Since 1960 when Nigeria became independent, it has seen a number of coup d’etats and instability. In 1967, after confederation plans for the Nigerian regions to gain more independence failed, the Eastern region seceded as the Republic of Biafra and this caused the Nigerian Civil War. The conflict resulted from political, economic, ethnic and religious tensions which had existed since before Britain drew new borders when colonising the area. The discovery of oil in the Niger Delta heightened the intensity of the conflict. With the aid of British forces, the Nigerian military managed to take back the territory in 1970. Since then, ethnic violence has persisted.
Nigerian Delta Unrest (1990 - )
Conflict in the Niger Delta arose in the 1990s between foreign oil companies and ethnic groups which felt exploited after being forced to abandon their land. The Nigerian military caused international consternation in 1995 when members of the Ogoni tribe of the Niger Delta were found hanged without due process. The proliferation of arms in the region has encouraged the rise of armed groups which have targeted oil companies and pipelines. This came to a head in 2004 when Shell withdrew personnel from two oil fields in response to attacks on wells and pipelines by rebels. The military have attempted to clamp down on militant groups in the Niger Delta but it was not until the establishment of the Presidential amnesty program in 2009 which required the surrender of weapons by militants in exchange for amnesty. In 2016 a new militant group called the Niger Delta Avengers has announced its existence in the Niger Delta illustrating the continued instability in that region.
Boko Haram Insurgency (2009 - )
Sectarian violence has also been rife in Nigeria and since 2002, the radical Islamist group Boko Haram have been violently seeking to establish sharia law throughout Nigeria and an Islamic caliphate in the Northern part of the country. In 2009 they began an official insurgency which spread to Cameroon, Chad and Niger. In 2014 the group kidnapped 276 girls from a college in Chibok and bombed the town of Jos. The insurgency is the result of Muslim – Christian tensions in the country which is a constant source of instability and violence. In 2015 the military led a regional coalition of forces on a counter-offensive against Boko Haram and they were successful in taking ground. There are also conflicts between Fulani herdsmen and Christian peasants in the Middle belt. Widespread corruption and lack of state authority exacerbate these many complex tensions.
Central Nigerian communal conflicts (1978 - )
Unrest in Nigeria is a product of socio-economic pressures between migrating herdsmen and settled agriculturists, exacerbated by firearms proliferation, ethnic conflict, sectarianism and banditry. Since 2001, attacks have adopted a more sectarian character involving suicide bombings and shooting at churches by the jihadist group, Boko Haram. Peaks of violence occurred in 2004 and 2011, patoral/farmer conflict has resulted in the deaths of thousands since the Fourth Nigerian Republic was founded in 1999. The Land Use Act of 1978, exacerbated conflict by allowing longtime occupants 'indigeneship' and the ability to apply for a certificate of occupancy, putting migrating communities at a disadvantage.
Nigerian Civil War (1967), Delta Unrest (1990 - ), Communal Conflicts (1978 - ), and Boko Haram Insurgency (2009 - )
136: Nigeria - Plateau State Process
1. Alhaji Shebu Buba, Chairman [Signed]
2. Salihu Musa Umar, Secretary [Signed]
3. Arda Idris Gidado, Member [Signed]
4. Haruna Boro Usaini, Member [Signed]
5. Nura Abdullahi, Member [Signed]
6. Mohammed Adam, Member [Signed]
7. Danladi Chiroma, Member [Signed]
8. Ardo Mahmud Adam, Member [Signed]
9. Alh. Bello Uthman, Member [Signed]
The Humanitarian Dialogue Centre.
Declaration of Intent of the Fulani Steering Committee in the Jos Communal Process, agreeing to the points outlined in the 'Opening position paper of the Fulani Communities of Jos North, Jos South, Riyom, and Brkin Ladi Local Government Areas of Plateau State, On Peace in this Area'. This paper highlights grievances of the Fulani tribe in the region including; cattle rustling and access to grazing areas; compensation for stolen cattle; the issue of indigene (settlers) in Jos; discrimination against Fulani in working for local government; marginalization of Fulani by the local government; denail of freedom to business practices and farming activities; bias against Fulani by security services; the resettlement of IDPs; the issue of normadic schools; denial of use and harassment on highways leading out of Jos; targeted arrest of Fulanis by security officers coluding with Berom peoples; the closure of the Mahanga Mosque; the conflict between the Berom and Hausa in North Jos; and communal suspicions regarding land ownership.
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