Agreement on Permanent Ceasefire and Security Arrangements Implementation Modalities between the Government of Sudan (GOS) and the Sudan People's Liberation Movement/People's Liberation Army (SPLM/SPLA) During the Pre-interim and Interim Periods

Country/entity
South Sudan
Sudan
Region
Africa (excl MENA)
Agreement name
Agreement on Permanent Ceasefire and Security Arrangements Implementation Modalities between the Government of Sudan (GOS) and the Sudan People's Liberation Movement/People's Liberation Army (SPLM/SPLA) During the Pre-interim and Interim Periods
Date
31/12/2004
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Sudan Conflicts (1955 - )
Agreements relate to several distinct dyads, and also the negotiated independence of South Sudan, and subsequent internal conflict in South Sudan. Sudan-South Sudan. The long-standing conflict between the north and the south of the country dates back to colonial times, where the British introduced a so-called ‘Southern Policy’, severely hampering population movements between these big regions. Immediately after gaining independence in 1956, southern movements started to fight for independence; this fight became professionalised in 1983 with the foundation of the soon internationally supported Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA). When the Islamic Front government introduced strict sharia laws in the south after it took over power in 1988 the war intensified. A decade later, the military situation reached a stalemate, enabling internationally facilitated peace negotiations to begin in 1997. After more fighting, a final negotiation push began in 2002, leading to the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Areement (CPA) in January 2005.

Sudan-South Sudan post referendum. South Sudan became independent in July 2011; since then, relations between the two countries are complicated and violent conflict led by the SPLM (North) in the Sudanese Nuba mountains region has since intensified.

Darfur. Other long-standing violent conflicts are in the east and the west of the country. In the east, the Beja Congress, established in 1957, is the spearhead of a currently ‘peaceful’ opposition movement. In the west, the violent conflict in Darfur intensified in the early 2000s and rapidly gained international attention, even resulting in genocide charges against leading figures of the Sudanese government. The situation on the ground is complex, with over a dozen organisations (most notably the Sudanese Liberation Movement and the Justice and Equality Movement) fighting the Sudanese government and allied groups like the Janjaweed – although all parties have switched sides on numerous occasions. Several mediation attempts have not been successful, due to the shaky commitment of the Sudanese central government and the distrust among the armed opposition.

South Sudan- internal. Post independence, conflict broke out between groups in South Sudan and agreements were reached addressing this conflict.

Sudan Conflicts (1955 - ) )
Stage
Ceasefire/related (Ceasefire)
Conflict nature
Government/territory
Peace process
118: Sudanese peace process
Parties
Lt. Gen. Mohamed Elhassan El Fadil, for the Government of Sudan; Cdr. Taban Deng Gai, for the Sudan People's Liberation Movement/Army
Third parties
WITNESSED BY: Lt. Gen. Lazaro K. Sum be iy wo (Rtd), Ambassador and Kenya Special Envoy for the Sudan Peace Process
Description
An agreement which establishes implementation modalities for a permanent ceasefire, entailing provisions for reform of armed forces, prisoner release, humanitarian assistance and DDR. The agreement also enlists significant international involvement in the established provisions.

Agreement document
SD_041231_Agmt on Permanent Ceasefire.pdf

Main category
Page 33, Part Three, DDR, 24. Guiding Principles:
24.8. The DDR programme shall be gender sensitive and shall encourage the participation of the communities and the civil society organizations with the view to strengthening their capacities to play their role in improving and sustaining the social and economic reintegration of former combatants.

Women, girls and gender

Participation
No specific mention.
Equality
No specific mention.
Particular groups of women
No specific mention.
International law
No specific mention.
New institutions
No specific mention.
Violence against women
No specific mention.
Transitional justice
No specific mention.
Institutional reform
DDR, army, parastatal or rebel forces
Page 33, Part Three, DDR, 24. Guiding Principles:
24.8. The DDR programme shall be gender sensitive and shall encourage the participation of the communities and the civil society organizations with the view to strengthening their capacities to play their role in improving and sustaining the social and economic reintegration of former combatants.
Development
No specific mention.
Implementation
No specific mention.
Other
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh