Protocol between the Government of Sudan, SLM/A and the JEM on the Improvement of the Humanitarian Situation in Darfur

Country/entity
Sudan
Darfur
Region
Africa (excl MENA)
Agreement name
Protocol between the Government of Sudan, SLM/A and the JEM on the Improvement of the Humanitarian Situation in Darfur
Date
09/11/2004
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Sudan Conflicts (1955 - )
Agreements relate to several distinct dyads, and also the negotiated independence of South Sudan, and subsequent internal conflict in South Sudan. Sudan-South Sudan. The long-standing conflict between the north and the south of the country dates back to colonial times, where the British introduced a so-called ‘Southern Policy’, severely hampering population movements between these big regions. Immediately after gaining independence in 1956, southern movements started to fight for independence; this fight became professionalised in 1983 with the foundation of the soon internationally supported Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA). When the Islamic Front government introduced strict sharia laws in the south after it took over power in 1988 the war intensified. A decade later, the military situation reached a stalemate, enabling internationally facilitated peace negotiations to begin in 1997. After more fighting, a final negotiation push began in 2002, leading to the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Areement (CPA) in January 2005.

Sudan-South Sudan post referendum. South Sudan became independent in July 2011; since then, relations between the two countries are complicated and violent conflict led by the SPLM (North) in the Sudanese Nuba mountains region has since intensified.

Darfur. Other long-standing violent conflicts are in the east and the west of the country. In the east, the Beja Congress, established in 1957, is the spearhead of a currently ‘peaceful’ opposition movement. In the west, the violent conflict in Darfur intensified in the early 2000s and rapidly gained international attention, even resulting in genocide charges against leading figures of the Sudanese government. The situation on the ground is complex, with over a dozen organisations (most notably the Sudanese Liberation Movement and the Justice and Equality Movement) fighting the Sudanese government and allied groups like the Janjaweed – although all parties have switched sides on numerous occasions. Several mediation attempts have not been successful, due to the shaky commitment of the Sudanese central government and the distrust among the armed opposition.

South Sudan- internal. Post independence, conflict broke out between groups in South Sudan and agreements were reached addressing this conflict.

Sudan Conflicts (1955 - ) )
Stage
Implementation/renegotiation (Implementation modalities)
Conflict nature
Government/territory
Peace process
24: Darfur-Sudan peace process
Parties
Government of Sudan signed for by Magzoub el-Khalifa (as Head of Delegation); Justice and Equality Movement signed for by Ahmed Mohmed Tugod Lissan (as Gender Coordinator/Head of Delegation); The Sudan Liberation Movement/Army signed for by Minni Minawi (General Secretary)
Third parties
Ambassador Oluyemi Adenji, CON, Minister of Foreign Affairs for the Federal Republic of Nigeria and Chair of AU; Ambassador Allam-Mi Ahmad, as the Chadian Co-Mediation; Ambassador Sam B. Bok, as AU Commission;
Description
A short agreement providing for implementation of former agreements including the Humanitarian Ceasefire Agreement (08/04/2004), the Protocol on the Establishment of Humanitarian Assistance in Darfur, and the Agreement on the Modalities for the Establishment of the Ceasefire Commission (CFC) and the Deployment of Observers in Darfur (28/05/2004). Agreement reaffirms the right of access by humanitarian organisations and the right of return and non-militarization of refugees and refugee camps. Agreement ultimately incorporated in Darfur Agreement.

Agreement document
041109 Protocol on the Humanitarian Situation in Darfur.pdf

Main category
Page 1, Untitled Preamble,
Expressing our utmost concern at the current humanitarian crises in Darfur and its consequences for the civilian population, especially women and children, resulting in widespread human suffering;

Women, girls and gender

Participation
No specific mention.
Equality
No specific mention.
Particular groups of women
No specific mention.
International law
No specific mention.
New institutions
No specific mention.
Violence against women
No specific mention.
Transitional justice
Past and gender
Page 1, untitled preamble, Expressing our utmost concern at the current humanitarian crises in Darfur and its consequences for the civilian population, especially women and children, resulting in widespread human suffering;
Institutional reform
No specific mention.
Development
No specific mention.
Implementation
No specific mention.
Other
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh