-being of the population of the Koui sub-prefecture.
By signing this Agreement, we make a solemn commitment before the local administrative authorities, religious leaders, and the population, to renounce any act that goes against the respect for free movement and social cohesion in our sub-prefecture.

Page 1:
Article 6: As soon as the agreement is signed, the parties individually and collectively must take joint measures to sensitize the populations of the Koui sub-prefecture to accepting the voluntary return of IDPs to their localities of origin.

Implementation

UN signatory
No specific mention.
Other international signatory
No specific mention.
Referendum for agreement
No specific mention.
International mission/force/similar
No specific mention.
Enforcement mechanism
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh