Royal Order No.28 of 2011, Establishing an Independent Commission to Investigate and Report on the Events Which Occurred in Bahrain in February/March 2011

Country/entity
Bahrain
Region
Middle East and North Africa
Agreement name
Royal Order No.28 of 2011, Establishing an Independent Commission to Investigate and Report on the Events Which Occurred in Bahrain in February/March 2011
Date
29/06/2011
Agreement status
Unilateral document
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Bahraini Uprising (2011 - )
Following uprisings across the MENA region in early 2011, protests ensued on February 14, 2011, aimed at generating social reforms and greater social equality for Bahrain's Shi'a majority. Following the deaths of two protesters in the first two days, a sit-in was held at the Pearl Roundabout in Manama on February. The next morning, security forces stormed the camp, killing 4 protesters, marking a turning point in the conflict. Protests picked up momentum and by April 2012, over 80 protesters and security forces had been killed in violence from both sides. In December 2013, there were impromptu 183 protests alone. Sectarian tensions are further heightened by the recruitment of Sunni Muslims into the National Army from abroad, and the deployment of soldiers from the predominantly Sunni GCC Joint Shield Force. There is also an indication of state-sponsored systematic destruction of Shi'a mosques across Bahrain following the protests.

On July 2, 2011, King Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa instigated the Bahrain National Dialogue as a means to promote reconciliation between the government and Bahrainis. 300 participants were involved with 37% representation dedicated for political organisations, 36% for CSOs, 21% for opinion leaders and 6% for media representation. Opposition parties were only granted 5 seats, and there was much criticism of the un-balanced nature of the National Dialogue. The National Dialogues were suspended by January 2014.
Bahraini Uprising (2011 - ) )
Stage
Framework/substantive - partial (Core issue)
Conflict nature
Government
Peace process
11: Bahrain: Reform-based peace process
Parties
Hamad Bin Isa Al Khalifa
Third parties
Description
A royal decree creating an independent commission consisting of experts to analyze the events of Feb/Mar 2011 in Bahrain and make recommendations.

Agreement document
BH_110629_Royal Order No. 28 of 2011.pdf

Main category
Page 2, Article Two.
The Commission consists of five eminent and internationally- renowned members, whose experience and reputation worldwide is well established. They are:
...
- Dr. Badria Al-Awadhi (member).

Women, girls and gender

Participation
No specific mention.
Equality
No specific mention.
Particular groups of women
No specific mention.
International law
No specific mention.
New institutions
No specific mention.
Violence against women
No specific mention.
Transitional justice
No specific mention.
Institutional reform
No specific mention.
Development
No specific mention.
Implementation
Women's role and consideration in implementation of the agreement
Page 2, Article Two.
The Commission consists of five eminent and internationally- renowned members, whose experience and reputation worldwide is well established. They are:
...
- Dr. Badria Al-Awadhi (member).
Other
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh