National Leaders Forum Communiqué

Country/entity
Somalia
Puntland
Region
Africa (excl MENA)
Agreement name
National Leaders Forum Communiqué
Date
12/04/2016
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Somali Civil War (1991 - )
Originally spurred by centre-peripheral tensions, fighting broke out in 1981 between the regime of President Said Barre and the Somali National Movement, a militia primarily consisting of members from the northern Ishaq clan. Fighting intensified in the late 1980s as more clan-based militias arose. President Barre’s regime collapsed in late 1991 and as a result the UN intervened. However persistent attacks on the UN’s forces forced a withdrawal in 1994. From the mid- to late 1990s, the character of the conflict shifted as warlords fought for access to rents. Also during this period, two different peace agreements arose; the Sodere Declaration, which was mediated by Ethiopia and supported by IGAD, and the Cairo Accord, which was brokered by Egypt. Fighting, already noticeably lessened compared to the early 1990s, decreased and the more amicable environment paved the way for the Transitional Government to be formed in 2000 (replaced in 2004 by the Transitional Federal Government).

Nonetheless, opposition to the TFG arose in the form of the Islamic Courts Union (ICU), which by early 2006 had taken control of most of southern Somalia until they were ousted by an armed intervention by Ethiopia in December 2006. As a result, the ICU splintered. Hard-line ICU members formed the Takfiri organization, Harakat al-Shabaab al-Mujahideen, and launched a guerrilla campaign against the TFG. Another faction of the ICU fled to Djibouti and formed the Alliance for the Re-liberation of Somalia, which was absorbed into the ruling TFG after successful negotiations in 2007.

To deal with the new round of fighting, the UN-mandated AMISOM force was deployed in 2007. Since then, insecurity has fluctuated between the urban and rural areas as the al-Shabaab's territorial gains waver. Local militia leaders maintain de facto governance over communities. From 2009 to 2012, insecurity spilled-over into the Gulf of Aden and the Indian Ocean when Somali pirates seized, looted and ransomed ships. In 2014, 'Operation Indian Ocean' was launched and in parallel with infighting among the al-Shabaab, the organisation's position in Somalia has diminished slightly. However, as evidenced by large-scale attacks by the al-Shabaab in northern Kenya throughout 2013-2015, the lack of security continues to destabilize the region. The al-Shabaab has been characterized as a spoiler in the Somali peace process and have therefore been placed outside of any negotiations.
Somali Civil War (1991 - ) )
Stage
Framework/substantive - partial (Core issue)
Conflict nature
Government/territory
Peace process
94: Somalia Peace Process
Parties
The participants included the President of the Federal Republic of Somalia, H.E. Hassan Sheikh Mohamud, the Speaker of the Federal Parliament, H.E. Mohammed Sh. Osman Jawari, the Prime Minister of the Federal Government, H.E. Omar Abdirashid Ali Sharmaarke, the Deputy Prime Minister of the Federal Government, H.E. Mohamed Omar Arteh, the President of Puntland, H.E. Abdiweli Mohamed Ali, the President of Jubbaland, H.E. Ahmed Mohamed Islaan, the President of the South-West, H.E. Sharif Hassan Sheikh Adan, and the President of Galmudug, H.E. Abdulkarim Hussein Guled.
Third parties
Description
Agreement between the Somali Federal Government and the Government of Puntland outlining the formulation of electoral commissions on the state and federal levels, including provisions on the later abandonment of the 4.5 formula of power-sharing, power-sharing for the lower and upper houses and the modus for elections to be held in 2016.

Agreement document
SO_160412_NLF-Communique.pdf

Main category
Page 2, PROCESS: Upper House:
… g. 30%  of  seats in  each  existing  and  emerging  Federal  Member  State will be identified and specially reserved for women candidates. 

Page 2, PROCESS: Lower House:
... d. The electors will be drawn from the sub-clans sharing the seat and will represent the diversity of the relevant community, including civil society and youth. Each Electoral College will contain a minimum of 30% women. 

Women, girls and gender

Participation
Effective participation
Page 2, PROCESS: Upper House:
… g. 30% of seats in each existing and emerging Federal Member State will be identified and specially reserved for women candidates.

Page 2, PROCESS: Lower House:
... d. The electors will be drawn from the sub-clans sharing the seat and will represent the diversity of the relevant community, including civil society and youth. Each Electoral College will contain a minimum of 30% women.
Equality
No specific mention.
Particular groups of women
No specific mention.
International law
No specific mention.
New institutions
No specific mention.
Violence against women
No specific mention.
Transitional justice
No specific mention.
Institutional reform
No specific mention.
Development
No specific mention.
Implementation
No specific mention.
Other
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh