Accord préliminaire à l’élection présidentielle et aux pourparlers inclusifs de paix au Mali (Accord préliminaire de Ouagadougou)

Country/entity
Mali
Azawad
Region
Africa (excl MENA)
Agreement name
Accord préliminaire à l’élection présidentielle et aux pourparlers inclusifs de paix au Mali (Accord préliminaire de Ouagadougou)
Date
18/06/2013
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Tuareg Wars (1962 - )
Mali-Azawad
The nomadic Tuareg in the north of Mali maintained a long-standing revolt against a government traditionally dominated by southern politicians. The uprisings focused in and around the Azawad region, north of Timbuktu. After several outbreaks of violence during the 1980s, violence peaked with the 1990 outbreak of the Tuareg Rebellion. Following an initial defeat by the Malian Armed Forces, reparations by the government of Alpha Konare and the creation of the self-governing Kidal region. Violence in 1994 died down following peace between moderates on both sides in 1995 and a negotiated peace agreement.

Violence continued due to a lack of integration by combatants, but it was not until 2011 that the situation again escalated in the aftermath of the Arab Spring and the disintegration of Libya, which resulted in a heavy inflow of small arms, and the increased involvement by Algeria. In January 2012, the National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad (MNLA) together with several other groups took full control of the region. Disputes on how to handle the situation led to a military coup against President Touré in March 2012 that, in turn, resulted in further turmoil. The MNLA declared the independence of Azawad, but soon lost control of most of the territory to radical Islamist militias including Ansar Dine. A French intervention in January 2013 paved the way for an UN mission, which was established in April of that year.

Air-Niger-Azawad
Fighting between 1990 to 1995 took place largely in the Air Mountains. A short-lived truce was agreed in 1994 between the Niger Government and two umbrella movements the ORA and CRA. Another accord was signed in April 1995 in Ouagadougou with 'all' Tuareg groups and some Toubou, the last signing in 1998. The Second Tuareg Rebellion broke out in 2007 following little follow up by the Nigeriene government.
Tuareg Wars (1962 - ) )
Stage
Framework/substantive - partial (Multiple issues)
Conflict nature
Government/territory
Peace process
81: Mali-Azawad Inter-Azawad peace process
Parties
(Signed)
Pour le Gouvernement d'union nationale de la République du Mali, le Ministre de la Défense et des Anciens Combattants et P/D:
Colonel Moussa Sinko COULIBALY
Ministre de l' Administration Territotiale de la Décentralisation et de l' Aménagement du Territoire.

(Signed)
Pour le Mouvement national pour la libération de l'Azawad
Bilal Ag CHERIF

(Signed)
Pour le Haut Conseil pour l'unité de l'Azawad
Alghabass Ag INTALLA

Third parties
(Signed)
Le Médiateur
Blaise Compaore
Président du Faso

(Signed)
Le Médiateur associé
Goodluck Ebele Jonathan
Président de la République Fédérale du Nigeria

Témoins

(Signed)
Haut Représentant de l'Union Africaine et Chef de la MISMA
Pierre BUYOYA

(Signed)
Représentant Spécial du Secrétaire Général des Nations Unies et Chef de Mission de la MINUSMA
Bert Koenders

(Signed)
Représentant de L'Organisation de la Coopération Islamique (OCI)
Yipene Djibril Bassole

(Signed)
Représentant l'Union Européenne (UE)
Michel REVEYRAND de MENTHON
Description
This agreement outlines the parties' agreement to future talks in two phases (pre and post the presidential election). The agreement provides for an immediate ceasefire, outlines a range measures to be undertaken to create suitable conditions for the nationwide holding of presidential elections, and establishes a framework for talks with communities in Northern Mali.

Agreement document
ML_130618_AccordsElectionsDialogueInclusif_EN.pdf

Agreement document (original language)
ML_130618_AccordElectionsDialogueInclusif_FR.pdf

Main category
Page 5, CHAPTER II: CREATION OF FAVOURABLE CONDITIONS FOR A PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION, I. CESSATION OF HOSTILITIES, Article 10:
Pending the elaboration of the ceasefire measures, the Parties shall agree on the following measures:
[...]
- the cessation of all acts of violence, arbitrary arrests, acts of torture of harassment, summary detentions and executions, the use of child soldiers, sexual violence, arming of civilians, as well as the formation and use of terrorists;

Page 7, CHAPTER II: CREATION OF FAVOURABLE CONDITIONS FOR A PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION, III. Implementation, monitoring and confidence-building measures, Article 18:
As soon as possible the Parties shall set up an international inquiry into war crimes, crimes against humanity, crimes of genocide, sexual crimes, drug trafficking and other serious violations of international humanitarian law and Human Rights throughout Malian territory.
[...]




Original:

Page 7, CHAPITRE II: CREATION DE CONDITIONS FAVORABLES A LA TENUE DE L'ELECTION PRESIDENTIELLE, I. De la cessation des hostilités, Article 10: Dans l'attente de l'élaboration des modalités du cessez-le-feu, les Parties s'accordent notamment sur les mesures suivantes:
...
- l'arrêt de tous les actes de violence, des arrestations arbitraires, des actes de torture et de harcèlement, de la détention et des exécutions sommaires, de l'utilisation des enfants soldats, de la violence sexuelle, de l'armement des civils ainsi que de la formation et de l'utilisation de terroristes;...

Page 9, CHAPITRE II: CREATION DE CONDITIONS FAVORABLES A LA TENUE DE L'ELECTION PRESIDENTIELLE, III. Des mesures de mise en œuvre, d'accompagnement et de confiance Article 18: Les Parties conviennent de la mise en place, dans les meilleurs delais, d'une commission d'enquete internationale sur les crimes de guerre, les crimes contre l'humanite, les crimes de genocide, les crimes de violence sexuelle, le trafic de drogue et les autres violations graves du droit international des droits de l'Homme et du droit international humanitaire sur tout le territoire du Mali...

Women, girls and gender

Participation
No specific mention.
Equality
No specific mention.
Particular groups of women
No specific mention.
International law
General IHRL, IHL and IL
Page 9, CHAPITRE II: CREATION DE CONDITIONS FAVORABLES A LA TENUE DE L'ELECTION PRESIDENTIELLE, III. Des mesures de mise en œuvre, d'accompagnement et de confiance Article 18: Les Parties conviennent de la mise en place, dans les meilleurs delais, d'une commission d'enquete internationale sur les crimes de guerre, les crimes contre l'humanite, les crimes de genocide, les crimes de violence sexuelle, le trafic de drogue et les autres violations graves du droit international des droits de l'Homme et du droit international humanitaire sur tout le territoire du Mali...

Translation:

Page 9, Chapter II: Creation of conditions conducive to the holding of the presidential elections, III. implementation, support and confidence building measures, Article 18:
The parties agree to establish, at the earliest opportunity, an international commission of enquiry into the war crimes, crimes against humanity, genocide, crimes of sexual violence, drug trafficking, and other grave violations of international law and human rights committed across the entire territory of Mali.
New institutions
No specific mention.
Violence against women
Sexual violence
Page 7, CHAPITRE II: CREATION DE CONDITIONS FAVORABLES A LA TENUE DE L'ELECTION PRESIDENTIELLE, I. De la cessation des hostilités, Article 10: Dans l'attente de l'élaboration des modalités du cessez-le-feu, les Parties s'accordent notamment sur les mesures suivantes:
...
- l'arrêt de tous les actes de violence, des arrestations arbitraires, des actes de torture et de harcèlement, de la détention et des exécutions sommaires, de l'utilisation des enfants soldats, de la violence sexuelle, de l'armement des civils ainsi que de la formation et de l'utilisation de terroristes;...

Page 9, CHAPITRE II: CREATION DE CONDITIONS FAVORABLES A LA TENUE DE L'ELECTION PRESIDENTIELLE, III. Des mesures de mise en œuvre, d'accompagnement et de confiance, Article 18
Les Parties conviennent de la mise en place, dans les meilleurs delais, d'une commission d'enquete internationale sur les crimes de guerre, les crimes contre l'humanite, les crimes de genocide, les crimes de violence sexuelle, le trafic de drogue et les autres violations graves du droit international des droits de l'Homme et du droit international humanitaire sur tout le territoire du Mali...

Translation:

Page 7, Chapter II: Creation of conditions conducive to the holding of the presidential elections, I. The Cessation of Hostilities, Article 10: Pending the formulation of the terms and conditions of the cease-fire, the parties agree to include the following measures in particular:
...
The cessation of all acts of violence, arbitrary arrests, acts of torture and harassment, summary detentions and executions, the use of child soldiers, sexual violence, the arming of civilians, and the training and use of terrorists.

Page 9, Chapter II: Creation of conditions conducive to the holding of the presidential elections, III. implementation, support and confidence building measures, Article 18
The parties agree to establish, at the earliest opportunity, an international commission of enquiry into the war crimes, crimes against humanity, genocide, crimes of sexual violence, drug trafficking, and other grave violations of international law and human rights committed across the entire territory of Mali.
Transitional justice
No specific mention.
Institutional reform
No specific mention.
Development
No specific mention.
Implementation
No specific mention.
Other
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh