Framework Agreement on Wealth Sharing during the Pre-interim and Interim Periods between the Government of the Sudan (GOS) and the Sudan People's Liberation Movement/Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLM/A)

Country/entity
South Sudan
Sudan
Region
Africa (excl MENA)
Agreement name
Framework Agreement on Wealth Sharing during the Pre-interim and Interim Periods between the Government of the Sudan (GOS) and the Sudan People's Liberation Movement/Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLM/A)
Date
07/01/2004
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Sudan Conflicts (1955 - )
Agreements relate to several distinct dyads, and also the negotiated independence of South Sudan, and subsequent internal conflict in South Sudan. Sudan-South Sudan. The long-standing conflict between the north and the south of the country dates back to colonial times, where the British introduced a so-called ‘Southern Policy’, severely hampering population movements between these big regions. Immediately after gaining independence in 1956, southern movements started to fight for independence; this fight became professionalised in 1983 with the foundation of the soon internationally supported Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA). When the Islamic Front government introduced strict sharia laws in the south after it took over power in 1988 the war intensified. A decade later, the military situation reached a stalemate, enabling internationally facilitated peace negotiations to begin in 1997. After more fighting, a final negotiation push began in 2002, leading to the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Areement (CPA) in January 2005.

Sudan-South Sudan post referendum. South Sudan became independent in July 2011; since then, relations between the two countries are complicated and violent conflict led by the SPLM (North) in the Sudanese Nuba mountains region has since intensified.

Darfur. Other long-standing violent conflicts are in the east and the west of the country. In the east, the Beja Congress, established in 1957, is the spearhead of a currently ‘peaceful’ opposition movement. In the west, the violent conflict in Darfur intensified in the early 2000s and rapidly gained international attention, even resulting in genocide charges against leading figures of the Sudanese government. The situation on the ground is complex, with over a dozen organisations (most notably the Sudanese Liberation Movement and the Justice and Equality Movement) fighting the Sudanese government and allied groups like the Janjaweed – although all parties have switched sides on numerous occasions. Several mediation attempts have not been successful, due to the shaky commitment of the Sudanese central government and the distrust among the armed opposition.

South Sudan- internal. Post independence, conflict broke out between groups in South Sudan and agreements were reached addressing this conflict.

Sudan Conflicts (1955 - ) )
Stage
Framework/substantive - partial (Core issue)
Conflict nature
Government/territory
Peace process
118: Sudanese peace process
Parties
For The Government of the Sudan: Hon. Idris Mohamed Abdelgadir; For: The Sudan People’s Liberation Movement/Army: Cdr. Nhial Deng Nhial
Third parties
WITNESSED BY: Lt. Gen. Lazaro K. Sumbeiywo (Rtd), Special Envoy IGAD Sudan Peace Process and on behalf of the IGAD Envoys
Description
A framework agreement that provides detail on the aspects of wealth sharing during the pre-interim and interim period. The Agreement lays out guiding principles of equitable sharing of common wealth, ownership of land and resources, specifically oil, sharing of non-oil revenue, the allocation of nationally collected revenue to the appropriate government levels, and monetary policy, currency, banking, and borrowing. The agreement also provides for reconstruction and development funds for Southern Sudan and for the Nation as a whole.

Agreement document
SD_040107_Framework Agmt on Wealth Sharing Pre-Interim and Interim Period.pdf

Main category
Page 2, 1.0 GUIDING PRINCIPLES IN RESPECT OF AN EQUITABLE SHARING OF COMMON WEALTH
1.4 The sharing and allocation of wealth emanating from the resources of the Sudan shall ensure that the quality of life, dignity and living conditions of all the citizens are
promoted without discrimination on grounds of gender, race, religion, political affiliation, ethnicity, language, or region. The sharing and allocation of this wealth shall be based on the premise that all parts of Sudan are entitled to development.


Women, girls and gender

Participation
No specific mention.
Equality
No specific mention.
Particular groups of women
No specific mention.
International law
No specific mention.
New institutions
No specific mention.
Violence against women
No specific mention.
Transitional justice
No specific mention.
Institutional reform
No specific mention.
Development
General
Page 2, 1.0 GUIDING PRINCIPLES IN RESPECT OF AN EQUITABLE SHARING OF COMMON WEALTH
1.4 The sharing and allocation of wealth emanating from the resources of the Sudan shall ensure that the quality of life, dignity and living conditions of all the citizens are promoted without discrimination on grounds of gender, race, religion, political affiliation, ethnicity, language, or region. The sharing and allocation of this wealth shall be based on the premise that all parts of Sudan are entitled to development.
Implementation
No specific mention.
Other
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh