Military Code of Conduct between the Government of Burma and Ethnic Armed Organisations (EAO) in Accordance with the National Ceasefire Agreement (NCA)

Country/entity
Myanmar
Region
Asia and Pacific
Agreement name
Military Code of Conduct between the Government of Burma and Ethnic Armed Organisations (EAO) in Accordance with the National Ceasefire Agreement (NCA)
Date
18/11/2015
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Myanmar Conflict (1948 - )
Internal conflict, mostly along ethno-political fault lines, has been a constant feature of Myanmar since its independence in 1948. The conflict has two distinct dynamics. First a struggle between an authoritarian government and a pro-democracy opposition which has the characteristics of authoritarian conflicts; and second a stuggle between the government and ethnic armed groups which has the characteristics of an identity conflict. The two oldest and strongest militias fighting the government are the Karen National Union (KNU), which has remained active since the late 1940s, and the Kachin Independence Organisation, which was formed in the early 1960s. In total, here are more than a dozen mostly ethnic-based guerrilla groups active throughout the country. Especially in the period of junta dictatorship that lasted until 2011 the government attempted to crush the rebellions, which led to numerous human rights violations. With the start of democratic reforms in the aftermath of the 2010 elections, peace negotiations have taken place and resulted in the signing of various agreements, although conflicts remain active.

Myanmar Conflict (1948 - ) )
Stage
Ceasefire/related (Related)
Conflict nature
Government/territory
Peace process
87: Myanmar ceasefires process with ethnic armed groups
Parties
Government of Burma represented by
Representatives of the Government
1. Lt. Gen. Ya Pyit, Commander, No. 2 Special Operation
2. U Khin Maung Soe, Union Minister
3. Lt. Gen. Ye Aung, Chief, Military Law
4. Maj. Gen. Tun Tun Naung, Commander, No. 1 Special Operation
5. Maj. Gen. Aung Kyaw Zaw, Commander, No. 3 Special Operation
6. Maj. Gen. Min Naung, Commander, No. 4 Special Operation
7. U Myint Soe, Retired Lt. Gen.
8. Maj. Gen. Aung Soe, Deputy Minister, Ministry of Interior
9. Col. Wun Na Aung, Office of the Ministry of Defense (Army)
10. Dr. Min Zaw Oo, Director, MPC

Ethnic Armed Organizations, represented by;
1. Maj. Gen. Saw Isaac Poe, Quartermaster General, KNLA and Permanent Central Committee, KNU
2. Maj. Gen. Saw Nay Soe Mya, Adjutant General, KNU/KNLA (PC)
3. Dr. Shwe Kah, Joint Secretary, CNF
4. Col. Saw Kyaw Than Htay, Chief Liaison Officer, DKBA
5. Lt. Col. Khun Aung Mang, PNLO
6. Salai Yaw Aung, ABSDF
7. Lt. Col Khine Myo Chit, ALP
8. Col. Hsaung Han, RCSS
9. Padoh Saw Ta Doh Moo, KNU
10. Sai Liang, RCSS
Third parties
Description
Agreement affirming commitment to the National Ceasefire Agreement and affirming the parametres of conduct between government and Ethnic Armed Organisation groups.

Agreement document
MM_151118_Code of Conduct.pdf

Main category
Page 2, Chapter 2, Code of Conduct Regarding the Civilians
7. The Tamataw and EAOs agreed to comply and implement the following terms in order to protect the civilians.
... (M) There shall be no sexual harassment, sexual violence, and rape or sexual slavery against women.
(N) There shall be no killing of children or the mutilation of their body parts, or the recruitment of children into military services, or rape or other sexual violence, arrest and kidnapping against children.

Women, girls and gender

Participation
No specific mention.
Equality
No specific mention.
Particular groups of women
No specific mention.
International law
No specific mention.
New institutions
No specific mention.
Violence against women
Sexual violence
Page 2, Chapter 2, Code of Conduct Regarding the Civilians
7. The Tamataw and EAOs agreed to comply and implement the following terms in order to protect the civilians.
... (M) There shall be no sexual harassment, sexual violence, and rape or sexual slavery against women.
(N) There shall be no killing of children or the mutilation of their body parts, or the recruitment of children into military services, or rape or other sexual violence, arrest and kidnapping against children.
Transitional justice
No specific mention.
Institutional reform
No specific mention.
Development
No specific mention.
Implementation
No specific mention.
Other
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh