Agreement on Accountability and Reconcilation between the Government of the Republic of Uganda and the Lord's Resistance Army/Movement

Country/entity
Uganda
Region
Africa (excl MENA)
Agreement name
Agreement on Accountability and Reconcilation between the Government of the Republic of Uganda and the Lord's Resistance Army/Movement
Date
29/06/2007
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Ugandan Conflicts (1970 - )
Uganda has long experienced tensions along ethnic, religious and national lines. On independence in 1962, Ugandan politics were defined by smaller monarchies, among which the Southern Kingdom of Buganda dominated the national sphere. Resistance to this system was the campaign platform of the Uganda People’s Congress (UPC) led by Milton Obote, who won the 1962 elections. Tension between the Buganda’s ruler King Mutesa II and Obote with his then-ally Idi Amin, led to Obote changing the constitution, abolishing the monarchic system and thus, centralizing power. However, a split between Obote and Amin eventually led to a military coup d’état in 1970, which brought Amin the presidency where he instituted his genocidal regime.

Despite economic collapse, President Amin was only removed from power following a failed attempt at invading Tanzania in 1979, whereby the Tanzanian counter-attack alongside forces loyal to former-President Obote toppled Amin. Authoritarianism continued under the new regime, after Obote won the 1980 elections under dubious circumstances, and in 1985, Obote was once again deposed in a coup. Out of the fray, Yoweri Museveni and the National Resistance Army (NRA) captured the presidency in 1986 and began instituting economic and democratic reforms.

Resistance to Museveni, however, continued with various insurgencies across the country including by former-supporters of President Obote or President Amin. Other insurgencies based on chiliastic beliefs based on the return of Jesus Christ, most notably the Holy Spirit Movement, fought in the late 1980s before splintering into several smaller factions. One such faction later became the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA) led by Joseph Kony. Many of the 22 or more insurgency groups estimated to contain more than 40,000 insurgents, operate from across the Ugandan border and are based in either South Sudan or the Democratic Republic of Congo.

Ugandan Conflicts (1970 - ) )
Stage
Framework/substantive - partial (Other)
Conflict nature
Government
Peace process
135: Uganda peace process
Parties
Dr. S.P. Kagoda, Permanent Secretary Ministry of Internal Affairs, Acting Head of the Government of Uganda Delegation and Mr Martin Ojul, the leader of the Lord's Resistance Army/Movement.
Third parties
Agreement witnessed by: H.E. Lt. Gen. Riek Machar Teny-Dhurgon (PHD, Vice President of Southern Sudan and Mediator of the Souther Sudan and Mediator of the Government of Uganda- Lord's Resistance Army/Movement Peace Talks. H.E Japheth R Getugi, for the Government of the Republic of Kenya. H.E Ali Siwa, for the Government of the Republic of Tanzania.
Description
Agreement dedicated to establishing multi-level accountability mechanisms for the conflict, including mechanisms such as: truth recovery, prosecutions, and the commitment to deal conscientiously with ICC arrest warrants, in the spirit of 'complementarity' and reconciliation through custom based justice.

Agreement document
UG_070629_AgrmtAccountabilityReconciliation.pdf

Main category
Page 5, Article 3. Principles of General Application

...

3.4 Child witnesses and victims of sexual crimes shall be given particular protection during proceedings.

Page 9, Article 10. GENDER
In the implementation of this Agreement, a gender-sensitive approach shall be promoted and in particular, implementers of this Agreement shall strive to prevent and eliminate any gender inequalities that may arise.

Page 9, Article 11. WOMEN AND GIRLS
In the implementation of this Agreement it is agreed to:
(i) Recognise and address the special needs of women and girls.
(ii) Ensure that the experiences, views and concerns of women and girls are recognised and taken into account.
(iii) Protect the dignity, privacy and security of women and girls.
(iv) Encourage and facilitate the participation of women and girls in the processes for implementing this agreement.

Women, girls and gender

Participation
No specific mention.
Equality
No specific mention.
Particular groups of women
Refugee/displaced women
Page 9, E. ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT OF NORTH AND NORTH EASTERN UGANDA Article 12. Vulnerable Groups 12.2 The Parties agree that the Government of Uganda shall in accordance with existing policies and through special assistance programmes in the affected areas make appropriate provision for vulnerable groups and in particular shall protect, resettle and promote the advancement of child-headed households, orphans, street children, unaccompanied minors, traumatized children, widows, femaleheaded households, persons with disabilities (PWDs), persons living with HIV/AIDS and the elderly
International law
General IHRL, IHL and IL
Page 9, Article 11. WOMEN AND GIRLS In the implementation of this Agreement it is agreed to: … (iii) Protect the dignity, privacy and security of women and girls
New institutions
No specific mention.
Violence against women
Sexual violence
Page 5, Article 3. Principles of General Application:...3.4 Child witnesses and victims of sexual crimes shall be given particular protection during proceedings.
Protection (general)
Page 9, E. ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT OF NORTH AND NORTH EASTERN UGANDA Article 12. Vulnerable Groups 12.2 The Parties agree that the Government of Uganda shall in accordance with existing policies and through special assistance programmes in the affected areas make appropriate provision for vulnerable groups and in particular shall protect, resettle and promote the advancement of child-headed households, orphans, street children, unaccompanied minors, traumatized children, widows, femaleheaded households, persons with disabilities (PWDs), persons living with HIV/AIDS and the elderly
Transitional justice
Past and gender
Page 5, Article 3. Principles of General Application ... 3.4 Child witnesses and victims of sexual crimes shall be given particular protection during proceedings.
Institutional reform
No specific mention.
Development
Rehabilitation and reconstruction
Page 9, E. ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT OF NORTH AND NORTH EASTERN UGANDA Article 12. Vulnerable Groups 12.2 The Parties agree that the Government of Uganda shall in accordance with existing policies and through special assistance programmes in the affected areas make appropriate provision for vulnerable groups and in particular shall protect, resettle and promote the advancement of child-headed households, orphans, street children, unaccompanied minors, traumatized children, widows, femaleheaded households, persons with disabilities (PWDs), persons living with HIV/AIDS and the elderly
Implementation
Women's role and consideration in implementation of the agreement
Page 9, Article 11. WOMEN AND GIRLS: In the implementation of this Agreement it is agreed to:
(i) Recognise and address the special needs of women and girls.
(ii) Ensure that the experiences, views and concerns of women and girls are recognised and taken into account.
(iii) Protect the dignity, privacy and security of women and girls.
(iv) Encourage and facilitate the participation of women and girls in the processes for implementing this agreement.
Other
Page 9, Article 10. GENDER: In the implementation of this Agreement, a gender-sensitive approach shall be promoted and in particular, implementers of this Agreement shall strive to prevent and eliminate any gender inequalities that may arise
Other
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh