Joint Communiqué #55, Havana

Country/entity
Colombia
Region
Americas
Agreement name
Joint Communiqué #55, Havana
Date
12/07/2015
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Colombian Conflict (1964 - )
The Colombian conflict is really a set of conflicts and the peace agreements reflect both different processes relating to different conflict groups and dyads, and processes taking place at different times in a complex peace process history. The Colombian civil war has its roots in the late 1940s and the violent infighting between liberal and the conservative factions. Emerging from the liberal tradition with a thorough grounding in nationalist communist ideology, the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia—People's Army (FARC) began its armed insurrection against the Colombian government in 1964. Other left-wing guerrillas emerged as well, most notably the socialist/populist M-19, which would later be integrated into the formal political system in the peace process of 1990s; the National Liberation Army (ELN), which has strong roots in liberation theology, and the Maoist Ejército Popular de Liberación (EPL) (also part of the 1990 process, less successfully). Several stages of peace processes were undertaken by the various sides, which were further complicated by the emergence of right-wing paramilitary ‘self-defence’ forces. The peace agreement between the Colombian government under President Uribe and the main alliance of the paramilitary groups, the United Self-Defence Forces of Colombia (AUC), concluded in 2005 and is still heavily disputed as several remnants are still active, but now subsumed under the heading ‘Bacrim’ (Bandas criminales). In addition, FARC and ELN maintain a military presence, but both demonstrate a strong interest in completing successful peace negotiations with the government, with the most recent agreements being between FARC and the Government.

Colombian Conflict (1964 - ) )
Stage
Pre-negotiation/process (Mixed)
Conflict nature
Government
Peace process
110: Colombia V - Santos
Parties
The National Government; the FARC - EP
Third parties
Description
This short agreement sets out the process of reviewing de-escalation measures and the signing of the Final Agreement in Havana.

Agreement document
CO_150712_Joint Communiqué #55, Havana.pdf

Main category
Page 1,
With the purpose of:
• Strengthening the trust of the Colombian men and women in the peace process, as well as the trust between the delegations;
[...]

Page 1-2,
The delegations of the National Government and the FARC - EP have decided to:
[...]
In the meantime:
The FARC - EP, as a de-escalation measure, will maintain the unilateral suspension of all kinds of offensive actions. In turn, the National Government, as of July 20, will set in motion a de-escalation process of the military actions, consistent with the suspension of offensive actions on the part of the FARC - EP. In any case, the National Government and its institutions, in compliance with their constitutional obligations, will continue ensuring protection for all the Colombian people and the enforcement of the law throughout the National territory. The Government will continue persecuting crime and in no case will it tolerate any illegal organization’s attempts at coercing communities through the use of weapons. In compliance with the foregoing, the National Government will promote respect and will guarantee the free exercise of the fundamental rights of all the Colombian men and women. In four months, starting as of today, each one of the delegations will undertake a first evaluation of both the compliance with these de-escalation measures, as well as of the
results of the efforts to expedite progress at the Table, and will make the decisions each of them deems pertinent.

Women, girls and gender

Participation
No specific mention.
Equality
No specific mention.
Particular groups of women
No specific mention.
International law
No specific mention.
New institutions
No specific mention.
Violence against women
No specific mention.
Transitional justice
No specific mention.
Institutional reform
No specific mention.
Development
No specific mention.
Implementation
No specific mention.
Other
Women, girls and gender:
Page 1, With the purpose of:
Strengthening the trust of the Colombian men and women in the peace process, as
well as the trust between the delegations;

The University of Edinburgh