Agreement name
Swat Peace Accord
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (India-Pakistan Conflict (1947 - ) and the Pakistani Taliban (2001 - )
Two distinct contexts have generated agreements.

India-Pakistan Conflict (1947 - )
The roots of the India-Pakistan Conflict lay in the partition of the British Indian Empire following the end of World War II, and the creation of the predominately Muslim Dominion of Pakistan (now Pakistan and Bangladesh) and the Union of India in 1947. Fuelled by Hindu and Muslim nationalism, the political partition spurred the largest mass migration as minorities sought reference among their communal majorities. Retaliatory violence on both sides led to the deaths of 200,000 to 500,000 people.

A few weeks following the partition, Pakistan sent tribal militias into the Princely State of Jammu and Kashmir, sparking the Indo-Pakistan War of 1947. Two other wars broke out in 1965 and in 1991, as well as a number of skirmishes over the Siachan Glacier. The conflict has seen less casualties since the announcement of a ceasefire in 2003, despite frequent violations by both sides. Public unrest remains sporadic and there has been occasional actions by Islamic militants. In addition, despite a decrease in human rights conditions by occupying forces on both sides, abuses are still documented.

Another dimension of the conflict developed in 1997, after Pakistan announced a successful nuclear test. Since then there has been a proliferation of treaties ensuring clear lines of communication in regards to nuclear testing and accidents to deter accidental escalation.

Pakistan-Afghanistan-US Conflict (2001 - )
Since the 2000s, the Afghanistan war had a noticeable spill-over effect to Pakistan. The Afghan Taliban maintain several strongholds in the western parts of Pakistan, especially in the Northwest Tribal Region. Native Islamist guerrilla outfits also remain active in the region and in 2007 they formed the umbrella organisation known as the Pakistan Taliban until it splintered into four different groups in 2014.

India-Pakistan Conflict (1947 - ) and the Pakistani Taliban (2001 - ) )
Framework/substantive - partial (Multiple issues)
Conflict nature
Peace process
86: Pakistan-Taliban process
Taliban; Pakistani Government
Third parties
Short agreement of 14 points reaffirming a prisoner exchange, the implementation of Shari'a Law in Swat Valley, and placing restrictions on the Taliban, including refraining from attacking barber and music shops or showing weapons in public, among other points.

Agreement document
PK_090216_Swat Peace Accord.pdf

Main category
Page 1, 14. The Taliban will allow women to work without any fear.

Women, girls and gender

No specific mention.
No specific mention.
Particular groups of women
No specific mention.
International law
No specific mention.
New institutions
No specific mention.
Violence against women
Gender-based violence/VAW (general)
Page 1, 14
The Taliban will allow women to work without any fear.
Transitional justice
No specific mention.
Institutional reform
No specific mention.
No specific mention.
No specific mention.
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh