Protocol between the Government of Sudan and the Sudan People's Liberation Movement on the Resolution of Conflict in Southern Kordofan/Nuba Mountains and the Blue Nile States

Country/entity
South Sudan
Sudan
Southern Kordofan - Blue Nile - Abyei
Region
Africa (excl MENA)
Agreement name
Protocol between the Government of Sudan and the Sudan People's Liberation Movement on the Resolution of Conflict in Southern Kordofan/Nuba Mountains and the Blue Nile States
Date
26/05/2004
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Sudan Conflicts (1955 - )
Agreements relate to several distinct dyads, and also the negotiated independence of South Sudan, and subsequent internal conflict in South Sudan. Sudan-South Sudan. The long-standing conflict between the north and the south of the country dates back to colonial times, where the British introduced a so-called ‘Southern Policy’, severely hampering population movements between these big regions. Immediately after gaining independence in 1956, southern movements started to fight for independence; this fight became professionalised in 1983 with the foundation of the soon internationally supported Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA). When the Islamic Front government introduced strict sharia laws in the south after it took over power in 1988 the war intensified. A decade later, the military situation reached a stalemate, enabling internationally facilitated peace negotiations to begin in 1997. After more fighting, a final negotiation push began in 2002, leading to the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Areement (CPA) in January 2005.

Sudan-South Sudan post referendum. South Sudan became independent in July 2011; since then, relations between the two countries are complicated and violent conflict led by the SPLM (North) in the Sudanese Nuba mountains region has since intensified.

Darfur. Other long-standing violent conflicts are in the east and the west of the country. In the east, the Beja Congress, established in 1957, is the spearhead of a currently ‘peaceful’ opposition movement. In the west, the violent conflict in Darfur intensified in the early 2000s and rapidly gained international attention, even resulting in genocide charges against leading figures of the Sudanese government. The situation on the ground is complex, with over a dozen organisations (most notably the Sudanese Liberation Movement and the Justice and Equality Movement) fighting the Sudanese government and allied groups like the Janjaweed – although all parties have switched sides on numerous occasions. Several mediation attempts have not been successful, due to the shaky commitment of the Sudanese central government and the distrust among the armed opposition.

South Sudan- internal. Post independence, conflict broke out between groups in South Sudan and agreements were reached addressing this conflict.

Sudan Conflicts (1955 - ) )
Stage
Framework/substantive - partial (Multiple issues)
Conflict nature
Government/territory
Peace process
120: Kordofan - Blue Nile - Abyei process
Parties
Government of Sudan, Sudan's People Lieration Movement (SPLM) [Uploaded document does not contain signatures of Parties or Third Parties]
Third parties
[Uploaded document does not contain signatures of Parties or Third Parties]
Description
An agreement establishing principles and modalities for resolution of conflict in the states of Kordofan/Nuba Mountains and Blue Nile, providing general principles, a definition of the two areas, a commitment to popular consultation of the people, and the structures of governance, primarily the state executive, legislatures, and courts, in each state. Attached are Schedules which provide for the devolved competencies to the two states, the concurrent powers between the states and the national government, and the residual powers of the national government.

Agreement document
SD_040526_Protocol on Conflict in Kordofan-Nuba Mtns and Blue Nile.pdf

Main category
Page 16, Schedule (B): Concurrent Powers - The National and State Governments shall have concurrent Legislative and Executive competencies on any of the matters listed below: [...]
19. Gender policy;
20. Women’s empowerment;

Page 17, Schedule (B): Concurrent Powers - The National and State Governments shall have concurrent Legislative and Executive competencies on any of the matters listed below:
23. Women welfare and child protection and care; [...]
25. Rehabilitation and care for disabled war veterans, orphans, widows and their dependents.

Women, girls and gender

Participation
No specific mention.
Equality
No specific mention.
Particular groups of women
No specific mention.
International law
No specific mention.
New institutions
Infrastructure (general)
Page 16, Schedule (B): Concurrent Powers - The National and State Governments shall have concurrent Legislative and Executive competencies on any of the matters listed below: ... 19. Gender policy;
20. Women’s empowerment;

Other
Page 17, Schedule (B): Concurrent Powers - The National and State Governments shall have concurrent Legislative and Executive competencies on any of the matters listed below: 23. Women welfare and child protection and care; [...]
Violence against women
No specific mention.
Transitional justice
No specific mention.
Institutional reform
No specific mention.
Development
Rehabilitation and reconstruction
Page 17, Schedule (B): Concurrent Powers - The National and State Governments shall have concurrent Legislative and Executive competencies on any of the matters listed below:
... 25. Rehabilitation and care for disabled war veterans, orphans, widows and their dependents.
Implementation
No specific mention.
Other
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh