Agreement on Cessation of Hostilities between the Government of the Republic of South Sudan (GRSS) and the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement/Army (In Opposition) (SPLM/A in Opposition)

Country/entity
South Sudan
Region
Africa (excl MENA)
Agreement name
Agreement on Cessation of Hostilities between the Government of the Republic of South Sudan (GRSS) and the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement/Army (In Opposition) (SPLM/A in Opposition)
Date
23/01/2014
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Sudan Conflicts (1955 - )
Agreements relate to several distinct dyads, and also the negotiated independence of South Sudan, and subsequent internal conflict in South Sudan. Sudan-South Sudan. The long-standing conflict between the north and the south of the country dates back to colonial times, where the British introduced a so-called ‘Southern Policy’, severely hampering population movements between these big regions. Immediately after gaining independence in 1956, southern movements started to fight for independence; this fight became professionalised in 1983 with the foundation of the soon internationally supported Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA). When the Islamic Front government introduced strict sharia laws in the south after it took over power in 1988 the war intensified. A decade later, the military situation reached a stalemate, enabling internationally facilitated peace negotiations to begin in 1997. After more fighting, a final negotiation push began in 2002, leading to the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Areement (CPA) in January 2005.

Sudan-South Sudan post referendum. South Sudan became independent in July 2011; since then, relations between the two countries are complicated and violent conflict led by the SPLM (North) in the Sudanese Nuba mountains region has since intensified.

Darfur. Other long-standing violent conflicts are in the east and the west of the country. In the east, the Beja Congress, established in 1957, is the spearhead of a currently ‘peaceful’ opposition movement. In the west, the violent conflict in Darfur intensified in the early 2000s and rapidly gained international attention, even resulting in genocide charges against leading figures of the Sudanese government. The situation on the ground is complex, with over a dozen organisations (most notably the Sudanese Liberation Movement and the Justice and Equality Movement) fighting the Sudanese government and allied groups like the Janjaweed – although all parties have switched sides on numerous occasions. Several mediation attempts have not been successful, due to the shaky commitment of the Sudanese central government and the distrust among the armed opposition.

South Sudan- internal. Post independence, conflict broke out between groups in South Sudan and agreements were reached addressing this conflict.

Sudan Conflicts (1955 - ) )
Stage
Ceasefire/related (Ceasefire)
Conflict nature
Government
Peace process
116: South Sudan post-secession process
Parties
The Government of the Republic of South Sudan; Sudan People's Liberation Movement/ Army (in Opposition)
Third parties
Description
A ceasefire agreement giving provisions for a Cessation of Hostilities; CESSATION OF HOSTILE PROPAGANDA; PROTECTION OF CIVILIANS; HUMANITARIAN ACCESS; MONITORING AND VERIFICATION; COMPOSITION OF MVT; OPERATIONS OF THE MVT; POSITIONS OF THE FORCES; AMENDMENTS TO THIS AGREEMENT; DISPUTE RESOLUTION; ENTRY INTO FORCE

Agreement document
SS_140123_Cessation of Hostilities.pdf

Main category
Page 3, 3. PROTECTION OF CIVILIANS
3.2 The Parties shall refrain from any acts of rape, sexual abuse and torture as prohibited by applicable national, continental and international instruments;
3.3 The Parties shall not engage in any acts of violence against children, girls, women and the elderly and more importantly, they shall support the reunion of families;

6. Composition of MVT [Monitoring and Verification Team]
6.3. The MVT at local levels shall:
6.3.c. identify the local committees from traditional and religious leaders, women and youth representatives;

Women, girls and gender

Participation
Effective participation
Page 5, 6. Composition of MVT [Monitoring and Verification Team]
6.3. The MVT at local levels shall:
6.3.c. identify the local committees from traditional and religious leaders, women and youth representatives;
Equality
No specific mention.
Particular groups of women
No specific mention.
International law
No specific mention.
New institutions
No specific mention.
Violence against women
Sexual violence
Page 3, 3. PROTECTION OF CIVILIANS
3.2. The Parties shall refrain from any acts of rape, sexual abuse and torture as prohibited by applicable national, continental and international instruments;
Gender-based violence/VAW (general)
Page 3, 3. PROTECTION OF CIVILIANS
3.3. The Parties shall not engage in any acts of violence against children, girls, women and the elderly and more importantly, they shall support the reunion of families;
Transitional justice
No specific mention.
Institutional reform
No specific mention.
Development
No specific mention.
Implementation
No specific mention.
Other
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh