Protocol of Agreement on Power-sharing within the Framework of broad-based Transitional Government between the Government of the Republic of Rwanda and the Rwandese Patriotic Front

Country/entity
Rwanda
Region
Africa (excl MENA)
Agreement name
Protocol of Agreement on Power-sharing within the Framework of broad-based Transitional Government between the Government of the Republic of Rwanda and the Rwandese Patriotic Front
Date
30/10/1992
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Rwandan Civil War (1990 - 1994)
The origins between the ethnic tensions between the Tutsi and Hutus in Rwanda are found in the original waves of migration and later into the domination of the Kingdom of Rwanda formed by the Tutsi clans. The Kingdom of Rwanda became the framework used by the German colonials to exercise power. Although the economy was reformed following the transfer to Belgian rule after World War I, the Hutu majority remained disenfranchised. Socio-economic differences were further cemented in 1935, when the Belgians introduced identity cards with Hutu or Tutsi distinctions.

Relations deteriorated after World War Two when a Hutu elite formed, and in 1959, what began as attacks on Tutsi targets evolved into the Rwandan revolution. The Belgian colonials began a programme of promotion for Hutus and following elections in the mid-1960s, the Hutus took control of most constituencies. More than 336,000 Tutsis fled Rwanda during the revolution and a failed insurgency was launched in the late 1960s.

By the late 1980s, many former Tutsi refugees in Uganda had gained integral roles in the Ugandan National Army following the overthrow of Milton Obete by Yoweri Museveni. In 1990, a Tutsi faction within the Ugandan Army, the Rwandan Patriotic Front, led by Fred Rwigyema invaded Uganda. However, the RPF came in disarray following Rwigyema’s death on the second day of the attack. This led another Tutsi officer from the Ugandan Army, Paul Kagama, to step in. The troops were reassembled and another campaign was lauched in 1991. By 1992, the Arusha Accords were signed in Tanzania, providing for a power-sharing government. The war took a turn for the worst when on April 6, 1994, the plane of then-President Juvénal Habyarimana, a Hutu, was shot over Kigali killing everyone on board. The next day, the Rwandan Army, alongside civilians began killing Tutsi and moderate Hutu leaders, which marked the beginning of the 3-month long genocide of Tutsis in Rwanda, until the killing was ended in July 1994 when the RNF forced the interim government into exile. Approximately 2,000,000 Hutus also fled to the Democratic Republic of Congo, Burundi, Tanzania and Uganda.

Rwandan Civil War (1990 - 1994) )
Stage
Framework/substantive - partial (Core issue)
Conflict nature
Government
Peace process
53: Rwanda-RPF process
Parties
Government of Rwanda, Rwandese Patriotic Front
Third parties
Facilitator: Hon. Ahamed Hassan Diria, Minister for Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation (United Republic of Tanzania)
Witnesses: Papa Louis Fall, Ambassador of Senegal to Ethiopia and Representative to the OUA as the Represenative of the Current Chairman of the OAU; and Dr. T Mapuranga, Assistant Secretary General of the OUA in charge of Political Affairs for the Secretary General of the OUA, Representative of the Secretary General of the OAU.
Description
The agreement reaffirms the acceptance of principle of power sharing within the framework of a Broad-Based Transitional Government, and agreed on modalities for its implementation.
It provides for the I. General Principles; II. Transitional Institutions; III. The Executive Power; IV. Specialised Commissions; V. The Judiciary; VI. Other Areas of Agreement such as the establishment of a Commission for National Unity and National Reconciliation, a Legal and Constitutional Commission and an Electoral Commission. It also involves agreements over the implementation of a programme comprising democracy; defence and security; post-war rehabilitation, repatriation and reintegration of refugees, and the economy.

Agreement document
RW_921030_ProtocolOnPowerSharing.pdf

Main category
Page 12-13, Chapter III The Executive Power, Section 2 The Broad-based Transitional Government, Sub-section 5: Outline of the Broad-based Transitional Government Programme, Article 23:
The Broad-based Transitional Government shall implement the programme comprising the following:
[…]
D. Post-war Rehabilitation Programme
3. Set up a programme of assistance to the victims of war (both civilian and military) and of social strife encountered since the outbreak of the war, to the physically handicapped, orphans, widows and widowers.

Women, girls and gender

Participation
No specific mention.
Equality
No specific mention.
Particular groups of women
No specific mention.
International law
No specific mention.
New institutions
No specific mention.
Violence against women
No specific mention.
Transitional justice
Past and gender
Page 12-13, Chapter III The Executive Power, Section 2 The Broad-based Transitional Government, Sub-section 5: Outline of the Broad-based Transitional Government Programme, Article 23:
The Broad-based Transitional Government shall implement the programme comprising the following:
[…]
D. Post-war Rehabilitation Programme
3. Set up a programme of assistance to the victims of war (both civilian and military) and of social strife encountered since the outbreak of the war, to the physically handicapped, orphans, widows and widowers.
Institutional reform
No specific mention.
Development
Rehabilitation and reconstruction
Page 12-13, Chapter III The Executive Power, Section 2 The Broad-based Transitional Government, Sub-section 5: Outline of the Broad-based Transitional Government Programme, Article 23:
The Broad-based Transitional Government shall implement the programme comprising the following:
[…]
D. Post-war Rehabilitation Programme
3. Set up a programme of assistance to the victims of war (both civilian and military) and of social strife encountered since the outbreak of the war, to the physically handicapped, orphans, widows and widowers.
Implementation
No specific mention.
Other
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh