Cessation of Hostilities Framework Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Indonesia and the Free Aceh Movement

Country/entity
Indonesia
Aceh
Region
Asia and Pacific
Agreement name
Cessation of Hostilities Framework Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Indonesia and the Free Aceh Movement
Date
09/12/2002
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Indonesian Conflicts (1976 - )
Aceh Conflict (1976 - )
After a decade of increasing grievances against the centralist tendencies of the Suharto-government, the Free Aceh Movement (GAM) started a military campaign in 1976 for the independence of the province in the far northeast of the Indonesian archipelago. After near defeat in 1979, GAM regained strength with Libyan support and the heaviest fighting occurred during the late 1980s when the Indonesian military intensified its violent counter-insurgency policies. The devastating tsunami in December 2004 effectively destroyed Aceh’s infrastructure and severely reduced the operational capabilities of GAM. This weakening led to a signed peace agreement in August 2005, facilitated by the Finish NGO CMI Peace Negotiations.

Indonesia-Moluccas Conflict (1999-2002)
The fall of Suharto in 1997 sparked off a number of conflicts across Indonesia. In the Moluccas region, the administrative division was divided into Moluccas and North Moluccas, thereby exacerbating a conflict characterised by communal and sectarian divisions. In part these divisions were a result of an official government transmigration programme running from late 1960s onwards that spurred conflict over resources, including land. Faith-based militias were generally responsible for the fighting from 1999 until 2002, including Laskar Jihad, and human rights abuses were committed by both sides. Opportunistic crime was also responsible for of the violence. The military campaign by Lashkar Islam was aimed to displacing Christian residents. One such event was the expulsion of the Christian residents of the Banda Islands in April 1999. The conflict ended with the signing of the Malino II Accord on 13 February 2002.

Indonesian Conflicts (1976 - ) )
Stage
Ceasefire/related (Mixed)
Conflict nature
Government/territory
Peace process
61: Indonesia-Aceh peace process
Parties
For the Government of the Republic of Indonesia, Amb. Mr. S. Wiryono; For the Leadership of the Free Aceh Movement Dr. Zaini Abdullah
Third parties
Witnessed by Henry Dunant Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue (HDC), Mr. Martin Griffiths
Description
This comprehensive ceasefire agreement includes: Objectives and Commitment by Both Sides to Cease Hostilities and All Acts of Violence; formation of a Joint Security Committee; Establishment of "Peace Zones"; Time Frames; support for an All-Inclusive Dialogue; and procedural measures for public information, a joint council, and amendment or termination of the agreement.

Agreement document
ID_021209_Cessation of Hostilities Framework Gov of Indonesia and Free Aceh Movement.pdf

Main category
Page 2, Preamble, ... The immediate requirement is to ensure the cessation of hostilities and all acts of violence, including, intimidation, destruction of property and any offensive and criminal action. Offensive and criminal action is deemed to include violent actions such as attacking, shooting, engaging in torture, killing, abducting bombing, burning, robbing, extorting, threatening, terrorising, harassing, illegally arresting people, raping, and conducting illegal searches.

Women, girls and gender

Participation
No specific mention.
Equality
No specific mention.
Particular groups of women
No specific mention.
International law
No specific mention.
New institutions
No specific mention.
Violence against women
Sexual violence
Page 2, Preamble
...
The immediate requirement is to ensure the cessation of hostilities and all acts of violence, including, intimidation, destruction of property and any offensive and criminal action. Offensive and criminal action is deemed to include violent actions such as attacking, shooting, engaging in torture, killing, abducting bombing, burning, robbing, extorting, threatening, terrorising, harassing, illegally arresting people, raping, and conducting illegal searches.
Transitional justice
No specific mention.
Institutional reform
No specific mention.
Development
No specific mention.
Implementation
No specific mention.
Other
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh