Conclusions of the Conference on Afghanistan and the International Community: From Transition to the Transformation Decade (Bonn Conference)

Country/entity
Afghanistan
Region
Europe and Eurasia
Agreement name
Conclusions of the Conference on Afghanistan and the International Community: From Transition to the Transformation Decade (Bonn Conference)
Date
05/12/2011
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Agreement/conflict level
Interstate/intrastate conflict(s) (Afghan Wars (1979 - )
The agreements are drawn from two distinct conflict periods. Post Soviet-intervention period. First, after an uprising against the communist government, the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan in December 1979 and set up a puppet government. Fierce resistance came in on the form of domestic and foreign Mujahidin fighters who, by 1988, forced the Soviet Union to withdraw. The Communist government that remained was defeated in 1992 against a background of violence, which spiralled into a tumultuous multi-party civil war with a strong tribal basis. In 1993 a peace accord was signed, but by 1994 the conflict realigned itself as the Islamic-based Taliban emerged from the refugee camps, eventually occupying the capital city of Kabul in September 1996 spurring groups that had militantly opposed the communist government to unite in opposition to the Taliban.

Post US-intervention period. After the terror attacks on September 11, 2001, the United States invaded Afghanistan and removed the Taliban from power. In December 2001, the UNSC mandated the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) to assist Afghanistan’s interim authorities. In 2003 ISAF command was placed under NATO’s responsibility. Within three years, however, the Taliban managed to re-group and re-structure and launched intense resistance to the internationally-recognized Afghanistan government and NATO support troops. Despite this resurgence of the Taliban, NATO leaders lacked the necessary support for the mission abroad, and NATO troops were withdrawn by the end of 2014.
Afghan Wars (1979 - ) )
Stage
Pre-negotiation/process (Principles)
Conflict nature
Government
Peace process
2: Afghanistan: 2000s Post-intervention process
Parties
Not signed, agreement mentions the following parties as having produced it: Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, the Republic of Albania, the People’s Democratic Republic of Algeria, the Argentine Republic, the Republic of Armenia, Australia, the Republic of Austria, the Republic of Azerbaijan, the Kingdom of Bahrain, the People’s Republic of Bangladesh, the Kingdom of Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Federative Republic of Brazil, Brunei Darussalam, the Republic of Bulgaria, Canada, the People’s Republic of China, the Republic of Colombia, the Republic of Croatia, the Republic of Cyprus, the Czech Republic, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Arab Republic of Egypt, the Republic of El Salvador, the Republic of Estonia, the Republic of Finland, the French Republic, Georgia, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, the Republic of Hungary, the Republic of Iceland, the Republic of India, the Republic of Indonesia, the Islamic Republic of Iran, the Republic of Iraq, Ireland, the Republic of Italy, Japan, the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, the Republic of Kazakhstan, the Republic of Korea, the State of Kuwait, the Kyrgyz Republic, the Republic of Latvia, the Lebanese Republic, the Principality of Liechtenstein, the Republic of Lithuania, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Malaysia, the Republic of Malta, the United Mexican States, Mongolia, Montenegro, the Kingdom of Morocco, the Kingdom of the Netherlands, New Zealand, the Kingdom of Norway, the Sultanate of Oman, the Republic of the Philippines, the Republic of Poland, the Portuguese Republic, the State of Qatar, Romania, the Russian Federation, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, the Slovak Republic, the Republic of Slovenia, the Republic of South Africa, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the Swiss Confederation, the Republic of Tajikistan, the Kingdom of Thailand, the Republic of Tunisia, the Republic of Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, the Oriental Republic of Uruguay, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the United Arab Emirates, the United States of America, the Republic of Uzbekistan, and the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam, as well as the Aga Khan Development Network, the Asian Development Bank, the Conference on Interaction and Confidence‐Building Measures in Asia, the Collective Security Treaty Organisation, the Economic Cooperation Organization, the European Union, the International Monetary Fund, the Islamic Development Bank, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation of the Islamic Cooperation, the Organization for Security and Co‐operation in Europe, the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the United Nations, and the World Bank Group.
Third parties
Description
This agreement renews the parties' commitment to the Kabul Process, and updates original commitments made at the Bonn conference in 2001. It focuses predominantly on international socio-economic assistance, reorganisation of the security forces, and the peace process.

Agreement document
AF_111205_BonnConference.pdf

Main category
Page 1, 3
Ten years ago today at the Petersberg, Afghanistan charted a new path towards a sovereign, peaceful, prosperous and democratic future, and the International Community accepted the responsibility to help Afghanistan along that path. Together we have achieved substantial progress over these ten years, more than in any other period in Afghanistan’s history. Never before have the Afghan people, and especially Afghan women, enjoyed comparable access to services, including education and health, or seen greater development of infrastructure across the country. Al Qaida has been disrupted, and Afghanistan’s national security institutions are increasingly able to assume responsibility for a secure and independent Afghanistan.

Page 2, Governance, 6
Afghanistan reaffirms that the future of its political system will continue to reflect its pluralistic society and remain firmly founded on the Afghan Constitution. The Afghan people will continue to build a stable, democratic society, based on the rule of law, where the human rights and fundamental freedoms of its citizens, including the equality of men and women, are guaranteed under the Constitution. Afghanistan recommits to upholding all of its international human rights obligations. Acknowledging that on this path Afghanistan will have its own lessons to learn, the International Community fully endorses this vision and commits to supporting Afghanistan’s progress in that direction.

Page 2, Governance, 7
We have taken note of statements by Afghan civil society organisations, including today’s statements by two of their delegates at this meeting. We all reaffirm that the human rights and fundamental freedoms enshrined in the Afghan Constitution, including the rights of women and children, as well as a thriving and free civil society are key for Afghanistan’s future. Therefore, we underscore the further promotion of civil society participation, including both traditional civil society structures and modern manifestations of civic action, including the role of youth, in the country’s democratic processes.

Page 4, Peace Process, 18
Mindful of the relevant UN resolutions, the International Community concurs with Afghanistan that the peace and reconciliation process and its outcome must be based on the following principles:
(a) The process leading to reconciliation must be: truly Afghan‐led and Afghan‐owned; as well as inclusive, representing the legitimate interests of all the people of Afghanistan, regardless of gender or social status.
(b) Reconciliation must contain: the reaffirmation of a sovereign, stable and united Afghanistan; the renunciation of violence; the breaking of ties to international terrorism; respect for the Afghan Constitution, including its human rights provisions, notably the rights of women.
(c) The region must respect and support the peace process and its outcome.

Women, girls and gender

Participation
No specific mention.
Equality
Equality (general)
Page 2, Governance, Article 6
Afghanistan reaffirms that the future of its political system will continue to reflect its pluralistic society and remain firmly founded on the Afghan Constitution. The Afghan people will continue to build a stable, democratic society, based on the rule of law, where the human rights and fundamental freedoms of its citizens, including the equality of men and women, are guaranteed under the Constitution. Afghanistan recommits to upholding all of its international human rights obligations. Acknowledging that on this path Afghanistan will have its own lessons to learn, the International Community fully endorses this vision and commits to supporting Afghanistan’s progress in that direction.

Page 4, Peace Process, Article 18
Mindful of the relevant UN resolutions, the International Community concurs with Afghanistan that the peace and reconciliation process and its outcome must be based on the following principles:
(a) The process leading to reconciliation must be: truly Afghan‐led and Afghan‐owned; as well as inclusive, representing the legitimate interests of all the people of Afghanistan, regardless of gender or social status.

Social equality
Page 1, Article 3
Ten years ago today at the Petersberg, Afghanistan charted a new path towards a sovereign, peaceful, prosperous and democratic future, and the International Community accepted the responsibility to help Afghanistan along that path. Together we have achieved substantial progress over these ten years, more than in any other period in Afghanistan’s history. Never before have the Afghan people, and especially Afghan women, enjoyed comparable access to services, including education and health, or seen greater development of infrastructure across the country. Al Qaida has been disrupted, and Afghanistan’s national security institutions are increasingly able to assume responsibility for a secure and independent Afghanistan.
Particular groups of women
No specific mention.
International law
General IHRL, IHL and IL
Page 2, Governance, Article 6
Afghanistan reaffirms that the future of its political system will continue to reflect its pluralistic society and remain firmly founded on the Afghan Constitution. The Afghan people will continue to build a stable, democratic society, based on the rule of law, where the human rights and fundamental freedoms of its citizens, including the equality of men and women, are guaranteed under the Constitution. Afghanistan recommits to upholding all of its international human rights obligations. Acknowledging that on this path Afghanistan will have its own lessons to learn, the International Community fully endorses this vision and commits to supporting Afghanistan’s progress in that direction.

Page 2, Governance, Article 7
We have taken note of statements by Afghan civil society organisations, including today’s statements by two of their delegates at this meeting. We all reaffirm that the human rights and fundamental freedoms enshrined in the Afghan Constitution, including the rights of women and children, as well as a thriving and free civil society are key for Afghanistan’s future. Therefore, we underscore the further promotion of civil society participation, including both traditional civil society structures and modern manifestations of civic action, including the role of youth, in the country’s democratic processes.

Page 4, Peace Process, Article 18
Mindful of the relevant UN resolutions, the International Community concurs with Afghanistan that the peace and reconciliation process and its outcome must be based on the following principles:
...
(b) Reconciliation must contain: the reaffirmation of a sovereign, stable and united Afghanistan; the renunciation of violence; the breaking of ties to international terrorism; respect for the Afghan Constitution, including its human rights provisions, notably the rights of women.
New institutions
Reconciliation and peace
Page 4, Peace Process, Article 18
Mindful of the relevant UN resolutions, the International Community concurs with Afghanistan that the peace and reconciliation process and its outcome must be based on the following principles:
(a) The process leading to reconciliation must be: truly Afghan‐led and Afghan‐owned; as well as inclusive, representing the legitimate interests of all the people of Afghanistan, regardless of gender or social status.
(b) Reconciliation must contain: the reaffirmation of a sovereign, stable and united Afghanistan; the renunciation of violence; the breaking of ties to international terrorism; respect for the Afghan Constitution, including its human rights provisions, notably the rights of women...

Violence against women
No specific mention.
Transitional justice
No specific mention.
Institutional reform
No specific mention.
Development
Education
Page 1, Article 3
Ten years ago today at the Petersberg, Afghanistan charted a new path towards a sovereign, peaceful, prosperous and democratic future, and the International Community accepted the responsibility to help Afghanistan along that path. Together we have achieved substantial progress over these ten years, more than in any other period in Afghanistan’s history. Never before have the Afghan people, and especially Afghan women, enjoyed comparable access to services, including education and health, or seen greater development of infrastructure across the country. Al Qaida has been disrupted, and Afghanistan’s national security institutions are increasingly able to assume responsibility for a secure and independent Afghanistan.
Implementation
No specific mention.
Other
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh