Memorandum of Agreement between the Government of the Philippines and the CBA/CPLA towards the CPLA’s Final Disposition of Arms and Forces and its Transformation into a Potent Socio-Economic Unarmed Force (Closure Agreement)

Country/entity
Philippines
Cordillera
Region
Asia and Pacific
Agreement name
Memorandum of Agreement between the Government of the Philippines and the CBA/CPLA towards the CPLA’s Final Disposition of Arms and Forces and its Transformation into a Potent Socio-Economic Unarmed Force (Closure Agreement)
Date
04/07/2011
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Philippine Insurgencies (1968 - )
The Maoist Insurgencies (1968 - )

Philippines-NDF

The Philippines have been defined by a series of center-periphery and often ideologically Maoist, separatist insurgencies. The Communist Party of the Philippines (CPP), began its war against the central Philippine government in 1968 through their armed wing – the New People’s Army (NPA). Further legitimacy was gained through the establishment of the National Democratic Front (NDF) in 1973. Grievances were predominantly opposed to the corruption and repression under the authoritarian Marcos regime.

Philippines-Cordillera

With the overthrow of Marcos’ regime in 1986, the CPP factionalized further to take on more localized characteristics. The Cordillera Peoples Liberation Army (CPLA) broke away from the NDF in 1986 to focus on the protection of the Cordilleran people and land in northern Luzon. Hostilities were formally ended in July 2011, with an agreement signed between the central government, the CPLA and the Cordillera Bodong Administration (CBA) that allowed for the absorption of CPLA fighters into the Philippine Army and the re-working of the CBA-CPLA into a socio-development organisation.

Philippines-RPM-P

Meanwhile, purge among the CPP in the early 1990s, encouraged the formation of a parallel party, the Revolutionary Workers Party (RPM-P). Their armed wing, the Alex Boncayao Brigade (ABB) which had carried out a number of assassinations during the 1980s at the bequest of the CPP, followed suit and allied themselves with the RPM-P in 1997 forming the (RPM-P-RPA-ABB). Severely weakened by the split with the CPP and with the arrest of several key figures, the RPM-P-RPA-ABB signed a peace agreement in December 2000, which encouraged the RPM-P’s branch in Mindanao to break away in 2001.

The CPP-NPA has only participated in intermittent talks with the government. Talks halted in 2004 when Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo’s administration sought closer ties with the U.S. in the war on terror and added the CPP-NPA to the list of terrorist organisations, renewing violence. Following the launch of a counter-insurgency by the Philippine government, negotiations have been further delayed due to suspected internal differences between the CPP ‘old guard’ and younger members.

The Moro Insurgency (1968 - )

Philippines-Mindanao

The Moro Insurgency began in 1968, in Mindanao and the Sulu archipelago after the killing of Moro Commandos, the so-called Jabidah Massacre, by the Philippine Army following a plot to invade Sabah province in Malaysia. The Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF) captured a swath of territory in the mid-1970s. In an attempt to stem the violence, the constitution was reformed and Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM) was created 1990 granting a devolution of power to the provinces of Lanao del Sur, Maguindanao, Sulu and Tawi-Tawi. Following the establishment of the ARMM, the MNLF splintered into a range of smaller groups including Islamic factions such as the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) and the Abu Sayef Goup (ASG). The Comprehensive Agreement on the Bangsamoro was signed in 2014.
Philippine Insurgencies (1968 - ) )
Stage
Framework/substantive - partial (Multiple issues)
Conflict nature
Government/territory
Peace process
96: Philippines - Cordillera process
Parties
For the GPH:
SEC. TERESITA QUINTOS DELES, Presidential Adivser on the Peace Process

For CBA-CPLA:
ARSENIO M. HUMIDING, Chairman, CPLA

MARCELINA G. BAHTAN, President, CBA
Third parties
Singed in the presence of:

SEC. CESAR P. GARCIA, JR, NSC

SEC. VOLTAIRET. GAZMIN, DND

SEC. JESSE M. ROBREDO, DILG

SEC. CORAZON J. SOLIMAN, DSWD

REP. TEODORO B. BAGUILAT, JR, Lone District, Ifugao

GOV. ELIAS C. BULUT, JR, Apayao

ARMANDO C. WATIL, ZONE 1 Commander, Abra

TIRSO P. IWANGGA, Zone 2 Commander, Kalinga

BANAT E. WAIS, Zone 3 Commander, Mt. Province

ALFONSO A. LENGWA, JR, Zone 4 Commander, Apayao

CRUZALDO C. VELASCO, Zone 5 Commander, Ifuago

THOMAS D. TANACIO, Zone 6 Commander, Benguet

MODESTO F. SAGADANG, Chief of Staff, CPLA

FELIPE L, CARINO, Vice-Chairman, CPLA

GABINO P. GANGGANGAN, Seceretary General, CBA
Description
In the Closure Agreement the GPH and CBA-CPLA agree to: document the CBA-CPLA struggle, promote economic reintegration and livelihood of CPLA members and development of communities with CBA-CPLA presence, transform the CBA-CPLA into a legal entity for socio-economic development and promote inter-barangay economic development for the selected areas of Cordillera.

Agreement document
PH_110118_Closure Agreement.pdf

Main category
Page 6, ARTICLE IV, OBLIGATIONS, PROHIBITIONS, SETTLEMENTS OF GRIEVANCES AND DISPUTES. Section 12. SPECIFIC PROHIBITIONS.
The development fund will not be used for activities other than those provided for in the Work and Financial Plan approved by the JC under this Agreement. Specifically, the funds cannot be spent for: (1) environmentally destructive activities, equipment, and goods; (2) arms and weapons; (3) activities that exploit children below 18 years old; (4) activities that exploit women; (5) anti-government activities and, (6) activities that go against legal beliefs, traditions, laws, and good morals.

Women, girls and gender

Participation
No specific mention.
Equality
No specific mention.
Particular groups of women
No specific mention.
International law
No specific mention.
New institutions
No specific mention.
Violence against women
Gender-based violence/VAW (general)
Page 6, ARTICLE IV, OBLIGATIONS, PROHIBITIONS, SETTLEMENTS OF GRIEVANCES AND DISPUTES. Section 12. SPECIFIC PROHIBITIONS.
The development fund will not be used for activities other than those provided for in the Work and Financial Plan approved by the JC under this Agreement. Specifically, the funds cannot be spent for: (1) environmentally destructive activities, equipment, and goods; (2) arms and weapons; (3) activities that exploit children below 18 years old; (4) activities that exploit women; (5) anti-government activities and, (6) activities that go against legal beliefs, traditions, laws, and good morals.
Transitional justice
No specific mention.
Institutional reform
No specific mention.
Development
General
Page 6, ARTICLE IV, OBLIGATIONS, PROHIBITIONS, SETTLEMENTS OF GRIEVANCES AND DISPUTES. Section 12. SPECIFIC PROHIBITIONS.

The development fund will not be used for activities other than those provided for in the Work and Financial Plan approved by the JC under this Agreement. Specifically, the funds cannot be spent for: (1) environmentally destructive activities, equipment, and goods; (2) arms and weapons; (3) activities that exploit children below 18 years old; (4) activities that exploit women; (5) anti-government activities and, (6) activities that go against legal beliefs, traditions, laws, and good morals.
Implementation
No specific mention.
Other
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh