Conclusions of the Peace Implementation Conference held at Lancaster House (London Conference)

Country/entity
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Yugoslavia (former)
Region
Europe and Eurasia
Agreement name
Conclusions of the Peace Implementation Conference held at Lancaster House (London Conference)
Date
09/12/1995
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Interim arrangement
No
Agreement/conflict level
Interstate/intrastate conflict(s) (Balkan Conflicts (1991 - 1995) (1998 - 2001)
Former Yugoslavia

The disintegration of former Yugoslavia post cold war saw conflicts which became mediated and produced peace agreements in Slovenia (where the brief independence conflict was mediated by the EC Troika in 1991), Croatia (between Croatian and Serb populations 1991-1995), in Bosnia (between Croatian, Serb and Bosniak populations 1992-1995), in Macedonia (where mediation played a key pre-emptive role in preventing large scale conflict in 2001), in Kosovo (between Kosovar Albanians and Serbian population and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY), but also between FRY and NATO, 1998-1999), and a conflict in the Presevo Valley (between Albanians in South Serbia and FRY, 2000-2001). The continued fall-out of the disintegration of former Yugoslavia also saw mediated agreement and ultimate dissolution of the Union between Serbia and Montenegro.

Bosnia-Herzegovina

In 1991, after nationalist parties won the first multi-party elections in the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, a violent process of disintegration commenced. With its mixed population, Bosnia-Herzegovina became the centre of the following civil war that began in 1992 between the newly formed army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (mostly Muslim Bosniacs), and the parastatal forces of self-declared Bosnian Croat (Herzeg-Bosnia) and Bosnian Serb (Republika Srpska) entities within Bosnia-Herzegovina, supported by Croatia and Serbia, with various, often short-lived, coalitions. The General Framework Agreement (Dayton Peace Agreement), signed in 1995, split the country into two ethno-federal entities, the Bosniak-Croat Federation and the Republika Srpska, and included continued peacekeeping and institutional administration by international actors.

Kosovo

The conflict between Serbs and Kosovar Albanians has a long history and always involved territorial disputes as well as ethno-political, cultural and linguistic factors. The most recent phase of the conflict began in November 1997 when the Albanian Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA or UCK) began their campaign for the independence of Kosovo from the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY – then Serbia and Montenegro). The subsequent war lasted until the NATO intervention, which undertook bombing campaigns of Belgrade and other places in Serbia during spring 1999. The main agreements solving the conflict were internationally driven and, finally, a UNSC resolution imposed a post-conflict arrangement in the wake of what was essentially a NATO military victory. In February 2008, Kosovo’s parliament declared independence, but independence is still internationally disputed.

Balkan Conflicts (1991 - 1995) (1998 - 2001) )
Stage
Pre-negotiation/process (Other: Implementation)
Conflict nature
Government/territory
Peace process
125: Bosnia peace process
Parties
The Peace Implementation Council members: Albania, Austria, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Canada, China, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Egypt, Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Luxembourg, Malaysia, Morocco, Netherlands, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russian Federation, Saudi Arabia, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United States of America, Council of Europe, European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), European Commission, International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY), International Monetary Fund (IMF), North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), Organisation for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), United Nations (UN), UN High Commissioner for Human Rights (UNHCHR), UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), UN Transitional Administration of Eastern Slavonia (UNTAES) and the World Bank.
Third parties
Description
The conclusions of the Peace Implementation Conference establishes a Peace Implementation Council (PIC) formed of countries and international organisations. It provides implementation mechanisms for the international military mission, regional stabilization, civilian institutions and administrative structures, the Office of the High Representative, humanitarian assistance, human rights protection, elections, reconstruction, and future relations.

Agreement document
BA_951209_Conclusions of the Peace Implementation Conference.pdf []

Groups

Children/youth
No specific mention.
Disabled persons
No specific mention.
Elderly/age
No specific mention.
Migrant workers
No specific mention.
Racial/ethnic/national group
Rhetorical
Page 5, Administrative structures for civilian implementation, 21.
The Conference therefore decides that:
(a)...The border mission and working groups (notably on State succession and humanitarian issues, as well as on ethnic and national communities and minorities in Bosnia and Herzegovina and in neighbouring countries) will continue their work with their present terms of reference for as long as necessary;

Page 7, Protection of human rights, 29.
The Conference notes the background of extreme violations of human rights and ethnic cleansing that have occurred during the conflict in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and agrees on the vital importance, for achieving lasting peace, of the creation of the necessary institutions for the protection of human rights, including judicial institutions and civilian law enforcement agencies operating in accordance with internationally recognized standards and respect for human rights.
Religious groups
No specific mention.
Indigenous people
No specific mention.
Other groups
No specific mention.
Refugees/displaced persons
Rhetorical
Page 1, 3.
The purpose of the London Peace Implementation Conference is to mobilize the international community behind a new start for the people of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The Conference agrees that the peace should result in:...(c) The protection and promotion of human rights and the early return of refugees and displaced persons;

Page 2, 4.
The realization of these objectives involves an initial phase of peace implementation during which the international community, including a wide range of international and regional organizations and agencies, will be deeply involved in assisting in the implementation of the tasks flowing from the Peace Agreement. These tasks include...arrangements to promote the return of refugees and displaced persons...

Page 2, 6.
The participants at the London Peace Implementation Conference were briefed on the military operation and then addressed regional stabilization, civilian implementation structures, humanitarian assistance, return of refugees, the protection of human rights, the organization of elections, economic reconstruction and relations with EU and the rest of the international community. The participants arrived at the conclusions set out in the present document.

Page 3, Military implementation, 9.
General Joulwan said that, in addition to these key tasks, IFOR might be asked to undertake the following supporting tasks within the limits of its capabilities:...(b) To assist in the observation and prevention of interference with the freedom of movement of civilian populations, refugees and displaced persons;...(d) Within IFOR capabilities, to provide assistance to the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and other international organizations in their humanitarian missions.

Page 4, Civilian implementation, 15.
The United Nations Secretary-General said he would bring forward proposals to the United Nations Security Council concerning the part the United Nations would play in civilian implementation in addition to the role of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. These would include the International Police Task Force and certain related human rights and civil affairs functions.

Page 6, Humanitarian assistance, refugees and prisoners, 23.
The war in Bosnia and Herzegovina has involved great suffering among the civilian population. Over 2.1 million people have been displaced or become refugees. The Conference acknowledges the great contribution made during the conflict by UNHCR and other humanitarian agencies, funded in large part by EU, as well as the support given in the countries of asylum. It agrees that an early objective of the Peace Agreement is to create secure conditions for the safe and orderly return of refugees and displaced persons to places of their choice.

Page 6-7, Humanitarian assistance, refugees and prisoners, 24.
The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees outlined the main tasks as being: (a) To continue to provide food, shelter and medicines for the dependent population for some time to come; (b) To plan and carry out a repatriation operation in cooperation with asylum countries and the Government of Bosnia and Herzegovina to allow for the early, phased, safe and orderly return of refugees and displaced persons. In view of the urgency of the tasks involved in repatriation planning, she noted that the Humanitarian Issues Working Group would meet on 16 January 1996.

Page 7, Humanitarian assistance, refugees and prisoners, 27.
The parties undertake to comply urgently and fully with their obligations in creating the conditions necessary for the early, safe and orderly return of refugees and to cooperate fully with ICRC to ensure the early release of prisoners in accordance with the Peace Agreement.
Social class
No specific mention.

Gender

Women, girls and gender
No specific mention.
Men and boys
No specific mention.
LGBTI
No specific mention.
Family
No specific mention.

State definition

State definition
Nature of state (general)
Page 1, 1.
...They are committed to creating a State that will bring the peoples of Bosnia and Herzegovina together within a social and political framework that will enable the country to take its rightful place in Europe.
State symbols
Page 4, Civilian implementation, 14.
Mr. Bildt identified in particular the need for early action in Sarajevo to create confidence between the communities. Bosnia and Herzegovina has requested the cooperation of the High Representative in the project of a unified Sarajevo as the capital of Bosnia and Herzegovina and of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina as called for by the Peace Agreement...
Independence/secession
Page 5, Administrative structures for civilian implementation, 21.
The Conference therefore decides that:
(a)...The border mission and working groups (notably on State succession and humanitarian issues, as well as on ethnic and national communities and minorities in Bosnia and Herzegovina and in neighbouring countries) will continue their work with their present terms of reference for as long as necessary;
Cross-border provision
Page 1, 2.
The Peace Agreement will be signed at the Paris Conference on 14 December 1995. That Conference will mark a further important stage in bringing about recognition between the States in the region and will initiate promotion of good neighbourly relations between them.

Page 1, 3.
The purpose of the London Peace Implementation Conference is to mobilize the international community behind a new start for the people of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The Conference agrees that the peace should result in:...(f) The normalization of relations between Bosnia and Herzegovina and her neighbours, the region and the rest of the international community;

Page 10, Future relations, 44.
In a presentation to the Conference, the President of the Council of Ministers of EU, Mr. Solana, stressed that legitimate and effective political structures in Bosnia and Herzegovina were needed in order for it to be able to establish strong relations with the Union. He also stated that long-term stability required normalization of relations within the region and between the States of the former Yugoslavia and the rest of the international community.

Governance

Political institutions (new or reformed)
No specific mention.
Constitution's affirmation/renewal
No specific mention.
Constitutional reform/making
Page 1, 3.
The purpose of the London Peace Implementation Conference is to mobilize the international community behind a new start for the people of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The Conference agrees that the peace should result in:...(b) The establishment of new political and constitutional arrangements for Bosnia and Herzegovina that will bring the country together within a framework of democracy and the rule of law;

Page 8, Protection of human rights, 30.
The Conference takes note of the commitments made by the parties in the Peace Agreement:
(a) To ensure the highest level of internationally recognized human rights and fundamental freedoms, in particular the direct application of the rights and freedoms set forth in the European Convention on Human Rights, the entrenchment of these rights in the Constitution and the setting up of control organs, in particular a human rights commission comprising an ombudsman and a human rights chamber;

Page 8, Protection of human rights, 30.
The Conference takes note of the commitments made by the parties in the Peace Agreement: ...(b) To the establishment of a constitutional court with jurisdiction to determine whether laws are compatible with the European Convention on Human Rights;

Page 8, Protection of human rights, 32.
The Conference decides that, in view of the human rights situation in Bosnia and Herzegovina, urgent action is needed in the following areas:...(d) The relevant Council of Europe organs should appoint members of the constitutional court for Bosnia and Herzegovina and the human rights chamber, as provided for in the Peace Agreement;
Elections
Page 2, 4.
The realization of these objectives involves an initial phase of peace implementation during which the international community, including a wide range of international and regional organizations and agencies, will be deeply involved in assisting in the implementation of the tasks flowing from the Peace Agreement. These tasks include...the holding of free and fair elections for new democratic structures in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Page 2, 6.
The participants at the London Peace Implementation Conference were briefed on the military operation and then addressed regional stabilization, civilian implementation structures, humanitarian assistance, return of refugees, the protection of human rights, the organization of elections, economic reconstruction and relations with EU and the rest of the international community. The participants arrived at the conclusions set out in the present document.

Page 8, Elections, 34.
The Conference notes that, between six and nine months after signature of the Peace Agreement, elections supervised by a provisional election commission established by OSCE will be held in Bosnia and Herzegovina. These elections are of paramount importance in bringing about a democratic and stable country.

Page 9, Elections, 35.
The Conference heard a report from the Chairman-in-Office of OSCE on the decision taken at the ministerial meeting held at Budapest on 7 and 8 December establishing the OSCE Mission to Bosnia and Herzegovina. OSCE, and in particular the Chairman-in-Office and the Head of the OSCE Mission, will coordinate closely with the High Representative, who will attend or be represented at the meetings of the provisional election commission.

Page 9, Elections, 36.
The Conference agrees that the OSCE mandate to supervise the preparation and conduct of elections will include the following tasks: (a) Consultations with local authorities about the conduct of elections; (b) Early adoption of an elections programme for Bosnia and Herzegovina; (c) Rapid appointment of the members of the provisional election commission;
(d) Establishing the electoral rules and regulations; (e) Organizing election monitoring to ensure free and fair elections.

Page 9, Elections, 37.
Dr. Hoeynck, Secretary-General of OSCE, gave details of the preparations being made. The Head of Mission, who would deploy in early January 1996, would be supported by a staff of national secondees. These would be experienced members of the European Community Monitoring Mission. The Head of Mission would need to appoint, within the first month of the Mission’s operation, the other members of the election commission, and to consider urgently, in consultation with the High Representative, which issues would affect the holding of elections.

Page 9, Elections, 38.
The Conference agrees that, to ensure the successful completion of these tasks, the parties must: (a) Take practical measures and pursue the policies necessary to ensure that all voters have the right to freedom of movement, association and expression and the right to vote without fear or intimidation, and that there is equal access to free and impartial media; (b) Cooperate fully with the OSCE Mission. In this first election it will be particularly important for the parties to ensure that all members of the OSCE
staff and monitors have unrestricted freedom of movement throughout the country as well as access to all relevant organizations and individuals. The parties will need to help make available accommodation and other necessary facilities for the Mission.

Page 9, Elections, 39.
The Conference decides that, to enable the OSCE Mission to fulfil its mandate, the members of the PIC will give a lead in providing staff and resources as well as election monitors. The Conference welcomes the offer from Sweden to host in January 1996 a preparatory meeting of the organizations and agencies involved in the supervision of the elections in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Electoral commission
No specific mention.
Political parties reform
No specific mention.
Civil society
Page 3, Military implementation, 9.
General Joulwan said that, in addition to these key tasks, IFOR might be asked to undertake the following supporting tasks within the limits of its capabilities:...(d) Within IFOR capabilities, to provide assistance to the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and other international organizations in their humanitarian missions.

Page 4, Civilian implementation, 15.
The United Nations Secretary-General said he would bring forward proposals to the United Nations Security Council concerning the part the United Nations would play in civilian implementation in addition to the role of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. These would include the International Police Task Force and certain related human rights and civil affairs functions.

Page 6, Humanitarian assistance, refugees and prisoners, 23.
The war in Bosnia and Herzegovina has involved great suffering among the civilian population. Over 2.1 million people have been displaced or become refugees. The Conference acknowledges the great contribution made during the conflict by UNHCR and other humanitarian agencies, funded in large part by EU, as well as the support given in the countries of asylum. It agrees that an early objective of the Peace Agreement is to create secure conditions for the safe and orderly return of refugees and displaced persons to places of their choice.

Page 7, Humanitarian assistance, refugees and prisoners, 25.
The President of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) drew attention to the Committee’s tasks in respect of prisoners and missing persons. Fulfilment of the Peace Agreement will require: (a) Full and immediate access by ICRC to all places where prisoners and detainees are kept to interview and register all of them prior to their release; (b) Full cooperation of the parties over the release of prisoners and the provision of information about the fate of persons unaccounted for, as set out in the Peace Agreement.

Page 7, Humanitarian assistance, refugees and prisoners, 26.
Both the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees and the President of ICRC drew attention to the fact that, for the first month of implementation, the deployment of IFOR would involve the heavy use of lines of communication into and within Bosnia and Herzegovina, which would have implications for the humanitarian operation, especially the delivery of humanitarian assistance and release of those detained. They noted that this would require especially close cooperation between the High Representative, the IFOR commanders and the agencies involved.

Page 7, Humanitarian assistance, refugees and prisoners, 27.
The parties undertake to comply urgently and fully with their obligations in creating the conditions necessary for the early, safe and orderly return of refugees and to cooperate fully with ICRC to ensure the early release of prisoners in accordance with the Peace Agreement.

Page 7, Humanitarian assistance, refugees and prisoners, 28.
The Conference decides that the above tasks will require an extra effort by the international community and calls for immediate and generous help for the continuing work of the humanitarian agencies and for contributions to the ICRC appeals and the United Nations consolidated appeals, as well as the new UNHCR Trust Fund for Shelter. A number of countries indicated that they would provide substantial further support for the humanitarian effort.

Page 8, Protection of human rights, 30.
The Conference takes note of the commitments made by the parties in the Peace Agreement: ...(c) To promote and encourage the activities of non-governmental and international organizations for the protection and promotion of human rights in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Traditional/religious leaders
No specific mention.
Public administration
No specific mention.

Power sharing

Political power sharing
No specific mention.
Territorial power sharing
No specific mention.
Economic power sharing
No specific mention.
Military power sharing
No specific mention.

Human rights and equality

Human rights/RoL
Page 1, 3.
The purpose of the London Peace Implementation Conference is to mobilize the international community behind a new start for the people of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The Conference agrees that the peace should result in:...(b) The establishment of new political and constitutional arrangements for Bosnia and Herzegovina that will bring the country together within a framework of democracy and the rule of law; (c) The protection and promotion of human rights and the early return of refugees and displaced persons;

Page 2, 6.
The participants at the London Peace Implementation Conference were briefed on the military operation and then addressed regional stabilization, civilian implementation structures, humanitarian assistance, return of refugees, the protection of human rights, the organization of elections, economic reconstruction and relations with EU and the rest of the international community. The participants arrived at the conclusions set out in the present document.

Page 8, Protection of human rights, 30.
The Conference takes note of the commitments made by the parties in the Peace Agreement: ...(c) To promote and encourage the activities of non-governmental and international organizations for the protection and promotion of human rights in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Page 8, Protection of human rights, 31.
The Conference underlines the relationship between the fulfilment by the parties of their commitments in the Peace Agreement, including the observance of the highest standards of human rights and the readiness of the international community to commit financial resources for reconstruction and development.

Equality
No specific mention.
Democracy
Page 1, 3.
The purpose of the London Peace Implementation Conference is to mobilize the international community behind a new start for the people of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The Conference agrees that the peace should result in:...(b) The establishment of new political and constitutional arrangements for Bosnia and Herzegovina that will bring the country together within a framework of democracy and the rule of law;

Page 8, Elections, 34.
The Conference notes that, between six and nine months after signature of the Peace Agreement, elections supervised by a provisional election commission established by OSCE will be held in Bosnia and Herzegovina. These elections are of paramount importance in bringing about a democratic and stable country.
Protection measures
Protection of civilians
Page 2
Military implementation 7. The Conference was briefed by the Acting Secretary-General of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the Chairman of the Military Committee and the Supreme Allied Commander Europe on plans for the deployment of the implementation force (IFOR) to Bosnia and Herzegovina. The Conference also received a briefing from General Rupert Smith (Force Commander, United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR)) on the transition from UNPROFOR to IFOR. The Conference paid tribute to the role of UNPROFOR over the last three and a half years.
Protection of rights and legal frameworks
Page 1
(c) The protection and promotion of human rights and the early return of refugees and displaced persons;

Page 2
6. The participants at the London Peace Implementation Conference were briefed on the military operation and then addressed regional stabilization, civilian implementation structures, humanitarian assistance, return of refugees, the protection of human rights…

Pages 7-8
Protection of human rights
29. The Conference notes the background of extreme violations of human rights and ethnic cleansing that have occurred during the conflict in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and agrees on the vital importance, for achieving lasting peace, of the creation of the necessary institutions for the protection of human rights, including judicial institutions and civilian law enforcement agencies operating in accordance with internationally recognized standards and respect for human rights.

(c) To promote and encourage the activities of non-governmental and
international organizations for the protection and promotion of human rights in
Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Human rights framework
Isolated rights
Page 9, Elections, 38.
The Conference agrees that, to ensure the successful completion of these tasks, the parties must: (a) Take practical measures and pursue the policies necessary to ensure that all voters have the right to freedom of movement, association and expression and the right to vote without fear or intimidation, and that there is equal access to free and impartial media;
Treaty incorporation
Page 7, Protection of human rights, 29.
The Conference notes the background of extreme violations of human rights and ethnic cleansing that have occurred during the conflict in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and agrees on the vital importance, for achieving lasting peace, of the creation of the necessary institutions for the protection of human rights, including judicial institutions and civilian law enforcement agencies operating in accordance with internationally recognized standards and respect for human rights.

Page 8, Protection of human rights, 30.
The Conference takes note of the commitments made by the parties in the Peace Agreement:
(a) To ensure the highest level of internationally recognized human rights and fundamental freedoms, in particular the direct application of the rights and freedoms set forth in the European Convention on Human Rights, the entrenchment of these rights in the Constitution and the setting up of control organs, in particular a human rights commission comprising an ombudsman and a human rights chamber;

Page 8, Protection of human rights, 30.
The Conference takes note of the commitments made by the parties in the Peace Agreement: ...(b) To the establishment of a constitutional court with jurisdiction to determine whether laws are compatible with the European Convention on Human Rights;

Page 8, Protection of human rights, 32.
The Conference decides that, in view of the human rights situation in Bosnia and Herzegovina, urgent action is needed in the following areas: (a) An International Police Task Force should be created quickly, to advise, train and monitor local law enforcement personnel; (b) Resources should be provided by OSCE and the United Nations for human
rights monitoring; (c) OSCE should appoint an ombudsman, as provided for in the Peace
Agreement;...
Civil and political rights
Vote and take part
Page 9, Elections, 38.
The Conference agrees that, to ensure the successful completion of these tasks, the parties must: (a) Take practical measures and pursue the policies necessary to ensure that all voters have the right to freedom of movement, association and expression and the right to vote without fear or intimidation, and that there is equal access to free and impartial media;
Thought, opinion, conscience and religion
Page 9, Elections, 38.
The Conference agrees that, to ensure the successful completion of these tasks, the parties must: (a) Take practical measures and pursue the policies necessary to ensure that all voters have the right to freedom of movement, association and expression and the right to vote without fear or intimidation, and that there is equal access to free and impartial media;
Socio-economic rights
No specific mention.
NHRI
New or fundamentally revised NHRI
Page 8, Protection of human rights, 30.
The Conference takes note of the commitments made by the parties in the Peace Agreement:
(a) To ensure the highest level of internationally recognized human rights and fundamental freedoms, in particular the direct application of the rights and freedoms set forth in the European Convention on Human Rights, the entrenchment of these rights in the Constitution and the setting up of control organs, in particular a human rights commission comprising an ombudsman and a human rights chamber;

Page 8, Protection of human rights, 32.
The Conference decides that, in view of the human rights situation in Bosnia and Herzegovina, urgent action is needed in the following areas:...(c) OSCE should appoint an ombudsman, as provided for in the Peace Agreement;...

Page 8, Protection of human rights, 33.
The Conference agrees that the High Representative or his representative will chair a human rights task force in Sarajevo, bringing together the organizations and agencies involved in the implementation of the Peace Agreement.
Regional or international human rights institutions
No specific mention.
Mobility/access
Page 3, Military implementation, 9.
General Joulwan said that, in addition to these key tasks, IFOR might be asked to undertake the following supporting tasks within the limits of its capabilities:...(b) To assist in the observation and prevention of interference with the freedom of movement of civilian populations, refugees and displaced persons;

Page 9, Elections, 38.
The Conference agrees that, to ensure the successful completion of these tasks, the parties must: (a) Take practical measures and pursue the policies necessary to ensure that all voters have the right to freedom of movement, association and expression and the right to vote without fear or intimidation, and that there is equal access to free and impartial media; (b) Cooperate fully with the OSCE Mission. In this first election it will be particularly important for the parties to ensure that all members of the OSCE
staff and monitors have unrestricted freedom of movement throughout the country as well as access to all relevant organizations and individuals. The parties will need to help make available accommodation and other necessary facilities for the Mission.
Detention procedures
No specific mention.
Media and communication
Media roles
Page 9, Elections, 38.
The Conference agrees that, to ensure the successful completion of these tasks, the parties must: (a) Take practical measures and pursue the policies necessary to ensure that all voters have the right to freedom of movement, association and expression and the right to vote without fear or intimidation, and that there is equal access to free and impartial media;...
Citizenship
No specific mention.

Justice sector reform

Criminal justice and emergency law
No specific mention.
State of emergency provisions
No specific mention.
Judiciary and courts
Page 7, Protection of human rights, 29.
The Conference notes the background of extreme violations of human rights and ethnic cleansing that have occurred during the conflict in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and agrees on the vital importance, for achieving lasting peace, of the creation of the necessary institutions for the protection of human rights, including judicial institutions and civilian law enforcement agencies operating in accordance with internationally recognized standards and respect for human rights.

Page 8, Protection of human rights, 30.
The Conference takes note of the commitments made by the parties in the Peace Agreement: ...(b) To the establishment of a constitutional court with jurisdiction to determine whether laws are compatible with the European Convention on Human Rights;

Page 8, Protection of human rights, 32.
The Conference decides that, in view of the human rights situation in Bosnia and Herzegovina, urgent action is needed in the following areas:...(d) The relevant Council of Europe organs should appoint members of the constitutional court for Bosnia and Herzegovina and the human rights chamber, as provided for in the Peace Agreement;
Prisons and detention
No specific mention.
Traditional Laws
No specific mention.

Socio-economic reconstruction

Development or socio-economic reconstruction
Socio-economic development
Page 1, 3.
The purpose of the London Peace Implementation Conference is to mobilize the international community behind a new start for the people of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The Conference agrees that the peace should result in:...(e) A kick start to economic reconstruction;...(i) Important economic opportunities for countries neighbouring the former Yugoslavia.

Page 2, 6.
The participants at the London Peace Implementation Conference were briefed on the military operation and then addressed regional stabilization, civilian implementation structures, humanitarian assistance, return of refugees, the protection of human rights, the organization of elections, economic reconstruction and relations with EU and the rest of the international community. The participants arrived at the conclusions set out in the present document.

Page 4, Civilian implementation, 14.
Mr. Bildt identified in particular the need for early action in Sarajevo to create confidence between the communities. Bosnia and Herzegovina has requested the cooperation of the High Representative in the project of a unified Sarajevo as the capital of Bosnia and Herzegovina and of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina as called for by the Peace Agreement. The Conference asks Mr. Bildt to address these problems urgently in cooperation with the local authorities and the international agencies and in consultation with the IFOR Commander. It also agrees on the importance of immediate efforts by the authorities on both sides to promote confidence and reconciliation; the early deployment of the International Police Task Force; and full restoration of basic services to the city. The Conference recognizes the need for urgent reconstruction in Sarajevo and elsewhere in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Page 6, Administrative structures for civilian implementation, 21.
The Conference therefore decides that:
...(d) When the Steering Board considers reconstruction, the views of major donors will be of particular importance. Frequent aid donors meetings will be needed to achieve wide and equitable participation in the international aid effort and to enhance coordination between programmes and projects. Such meetings will inform the work of the Steering Board. The first such meeting will take place at Brussels on 20 and 21 December 1995 and will be co-hosted by the European Commission and the World Bank. In this meeting, and those which take place subsequently, the World Bank and the European Commission will play their appropriate roles.

Page 6-7, Humanitarian assistance, refugees and prisoners, 24.
The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees outlined the main tasks as being: (a) To continue to provide food, shelter and medicines for the dependent population for some time to come;

Page 7, Humanitarian assistance, refugees and prisoners, 26.
Both the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees and the President of ICRC drew attention to the fact that, for the first month of implementation, the deployment of IFOR would involve the heavy use of lines of communication into and within Bosnia and Herzegovina, which would have implications for the humanitarian operation, especially the delivery of humanitarian assistance and release of those detained. They noted that this would require especially close cooperation between the High Representative, the IFOR commanders and the agencies involved.

Page 8, Protection of human rights, 31.
The Conference underlines the relationship between the fulfilment by the parties of their commitments in the Peace Agreement, including the observance of the highest standards of human rights and the readiness of the international community to commit financial resources for reconstruction and development.

Page 10, Reconstruction, 40.
The economic and physical infrastructure of Bosnia and Herzegovina has suffered serious damage as a result of the war. Responsibility for reconstruction must lie primarily with the authorities of Bosnia and Herzegovina. At the same time, donors, including through the international financial institutions, are prepared to make a substantial contribution on the basis of appropriate burden-sharing within the international community of the overall effort needed to secure and implement the peace.

Page 10, Reconstruction, 41.
This process will begin with the organization by the World Bank and the European Commission of the meeting at Brussels on 20 and 21 December referred to in paragraph 21 (d) indicating the urgent reconstruction needs of Bosnia and Herzegovina over the next three months. It will be followed by a pledging conference in early March.

Page 10, Reconstruction, 42.
The President of the World Bank outlined the Bank’s role in reconstruction and the arrangements to be established on the ground for coordination of technical aspects. The World Bank and creditors indicated they would exercise their best endeavours in respect of the settlement of outstanding arrears of Bosnia and Herzegovina as soon as possible. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) stated that membership of IMF for Bosnia and Herzegovina and the provision of financial resources under the Fund’s emergency policy was expected in the very near future. Work was beginning immediately to agree on a programme for further use of Fund resources. The President of the European Bank for
Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), the European Commission, and other major donors indicated the parts they expected to play.
National economic plan
No specific mention.
Natural resources
No specific mention.
International funds
Page 6, Administrative structures for civilian implementation, 21.
The Conference therefore decides that:...(d) When the Steering Board considers reconstruction, the views of major donors will be of particular importance. Frequent aid donors meetings will be needed to achieve wide and equitable participation in the international aid effort and to enhance coordination between programmes and projects. Such meetings will inform the work of the Steering Board. The first such meeting will take place at Brussels on 20 and 21 December 1995 and will be co-hosted by the European Commission and the World Bank. In this meeting, and those which take place subsequently, the World Bank and the European Commission will play their appropriate roles.

Page 6, Administrative structures for civilian implementation, 22.
On funding, the Conference agrees that: (a) Governments seconding staff to the High Representative will bear the cost of salaries and any other national emoluments. Representatives of Governments attending meetings called by the High Representative will bear the cost of their travel and accommodation. A budget to cover the operational costs of the PIC, notably the cost of the headquarters and offices of the High Representative as well as one of the remaining working groups and the border mission of the International Conference on the Former Yugoslavia, will be proposed by the Steering Board. The PIC undertakes to provide funding for this budget on a key derived from the International Conference on the Former Yugoslavia key to be agreed by consensus. It was noted that EU was already taking steps to provide for certain immediate costs for the High Representative and for its share of the total;

Page 6, Administrative structures for civilian implementation, 22.
On funding, the Conference agrees that:...(b) The International Conference on the Former Yugoslavia structure should aim for dissolution by 31 January 1996. All outstanding funding contributions to the International Conference should have been made at that time. All funds remaining in accounts of the International Conference on the Former Yugoslavia would be transferred to the PIC to be used for purposes for which the funds were originally contributed, whether for conference functions or for the border closure monitoring mission.

Page 6, Humanitarian assistance, refugees and prisoners, 23.
The war in Bosnia and Herzegovina has involved great suffering among the civilian population. Over 2.1 million people have been displaced or become refugees. The Conference acknowledges the great contribution made during the conflict by UNHCR and other humanitarian agencies, funded in large part by EU, as well as the support given in the countries of asylum. It agrees that an early objective of the Peace Agreement is to create secure conditions for the safe and orderly return of refugees and displaced persons to places of their choice.

Page 7, Humanitarian assistance, refugees and prisoners, 28.
The Conference decides that the above tasks will require an extra effort by the international community and calls for immediate and generous help for the continuing work of the humanitarian agencies and for contributions to the ICRC appeals and the United Nations consolidated appeals, as well as the new UNHCR Trust Fund for Shelter. A number of countries indicated that they would provide substantial further support for the humanitarian effort.

Page 8, Protection of human rights, 31.
The Conference underlines the relationship between the fulfilment by the parties of their commitments in the Peace Agreement, including the observance of the highest standards of human rights and the readiness of the international community to commit financial resources for reconstruction and development.

Page 9, Elections, 39.
The Conference decides that, to enable the OSCE Mission to fulfil its mandate, the members of the PIC will give a lead in providing staff and resources as well as election monitors. The Conference welcomes the offer from Sweden to host in January 1996 a preparatory meeting of the organizations and agencies involved in the supervision of the elections in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Page 10, Reconstruction, 40.
The economic and physical infrastructure of Bosnia and Herzegovina has suffered serious damage as a result of the war. Responsibility for reconstruction must lie primarily with the authorities of Bosnia and Herzegovina. At the same time, donors, including through the international financial institutions, are prepared to make a substantial contribution on the basis of appropriate burden-sharing within the international community of the overall effort needed to secure and implement the peace.

Page 10, Reconstruction, 41.
This process will begin with the organization by the World Bank and the European Commission of the meeting at Brussels on 20 and 21 December referred to in paragraph 21 (d) indicating the urgent reconstruction needs of Bosnia and Herzegovina over the next three months. It will be followed by a pledging conference in early March.

Page 10, Reconstruction, 42.
The President of the World Bank outlined the Bank’s role in reconstruction and the arrangements to be established on the ground for coordination of technical aspects. The World Bank and creditors indicated they would exercise their best endeavours in respect of the settlement of outstanding arrears of Bosnia and Herzegovina as soon as possible. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) stated that membership of IMF for Bosnia and Herzegovina and the provision of financial resources under the Fund’s emergency policy was expected in the very near future. Work was beginning immediately to agree on a programme for further use of Fund resources. The President of the European Bank for
Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), the European Commission, and other major donors indicated the parts they expected to play.
Business
Page 1, 3.
The purpose of the London Peace Implementation Conference is to mobilize the international community behind a new start for the people of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The Conference agrees that the peace should result in:...(d) The establishment of an open, free market economy in Bosnia and Herzegovina;

Page 10, Reconstruction, 43.
The Conference stresses the importance of the parties: (a) Creating effective central institutions capable of adopting responsible fiscal and monetary policies; conducting business with the international community and in particular the international financial
institutions; and contracting and servicing debt on behalf of Bosnia and Herzegovina;
(b) Pursuing policies that foster the creation of a market economy and an open trading system.
Taxation
No specific mention.
Banks
No specific mention.

Land, property and environment

Land reform/rights
No specific mention.
Pastoralist/nomadism rights
No specific mention.
Cultural heritage
No specific mention.
Environment
No specific mention.
Water or riparian rights or access
No specific mention.

Security sector

Security Guarantees
Page 2, 6.
The participants at the London Peace Implementation Conference were briefed on the military operation and then addressed regional stabilization, civilian implementation structures, humanitarian assistance, return of refugees, the protection of human rights, the organization of elections, economic reconstruction and relations with EU and the rest of the international community. The participants arrived at the conclusions set out in the present document.

Page 3, Military Implementation, 8. The military mission was described as having the following primary tasks:... (c) To ensure the separation of forces from the Inter-Entity Boundary Line.

Page 3, Military implementation, 9.
General Joulwan said that, in addition to these key tasks, IFOR might be asked to undertake the following supporting tasks within the limits of its capabilities:...(c) To assist in the monitoring of the clearance of minefields and obstacles;

Page 3, Regional stabilization, 11.
The Conference agrees that, while the implementation force will bring about the territorial settlement, longer-term stability in Bosnia and Herzegovina and the region will only be secured if underpinned by confidence-building and arms control measures on the model of agreements developed successfully elsewhere in Europe under the auspices of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE). Such measures will encourage the creation of a balance of forces in the region, at the lowest levels consistent with security, thus contributing to lasting peace.
Ceasefire
Ceasefire provision
Page 2-3, Military implementation, 8.
The military mission was described as having the following primary tasks: (a) To ensure continued compliance with the Cessation-of-Hostilities Agreement; (b) To ensure the withdrawal of forces from the Agreed Cease-Fire Zone of Separation;
Police
Page 4, Civilian implementation, 14.
Mr. Bildt identified in particular the need for early action in Sarajevo to create confidence between the communities. Bosnia and Herzegovina has requested the cooperation of the High Representative in the project of a unified Sarajevo as the capital of Bosnia and Herzegovina and of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina as called for by the Peace Agreement. The Conference asks Mr. Bildt to address these problems urgently in cooperation with the local authorities and the international agencies and in consultation with the IFOR Commander. It also agrees on the importance of immediate efforts by the authorities on both sides to promote confidence and reconciliation; the early deployment of the International Police Task Force; and full restoration of basic services to the city. The Conference recognizes the need for urgent reconstruction in Sarajevo and elsewhere in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Page 4, Civilian implementation, 15.
The United Nations Secretary-General said he would bring forward proposals to the United Nations Security Council concerning the part the United Nations would play in civilian implementation in addition to the role of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. These would include the International Police Task Force and certain related human rights and civil affairs functions.

Page 8, Protection of human rights, 32.
The Conference decides that, in view of the human rights situation in Bosnia and Herzegovina, urgent action is needed in the following areas: (a) An International Police Task Force should be created quickly, to advise, train and monitor local law enforcement personnel;...
Armed forces
No specific mention.
DDR
Demilitarisation provisions
Page 2, 4.
The realization of these objectives involves an initial phase of peace implementation during which the international community, including a wide range of international and regional organizations and agencies, will be deeply involved in assisting in the implementation of the tasks flowing from the Peace Agreement. These tasks include the military disengagement of the parties...
Intelligence services
No specific mention.
Parastatal/rebel and opposition group forces
No specific mention.
Withdrawal of foreign forces
No specific mention.
Corruption
No specific mention.
Crime/organised crime
No specific mention.
Drugs
No specific mention.
Terrorism
No specific mention.

Transitional justice

Transitional justice general
No specific mention.
Amnesty/pardon
No specific mention.
Courts
International courts
Page 8, Protection of human rights, 32.
The Conference decides that, in view of the human rights situation in Bosnia and Herzegovina, urgent action is needed in the following areas:...(e) All competent authorities in Bosnia and Herzegovina must cooperate fully in all respects with the International Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia.
Mechanism
No specific mention.
Prisoner release
Page 2, 5.
The participants in the Conference recalled the commitment in the Peace Agreement Concluding Statement made by the relevant parties to assist in locating the French pilots missing in Bosnia and Herzegovina and to ensure their immediate and safe return. They expressed their strong support for the Government of France and undertook to continue pressing through all appropriate bilateral and multilateral channels as a matter of the greatest urgency for the prompt and unconditional release of the detained pilots. They noted that in the event of failure by the relevant parties to honour those commitments, the Government of France would draw the appropriate conclusions.

Page 7, Humanitarian assistance, refugees and prisoners, 25.
The President of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) drew attention to the Committee’s tasks in respect of prisoners and missing persons. Fulfilment of the Peace Agreement will require: (a) Full and immediate access by ICRC to all places where prisoners and detainees are kept to interview and register all of them prior to their release; (b) Full cooperation of the parties over the release of prisoners and the provision of information about the fate of persons unaccounted for, as set out in the Peace Agreement.

Page 7, Humanitarian assistance, refugees and prisoners, 27.
The parties undertake to comply urgently and fully with their obligations in creating the conditions necessary for the early, safe and orderly return of refugees and to cooperate fully with ICRC to ensure the early release of prisoners in accordance with the Peace Agreement.
Vetting
No specific mention.
Victims
No specific mention.
Missing persons
Page 2, 5.
The participants in the Conference recalled the commitment in the Peace Agreement Concluding Statement made by the relevant parties to assist in locating the French pilots missing in Bosnia and Herzegovina and to ensure their immediate and safe return. They expressed their strong support for the Government of France and undertook to continue pressing through all appropriate bilateral and multilateral channels as a matter of the greatest urgency for the prompt and unconditional release of the detained pilots. They noted that in the event of failure by the relevant parties to honour those commitments, the Government of France would draw the appropriate conclusions.

Page 7, Humanitarian assistance, refugees and prisoners, 25.
The President of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) drew attention to the Committee’s tasks in respect of prisoners and missing persons. Fulfilment of the Peace Agreement will require:...(b) Full cooperation of the parties over the release of prisoners and the provision of information about the fate of persons unaccounted for, as set out in the Peace Agreement.
Reparations
No specific mention.
Reconciliation
Page 4, Civilian implementation, 14.
Mr. Bildt identified in particular the need for early action in Sarajevo to create confidence between the communities. Bosnia and Herzegovina has requested the cooperation of the High Representative in the project of a unified Sarajevo as the capital of Bosnia and Herzegovina and of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina as called for by the Peace Agreement. The Conference asks Mr. Bildt to address these problems urgently in cooperation with the local authorities and the international agencies and in consultation with the IFOR Commander. It also agrees on the importance of immediate efforts by the authorities on both sides to promote confidence and reconciliation; the early deployment of the International Police Task Force; and full restoration of basic services to the city. The Conference recognizes the need for urgent reconstruction in Sarajevo and elsewhere in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Implementation

UN signatory
United Nations (UN), UN High Commissioner for Human Rights (UNHCHR), UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), UN Transitional Administration of Eastern Slavonia (UNTAES) were all members of the Peace Implementation Council
Other international signatory
No specific mention.
Referendum for agreement
No specific mention.
International mission/force/similar
Page 2, Military implementation, 7.
The Conference was briefed by the Acting Secretary-General of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the Chairman of the Military Committee and the Supreme Allied Commander Europe on plans for the deployment of the implementation force (IFOR) to Bosnia and Herzegovina. The Conference also received a briefing from General Rupert Smith (Force Commander, United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR)) on the transition from UNPROFOR to IFOR. The Conference paid tribute to the role of UNPROFOR over the last three and a half years.

Page 2-3, Military implementation, 8.
The military mission was described as having the following primary tasks: (a) To ensure continued compliance with the Cessation-of-Hostilities Agreement; (b) To ensure the withdrawal of forces from the Agreed Cease-Fire Zone of Separation; (c) To ensure the separation of forces from the Inter-Entity Boundary Line.

Page 3, Military implementation, 9.
General Joulwan said that, in addition to these key tasks, IFOR might be asked to undertake the following supporting tasks within the limits of its capabilities: (a) To help create secure conditions for the conduct by others of other tasks associated with the Peace Agreement (though IFOR would not undertake humanitarian tasks itself); (b) To assist in the observation and prevention of interference with the freedom of movement of civilian populations, refugees and displaced persons; (c) To assist in the monitoring of the clearance of minefields and obstacles; (d) Within IFOR capabilities, to provide assistance to the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and other international organizations in their humanitarian missions.

Page 3, Military implementation, 10.
The Conference notes that: (a) Close cooperation between IFOR, the High Representative and the agencies will be vital to ensure the success of the implementation period. Contacts are already under way to this end; (b) The speed and ease with which IFOR will be able to accomplish its mission will depend to a large extent on the cooperation it receives from the parties.

Page 4, Civilian implementation, 14.
Mr. Bildt identified in particular the need for early action in Sarajevo to create confidence between the communities. Bosnia and Herzegovina has requested the cooperation of the High Representative in the project of a unified Sarajevo as the capital of Bosnia and Herzegovina and of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina as called for by the Peace Agreement. The Conference asks Mr. Bildt to address these problems urgently in cooperation with the local authorities and the international agencies and in consultation with the IFOR Commander. It also agrees on the importance of immediate efforts by the authorities on both sides to promote confidence and reconciliation; the early deployment of the International Police Task Force; and full restoration of basic services to the city. The Conference recognizes the need for urgent reconstruction in Sarajevo and elsewhere in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Page 4, Civilian implementation, 15.
The United Nations Secretary-General said he would bring forward proposals to the United Nations Security Council concerning the part the United Nations would play in civilian implementation in addition to the role of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. These would include the International Police Task Force and certain related human rights and civil affairs functions.

Page 4, Civilian implementation, 16.
During the transition and to the end of the UNPROFOR mandate, the United Nations will provide administrative and other support to IFOR and the High Representative.

Page 6, Administrative structures for civilian implementation, 22.
On funding, the Conference agrees that:...(b) The International Conference on the Former Yugoslavia structure should aim for dissolution by 31 January 1996. All outstanding funding contributions to the International Conference should have been made at that time. All funds remaining in accounts of the International Conference on the Former Yugoslavia would be transferred to the PIC to be used for purposes for which the funds were originally contributed, whether for conference functions or for the border closure monitoring mission.

Page 7, Humanitarian assistance, refugees and prisoners, 26.
Both the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees and the President of ICRC drew attention to the fact that, for the first month of implementation, the deployment of IFOR would involve the heavy use of lines of communication into and within Bosnia and Herzegovina, which would have implications for the humanitarian operation, especially the delivery of humanitarian assistance and release of those detained. They noted that this would require especially close cooperation between the High Representative, the IFOR commanders and the agencies involved.

Page 8, Elections, 34.
The Conference notes that, between six and nine months after signature of the Peace Agreement, elections supervised by a provisional election commission established by OSCE will be held in Bosnia and Herzegovina. These elections are of paramount importance in bringing about a democratic and stable country.

Page 9, Elections, 35.
The Conference heard a report from the Chairman-in-Office of OSCE on the decision taken at the ministerial meeting held at Budapest on 7 and 8 December establishing the OSCE Mission to Bosnia and Herzegovina. OSCE, and in particular the Chairman-in-Office and the Head of the OSCE Mission, will coordinate closely with the High Representative, who will attend or be represented at the meetings of the provisional election commission.

Page 9, Elections, 36.
The Conference agrees that the OSCE mandate to supervise the preparation and conduct of elections will include the following tasks: (a) Consultations with local authorities about the conduct of elections; (b) Early adoption of an elections programme for Bosnia and Herzegovina; (c) Rapid appointment of the members of the provisional election commission;
(d) Establishing the electoral rules and regulations; (e) Organizing election monitoring to ensure free and fair elections.

Page 9, Elections, 37.
Dr. Hoeynck, Secretary-General of OSCE, gave details of the preparations being made. The Head of Mission, who would deploy in early January 1996, would be supported by a staff of national secondees. These would be experienced members of the European Community Monitoring Mission. The Head of Mission would need to appoint, within the first month of the Mission’s operation, the other members of the election commission, and to consider urgently, in consultation with the High Representative, which issues would affect the holding of elections.

Page 9, Elections, 38.
The Conference agrees that, to ensure the successful completion of these tasks, the parties must: ...(b) Cooperate fully with the OSCE Mission. In this first election it will be particularly important for the parties to ensure that all members of the OSCE
staff and monitors have unrestricted freedom of movement throughout the country as well as access to all relevant organizations and individuals. The parties will need to help make available accommodation and other necessary facilities for the Mission.

Page 9, Elections, 39.
The Conference decides that, to enable the OSCE Mission to fulfil its mandate, the members of the PIC will give a lead in providing staff and resources as well as election monitors. The Conference welcomes the offer from Sweden to host in January 1996 a preparatory meeting of the organizations and agencies involved in the supervision of the elections in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Page 11, Eastern Slavonia, 47.
There was recognition of the crucial importance of successful implementation of this Agreement. The international community will play its part. The United Nations Secretary-General will issue a report by 14 December. The United States of America declared its readiness to nominate a candidate to head the Transitional Administration, which will govern the region during the transitional period for which the Basic Agreement provides. It was agreed that no effort should be spared to find and deploy quickly adequate international forces required for the transitional period.
Enforcement mechanism
Page 5, Administrative structures for civilian implementation, 21.
The Conference therefore decides that:
(a) A Peace Implementation Council (PIC), composed of all those States, international organizations and agencies attending the Conference, will subsume the International Conference on the Former Yugoslavia. France, as Chairman of the group of seven major industrialized countries in 1996, will play a specially strong coordinating role in the PIC. The border mission and working groups (notably on State succession and humanitarian issues, as well as on ethnic and national communities and minorities in Bosnia and Herzegovina and in neighbouring countries) will continue their work with their present terms of reference for as long as necessary;

Page 5, Administrative structures for civilian implementation, 21.
The Conference therefore decides that:
...(b) A meeting of the PIC to review progress in peace implementation will be held in Italy in June 1996 under the chairmanship of the Government of Italy;

Page 5, Administrative structures for civilian implementation, 21.
The Conference therefore decides that:
...(c) (c) A Steering Board of the PIC, composed of representatives of Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the Russian Federation, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the United States of America, the Presidency of EU, the European Commission and the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC), will be established with immediate effect under the chairmanship of the High Representative. It will give him political guidance on peace implementation. The Steering Board, which may establish working groups as necessary, will normally meet monthly and will keep the PIC fully informed of progress. Representatives of relevant international organizations will be invited to attend as appropriate. In view of their wide-ranging responsibilities, the United Nations and OSCE will be associated especially closely and will be invited to attend when their responsibilities under the Peace Agreement are involved. The Steering Board will also keep the neighbouring States closely informed and maintain a regular dialogue with them;

Page 8, Protection of human rights, 32.
The Conference decides that, in view of the human rights situation in Bosnia and Herzegovina, urgent action is needed in the following areas: (a) An International Police Task Force should be created quickly, to advise, train and monitor local law enforcement personnel; (b) Resources should be provided by OSCE and the United Nations for human
rights monitoring; (c) OSCE should appoint an ombudsman, as provided for in the Peace
Agreement;...

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