Pacte National conclu entre le Gouvernement de la République du Mali et les mouvements et fronts unifiés de l’Azawad consacrant le statut particulier du Nord au Mali

Country/entity
Mali
Azawad
Region
Africa (excl MENA)
Agreement name
Pacte National conclu entre le Gouvernement de la République du Mali et les mouvements et fronts unifiés de l’Azawad consacrant le statut particulier du Nord au Mali
Date
11/04/1992
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Tuareg Wars (1962 - )
Mali-Azawad
The nomadic Tuareg in the north of Mali maintained a long-standing revolt against a government traditionally dominated by southern politicians. The uprisings focused in and around the Azawad region, north of Timbuktu. After several outbreaks of violence during the 1980s, violence peaked with the 1990 outbreak of the Tuareg Rebellion. Following an initial defeat by the Malian Armed Forces, reparations by the government of Alpha Konare and the creation of the self-governing Kidal region. Violence in 1994 died down following peace between moderates on both sides in 1995 and a negotiated peace agreement.

Violence continued due to a lack of integration by combatants, but it was not until 2011 that the situation again escalated in the aftermath of the Arab Spring and the disintegration of Libya, which resulted in a heavy inflow of small arms, and the increased involvement by Algeria. In January 2012, the National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad (MNLA) together with several other groups took full control of the region. Disputes on how to handle the situation led to a military coup against President Touré in March 2012 that, in turn, resulted in further turmoil. The MNLA declared the independence of Azawad, but soon lost control of most of the territory to radical Islamist militias including Ansar Dine. A French intervention in January 2013 paved the way for an UN mission, which was established in April of that year.

Air-Niger-Azawad
Fighting between 1990 to 1995 took place largely in the Air Mountains. A short-lived truce was agreed in 1994 between the Niger Government and two umbrella movements the ORA and CRA. Another accord was signed in April 1995 in Ouagadougou with 'all' Tuareg groups and some Toubou, the last signing in 1998. The Second Tuareg Rebellion broke out in 2007 following little follow up by the Nigeriene government.
Tuareg Wars (1962 - ) )
Stage
Framework/substantive - comprehensive (Agreement)
Conflict nature
Government/territory
Peace process
81: Mali-Azawad Inter-Azawad peace process
Parties
[The document on record does not have signatures but mentions the following parties as having signed:]

Pour le gouvernement de la République du Mali: Le Ministre de l’Administration territoriale chargé des relations avec le CTSP et les associations, Colonel Brehima Siré Traoré

Pour le Bureau de coordination des mouvements et Fronts Unifiés de l’Azawad: Zahabi Ould Sidi Mohamed

Le Président du Comité de Transition pour le salut du Peuple: Lt-Colonel Amadou Toumani Touré
Third parties
Page 1, Untitled preamble:
[...]
- Have, at the conclusion of their peace negotiations in Algiers, mediated by the Democratic and Popular Republic of Algeria, within the framework of this document, agreed to the following:
Description
This is a comprehensive agreement including substantive arrangement for local, regional, inter-regional administration through assemblies. Issues covered include the cessation of hostilities, principles of agreement, implementation measures, humanitarian and development issues, and the establishment of an independent commission of enquiry to examine all events in Mali which relate to the problems faced in the North of Mali.

Agreement document
ML_920411 PacteNationalGouvMaliAzawad_EN.pdf

Agreement document (original language)
ML_920411_PacteNationalGouvMaliAzawad_FR.pdf

Main category
Page 2, Untitled Preamble:[...]
- Soulignant les dispositions de la Constitution de la République du Mali par lesquelles elle souscrit à la Déclaration Universelle des Droits de l’Homme du 10 décembre 1948 et à la Charte Africaine des Droits de l’Homme et des Peuples du 27 juin 1981 et, proclamant sa détermination à défendre les droits de la femme et de l’enfant ainsi que la diversité culturelle et linguistique de la Communauté nationale;

------
Translation:
Page 1, Untitled preamble:
[...]
- Highlighting the provisions of the Constitution of the Republic by which it adheres to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 10th December 1948 and the African Human Rights Charter of 27th June 1981, and stating their determination to defend the rights of women and children together with the cultural and linguistic diversity of the National Community
[...]


Women, girls and gender

Participation
No specific mention.
Equality
No specific mention.
Particular groups of women
No specific mention.
International law
International human rights standards
Page 2, Untitled Preamble:...- Soulignant les dispositions de la Constitution de la République du Mali par lesquelles elle souscrit à la Déclaration Universelle des Droits de l’Homme du 10 décembre 1948 et à la Charte Africaine des Droits de l’Homme et des Peuples du 27 juin 1981 et, proclamant sa détermination à défendre les droits de la femme et de l’enfant ainsi que la diversité culturelle et linguistique de la Communauté nationale;

------
Translation:
Page 2, Untitled Preamble...Stressing the provisions of the Constitution of the Republic of Mali in which it subscribes to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of the 10 December 1948 and the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights of the 27 June 1981 and, proclaiming their determination to defend women's rights and the rights of the child, as well as the linguistic and cultural diversity of the National Community.
New institutions
No specific mention.
Violence against women
No specific mention.
Transitional justice
No specific mention.
Institutional reform
Constitution-making/reform
Page 2, Untitled Preamble...Stressing the provisions of the Constitution of the Republic of Mali in which it subscribes to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of the 10 December 1948 and the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights of the 27 June 1981 and, proclaiming their determination to defend women's rights and the rights of the child, as well as the linguistic and cultural diversity of the National Community.
Development
No specific mention.
Implementation
No specific mention.
Other
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh