SPLM-United / Operation Lifeline Sudan Agreement on Ground Rules

Country/entity
South Sudan
Sudan
Region
Africa (excl MENA)
Agreement name
SPLM-United / Operation Lifeline Sudan Agreement on Ground Rules
Date
01/05/1996
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Sudan Conflicts (1955 - )
Agreements relate to several distinct dyads, and also the negotiated independence of South Sudan, and subsequent internal conflict in South Sudan. Sudan-South Sudan. The long-standing conflict between the north and the south of the country dates back to colonial times, where the British introduced a so-called ‘Southern Policy’, severely hampering population movements between these big regions. Immediately after gaining independence in 1956, southern movements started to fight for independence; this fight became professionalised in 1983 with the foundation of the soon internationally supported Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA). When the Islamic Front government introduced strict sharia laws in the south after it took over power in 1988 the war intensified. A decade later, the military situation reached a stalemate, enabling internationally facilitated peace negotiations to begin in 1997. After more fighting, a final negotiation push began in 2002, leading to the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Areement (CPA) in January 2005.

Sudan-South Sudan post referendum. South Sudan became independent in July 2011; since then, relations between the two countries are complicated and violent conflict led by the SPLM (North) in the Sudanese Nuba mountains region has since intensified.

Darfur. Other long-standing violent conflicts are in the east and the west of the country. In the east, the Beja Congress, established in 1957, is the spearhead of a currently ‘peaceful’ opposition movement. In the west, the violent conflict in Darfur intensified in the early 2000s and rapidly gained international attention, even resulting in genocide charges against leading figures of the Sudanese government. The situation on the ground is complex, with over a dozen organisations (most notably the Sudanese Liberation Movement and the Justice and Equality Movement) fighting the Sudanese government and allied groups like the Janjaweed – although all parties have switched sides on numerous occasions. Several mediation attempts have not been successful, due to the shaky commitment of the Sudanese central government and the distrust among the armed opposition.

South Sudan- internal. Post independence, conflict broke out between groups in South Sudan and agreements were reached addressing this conflict.

Sudan Conflicts (1955 - ) )
Stage
Pre-negotiation/process (Other: Agreement on provision of delivery of humanitarian relief.)
Conflict nature
Government/territory
Peace process
118: Sudanese peace process
Parties
Dr. Lam Akol, Chairman and Commander in Chief SPLM-United; Pierce Gerety, OLS Coordinator and UNICEF Chief of Operations
Third parties
An agreement by the Fashoda Relief and Rehabilitation Association, a humanitarian branch of the Sudan People's Liberation Movement, and Operation Lifeline, a UNICEF-led coalition of humanitarian assistance organizations, on the acceptable standards of conduct for humanitarian activities in SPLM controlled areas.
Description
Agreement to improve delivery of humanitarian relief.

Agreement document
SD_960501_SPLM-United Operation Lifeline Sudan Agreement on Ground Rules.pdf

Main category
Page 1, A. Statement of humanitarian principles
3. All humanitarian assistance provided is for the use of identified civilian beneficiaries. Priority must at all time be given to women and children and other vulnerable groups such as the elderly, disabled and displaced people.

Women, girls and gender

Participation
No specific mention.
Equality
No specific mention.
Particular groups of women
No specific mention.
International law
No specific mention.
New institutions
No specific mention.
Violence against women
Protection (general)
Page 1, A. Statement of humanitarian principles 3. All humanitarian assistance provided is for the use of identified civilian beneficiaries. Priority must at all time be given to women and children and other vulnerable groups such as the elderly, disabled and displaced people.
Transitional justice
No specific mention.
Institutional reform
No specific mention.
Development
No specific mention.
Implementation
No specific mention.
Other
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh