Specific Decisions by the London Conference, International Conference on Former Yugoslavia (The London Conference)

Country/entity
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Yugoslavia (former)
Region
Europe and Eurasia
Agreement name
Specific Decisions by the London Conference, International Conference on Former Yugoslavia (The London Conference)
Date
27/08/1992
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Interim arrangement
No
Agreement/conflict level
Interstate/intrastate conflict(s) (Balkan Conflicts (1991 - 1995) (1998 - 2001)
Former Yugoslavia

The disintegration of former Yugoslavia post cold war saw conflicts which became mediated and produced peace agreements in Slovenia (where the brief independence conflict was mediated by the EC Troika in 1991), Croatia (between Croatian and Serb populations 1991-1995), in Bosnia (between Croatian, Serb and Bosniak populations 1992-1995), in Macedonia (where mediation played a key pre-emptive role in preventing large scale conflict in 2001), in Kosovo (between Kosovar Albanians and Serbian population and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY), but also between FRY and NATO, 1998-1999), and a conflict in the Presevo Valley (between Albanians in South Serbia and FRY, 2000-2001). The continued fall-out of the disintegration of former Yugoslavia also saw mediated agreement and ultimate dissolution of the Union between Serbia and Montenegro.

Bosnia-Herzegovina

In 1991, after nationalist parties won the first multi-party elections in the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, a violent process of disintegration commenced. With its mixed population, Bosnia-Herzegovina became the centre of the following civil war that began in 1992 between the newly formed army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (mostly Muslim Bosniacs), and the parastatal forces of self-declared Bosnian Croat (Herzeg-Bosnia) and Bosnian Serb (Republika Srpska) entities within Bosnia-Herzegovina, supported by Croatia and Serbia, with various, often short-lived, coalitions. The General Framework Agreement (Dayton Peace Agreement), signed in 1995, split the country into two ethno-federal entities, the Bosniak-Croat Federation and the Republika Srpska, and included continued peacekeeping and institutional administration by international actors.

Kosovo

The conflict between Serbs and Kosovar Albanians has a long history and always involved territorial disputes as well as ethno-political, cultural and linguistic factors. The most recent phase of the conflict began in November 1997 when the Albanian Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA or UCK) began their campaign for the independence of Kosovo from the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY – then Serbia and Montenegro). The subsequent war lasted until the NATO intervention, which undertook bombing campaigns of Belgrade and other places in Serbia during spring 1999. The main agreements solving the conflict were internationally driven and, finally, a UNSC resolution imposed a post-conflict arrangement in the wake of what was essentially a NATO military victory. In February 2008, Kosovo’s parliament declared independence, but independence is still internationally disputed.

Balkan Conflicts (1991 - 1995) (1998 - 2001) )
Stage
Pre-negotiation/process (Principles)
Conflict nature
Government/territory
Peace process
125: Bosnia peace process
Parties
This conference was convened by Great Britain, which held the presidency of the EC at the time. The Participants were: The SFRY republics, the EC countries, the USA, China, Russia, Japan, Canada, The Republic of Czechoslovakia (as a state which held the presidency of CSCE – Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe) and the neighboring countries: Austria, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, Albania
Third parties
Description
This short agreement provides outlines specific decisions made by the London Conference, regarding: Cessation of Violence; Humanitarian Issues; Effective delivery of humanitarian aid; Dismantling detention camps; Safe Areas; International Action; Sanctions; and Violations of Humanitarian Law.

Agreement document
BA_920827_Specific Decisions by the London Conference.pdf []

Groups

Children/youth
No specific mention.
Disabled persons
No specific mention.
Elderly/age
No specific mention.
Migrant workers
No specific mention.
Racial/ethnic/national group
No specific mention.
Religious groups
No specific mention.
Indigenous people
No specific mention.
Other groups
No specific mention.
Refugees/displaced persons
Substantive
Page 2, Humanitarian Issues, 5, Refugees
iii) Progressive return of refugees to their homes and response to the needs identified by the UN.
Social class
No specific mention.

Gender

Women, girls and gender
No specific mention.
Men and boys
No specific mention.
LGBTI
No specific mention.
Family
No specific mention.

State definition

State definition
No specific mention.

Governance

Political institutions (new or reformed)
No specific mention.
Constitution's affirmation/renewal
No specific mention.
Constitutional reform/making
No specific mention.
Elections
No specific mention.
Electoral commission
No specific mention.
Political parties reform
No specific mention.
Civil society
Page 2, Humanitarian Issues, 5, Refugees
iii) Progressive return of refugees to their homes and response to the needs identified by the UN.

Page 2, Humanitarian Issues, 5, Dismantling detention camps
...
vii) Pending release and return home of those detained, urgent action by humanitarian organisations to examine temporary options.
Traditional/religious leaders
No specific mention.
Public administration
No specific mention.

Power sharing

Political power sharing
No specific mention.
Territorial power sharing
No specific mention.
Economic power sharing
No specific mention.
Military power sharing
No specific mention.

Human rights and equality

Human rights/RoL
No specific mention.
Equality
No specific mention.
Democracy
No specific mention.
Protection measures
No specific mention.
Human rights framework
Treaty incorporation
Page 2, International Action, 6
In order to promote these objectives all governments and international organisations will:
- ensure the compliance by all persons with their obligations under international humanitarian law
- take all possible legal action to bring to account those responsible for committing or ordering grave breaches of the Geneva conventions
- draw up a register of verified breaches of international humanitarian law
Civil and political rights
No specific mention.
Socio-economic rights
No specific mention.
NHRI
No specific mention.
Regional or international human rights institutions
No specific mention.
Mobility/access
Page 2, International Action, 6
In order to promote these objectives all governments and international organisations will:
- provide the means for: passage and protection on of humanitarian convoys at the request of the United Nations;
Detention procedures
No specific mention.
Media and communication
No specific mention.
Citizenship
No specific mention.

Justice sector reform

Criminal justice and emergency law
No specific mention.
State of emergency provisions
No specific mention.
Judiciary and courts
No specific mention.
Prisons and detention
Page 2, Humanitarian Issues, 5, Dismantling detention camps
iv) Unconditional and unilateral release under international supervision of all civilians detained, and the closure without delay of the detention camps.
v) Parties to take responsibility for security and protection of those detained until freed under international supervision.
vi) International community to be given immediate access in order to monitor the situation of those in detention.
vii) Pending release and return home of those detained, urgent action by humanitarian organisations to examine temporary options.
Traditional Laws
No specific mention.

Socio-economic reconstruction

Development or socio-economic reconstruction
Humanitarian assistance
Page 2, Humanitarian Issues, 5, Effective delivery of humanitarian aid
The Co-Chairmen have agreed a programme of action with the parties to the conflict. This includes:
i) Full collaboration in delivery of humanitarian relief by road throughout Bosnia-Herzegovina, with the following specific steps:
- progressive development of relief missions and road convoys from Croatia and Serbia and Montenegro into all areas of Bosnia where relief is required
- priority to repairing the road and railway between Ploce, Mostar and Sarajevo
- parties to designate local representatives with whom practical arrangements for relief missions and road convoys can be made

Page 2, International Action, 6
In order to promote these objectives all governments and international organisations will:
- not consider help for the reconstruction of the Serbian economy before Serbia has complied with the demands of this Conference

Page 2, International Action, 6
In order to promote these objectives all governments and international organisations will:
- provide the means for: passage and protection on of humanitarian convoys at the request of the United Nations;
National economic plan
No specific mention.
Natural resources
No specific mention.
International funds
Page 2, International Action, 6
In order to promote these objectives all governments and international organisations will:
- not consider help for the reconstruction of the Serbian economy before Serbia has complied with the demands of this Conference
Business
Page 3, Sanctions, 7
- contribute experts to advise on the application of sanctions in all neighbouring countries to take part in the monitoring missions which will be established in the
neighbouring countries to ensure full implementation of sanctions - ask the Security Council to:
...
- eliminate diversion of goods in transit.
Taxation
No specific mention.
Banks
No specific mention.

Land, property and environment

Land reform/rights
No specific mention.
Pastoralist/nomadism rights
No specific mention.
Cultural heritage
No specific mention.
Environment
No specific mention.
Water or riparian rights or access
Page 2, Sanctions, 7
The relevant governments have agreed that they will:
...
- enforce sanctions on the Danube, consistent with their view that riparian states have the authority and obligation to do so;

Security sector

Security Guarantees
No specific mention.
Ceasefire
General commitments
Page 1, Cessation of Violence, 2
The overall aim is an effective and durable cessation of hostilities in the whole of the former SFRY and in particular in Bosnia-Herzegovina in order to facilitate the negotiation of a lasting political settlement.
Police
No specific mention.
Armed forces
Page 1, Cessation of Violence, 2
This requires urgent action including:
...
- bringing all forces, including irregulars, under central control
- withholding of direct or indirect military assistance to self-proclaimed governments and the internal components of neighbouring states

Page 1, Cessation of Violence, 3
Participants agreed confidence-building measures including:
- a ban on military flights
- early setting up of hot lines between local commanders and HQs
- improved contact through liaison visits
- the identification of HQs and commanders of all armed units, including para-militaries.

Page 1, Cessation of Violence, 4
Further confidence-building measures, covering military movements, arms limitation and verification will be urgently examined.

Page 2, Humanitarian Issues, 5, Effective delivery of humanitarian aid
The Co-Chairmen have agreed a programme of action with the parties to the conflict. This includes:
...
ii) Parties to exercise authority over undisciplined elements in their areas.

Page 2, Humanitarian Issues, 5, Dismantling detention camps
...
v) Parties to take responsibility for security and protection of those detained until freed under international supervision.
DDR
Demilitarisation provisions
Page 1, Cessation of Violence, 2
This requires urgent action including:
...
- the progressive reduction of weapons in the region under international supervision.

Page 1, Cessation of Violence, 3
Participants agreed confidence-building measures including:
- the notification of all mortars and heavy weapons to the UN within 96 hours as a prelude to their disengagement from the conflict, which will be the first item in negotiations
Intelligence services
No specific mention.
Parastatal/rebel and opposition group forces
Page 1, Cessation of Violence, 2
This requires urgent action including:
...
- bringing all forces, including irregulars, under central control
- withholding of direct or indirect military assistance to self-proclaimed governments and the internal components of neighbouring states

Page 1, Cessation of Violence, 3
Participants agreed confidence-building measures including:
- a ban on military flights
- early setting up of hot lines between local commanders and HQs
- improved contact through liaison visits
- the identification of HQs and commanders of all armed units, including para-militaries.

Page 1, Cessation of Violence, 4
Further confidence-building measures, covering military movements, arms limitation and verification will be urgently examined.

Page 2, Humanitarian Issues, 5, Effective delivery of humanitarian aid
The Co-Chairmen have agreed a programme of action with the parties to the conflict. This includes:
...
ii) Parties to exercise authority over undisciplined elements in their areas.

Page 2, Humanitarian Issues, 5, Dismantling detention camps
v) Parties to take responsibility for security and protection of those detained until freed under international supervision.
Withdrawal of foreign forces
No specific mention.
Corruption
No specific mention.
Crime/organised crime
No specific mention.
Drugs
No specific mention.
Terrorism
No specific mention.

Transitional justice

Transitional justice general
No specific mention.
Amnesty/pardon
No specific mention.
Courts
No specific mention.
Mechanism
No specific mention.
Prisoner release
No specific mention.
Vetting
No specific mention.
Victims
No specific mention.
Missing persons
No specific mention.
Reparations
No specific mention.
Reconciliation
No specific mention.

Implementation

UN signatory
UN Secretary-General was co-chairman of the International Conference on Former Yugoslavia
Other international signatory
This conference was convened by Great Britain, which held the presidency of the EC at the time. The Participants were: The SFRY republics, the EC countries, the USA, China, Russia, Japan, Canada, The Republic of Czechoslovakia (as a state which held the presidency of CSCE – Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe) and the neighboring countries: Austria, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, Albania
Referendum for agreement
No specific mention.
International mission/force/similar
Page 1, Cessation of Violence, 2
This requires urgent action including:
...
- international supervision of heavy weapons

Page 1, Cessation of Violence, 3
Participants agreed confidence-building measures including:
- the notification of all mortars and heavy weapons to the UN within 96 hours as a prelude to their disengagement from the conflict, which will be the first item in negotiations
...
- the posting of observers on the Bosnian/Serbian and Bosnian/Montenegrin borders
- the deployment of observers in Bosnia to monitor heavy weapons.

Page 2, Humanitarian Issues, 5, Effective delivery of humanitarian aid
The Co-Chairmen have agreed a programme of action with the parties to the conflict. This includes:
i) Full collaboration in delivery of humanitarian relief by road throughout Bosnia-Herzegovina, with the following specific steps:
...
- acceptance of and arrangements for international monitors.

Page 2, Humanitarian Issues, 5, Dismantling detention camps
vi) International community to be given immediate access in order to monitor the situation of those in detention.

Page 2, Humanitarian Issues, 5, Safe Areas
viii) Further examination of options including neutral zones for safe areas.

Page 2, International Action, 6
In order to promote these objectives all governments and international organisations will:
- set up the monitoring missions called for by the CSCE in the territories of the former SFRY and in neighbouring countries

Page 2, International Action, 6
In order to promote these objectives all governments and international organisations will:
- provide the means for: passage and protection on of humanitarian convoys at the request of the United Nations; control and monitoring of heavy weapons in Bosnia-Herzegovina under the auspices of the United Nations.

Enforcement mechanism
Page 2, Sanctions, 7
The relevant governments have agreed that they will:
- implement an agreed action plan to ensure the rigorous application of sanctions
- enforce sanctions on the Danube, consistent with their view that riparian states have the authority and obligation to do so
- provide practical advice, man-power and equipment to help neighbouring countries to enforce sanctions rigorously

Page 3, Sanctions, 7
- contribute experts to advise on the application of sanctions in all neighbouring countries to take part in the monitoring missions which will be established in the
neighbouring countries to ensure full implementation of sanctions ask the Security Council to:
- take necessary measures to tighten up the application of sanctions in the Adriatic:
- prevent illegal transfers of financial assets to Serbia and Montenegro: and
- eliminate diversion of goods in transit.
Conference parties have asked the European Community and the CSCE to coordinate all necessary practical assistance to all neighbouring countries.

The University of Edinburgh