UN Security Council Resolution 690

Country/entity
Morocco
(Western Sahara)
Region
Middle East and North Africa
Agreement name
UN Security Council Resolution 690
Date
29/04/1991
Agreement status
Unilateral document
Agreement/conflict level
Interstate/intrastate conflict(s) (Western Sahara Conflict (1973 - 1991)
Conflict in Western Sahara began as an insurgency by the Polisario Front against Spanish colonization in 1973. Two years later, Spain withdrew from the territory. Following the annexation of the territory by Morocco and Mauritania in 1976, the insurgency continued. After proclaiming the establishment of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (SADR) in 1976, the Polisario Front succeeded in gaining recognition by several states, but was not admitted into the United Nations. Instead, the territory was annexed by Morocco and Mauritania, sparking a 16-year resistance by the Algerian-backed Polisario Front. Following a withdrawal by Mauritania in 1979, the conflict reached a stalemate through the 1980s and then reignited in 1989 until a ceasefire in 1991. At the time 80 per cent of the territory was under the de facto control of Morocco, while 20 per cent continued to be held by the SADR including the refugee camps along the Algerian border. Unrest has continued to erupt at intervals in from 1999-2004, 2005, 2010 and 2011. Attempts to solve the conflict have manifested in the form of the Baker Plan (2000) and the Moroccan Initiative (2006-2008).
Western Sahara Conflict (1973 - 1991) )
Stage
Implementation/renegotiation (Implementation modalities)
Conflict nature
Government/territory
Peace process
77: Morocco-Western Sahara peace process
Parties
United Nations Security Council
Third parties
Description
UNSC endorsing 'Settlement Plan' proposed by UN and OAU and agreed between Morocco and Frente Polisario in 1988 providing for referendum on self-determination. UN and OAU to supervise the referendum, and a UN Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara.

Agreement document
MO_910429 UNSC Resolution 690 (1991).pdf []

Groups

Children/youth
No specific mention.
Disabled persons
No specific mention.
Elderly/age
No specific mention.
Migrant workers
No specific mention.
Racial/ethnic/national group
No specific mention.
Religious groups
No specific mention.
Indigenous people
No specific mention.
Other groups
No specific mention.
Refugees/displaced persons
No specific mention.
Social class
No specific mention.

Gender

Women, girls and gender
No specific mention.
Men and boys
No specific mention.
LGBTI
No specific mention.
Family
No specific mention.

State definition

State definition
Self determination
Page 1,
The Security Council,
Recalling its resolution 621 (1988) of 20 September 1988, by which it, inter alia, requested the Secretary-General to transmit to it a report on the holding of a referendum for self-determination of the people of Western Sahara and on ways and means to ensure the organization and supervision of such a referendum by the United Nations in cooperation with the Organization of African Unity,

Page 1,
2. Expresses its full support for the efforts of the Secre­tary-General for the organization and the supervision, by the United Nations in cooperation with the Organization of African Unity, of a referendum for self-determination of the people of Western Sahara, in accordance with the objectives mentioned in his report;
Referendum
Page 1,
The Security Council,
Recalling its resolution 621 (1988) of 20 September 1988, by which it, inter alia, requested the Secretary-General to transmit to it a report on the holding of a referendum for self-determination of the people of Western Sahara and on ways and means to ensure the organization and supervision of such a referendum by the United Nations in cooperation with the Organization of African Unity,

Page 1,
The Security Council,
... Recalling further its resolution 658 ( 1990) of 27 June 1990, by which it approved the report of the Secretary-General of 18 June 1990,142 which contains the full text of the settlement proposals as accepted by the two parties on 30 August 1988, as well as an outline of the plan provided by the Secretary­ General in order to implement those proposals, and by which it requested the Secretary-General to transmit to it a further detailed report on his implementation plan, containing in particular an estimate of the cost of the United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara,

Page 1,
2. Expresses its full support for the efforts of the Secre­tary-General for the organization and the supervision, by the United Nations in cooperation with the Organization of African Unity, of a referendum for self-determination of the people of Western Sahara, in accordance with the objectives mentioned in his report;

Page 1,
4. Decides to establish, under its authority, a United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara in accordance with the report of 19 April 1991;

Governance

Political institutions (new or reformed)
No specific mention.
Constitution's affirmation/renewal
No specific mention.
Constitutional reform/making
No specific mention.
Elections
No specific mention.
Electoral commission
No specific mention.
Political parties reform
No specific mention.
Civil society
No specific mention.
Traditional/religious leaders
No specific mention.
Public administration
No specific mention.

Power sharing

Political power sharing
No specific mention.
Territorial power sharing
No specific mention.
Economic power sharing
No specific mention.
Military power sharing
No specific mention.

Human rights and equality

Human rights/RoL
No specific mention.
Equality
No specific mention.
Democracy
No specific mention.
Protection measures
No specific mention.
Human rights framework
No specific mention.
Civil and political rights
No specific mention.
Socio-economic rights
No specific mention.
NHRI
No specific mention.
Regional or international human rights institutions
No specific mention.
Mobility/access
No specific mention.
Detention procedures
No specific mention.
Media and communication
No specific mention.
Citizenship
No specific mention.

Justice sector reform

Criminal justice and emergency law
No specific mention.
State of emergency provisions
No specific mention.
Judiciary and courts
No specific mention.
Prisons and detention
No specific mention.
Traditional Laws
No specific mention.

Socio-economic reconstruction

Development or socio-economic reconstruction
No specific mention.
National economic plan
No specific mention.
Natural resources
No specific mention.
International funds
No specific mention.
Business
No specific mention.
Taxation
No specific mention.
Banks
No specific mention.

Land, property and environment

Land reform/rights
No specific mention.
Pastoralist/nomadism rights
No specific mention.
Cultural heritage
No specific mention.
Environment
No specific mention.
Water or riparian rights or access
No specific mention.

Security sector

Security Guarantees
No specific mention.
Ceasefire
No specific mention.
Police
No specific mention.
Armed forces
No specific mention.
DDR
No specific mention.
Intelligence services
No specific mention.
Parastatal/rebel and opposition group forces
No specific mention.
Withdrawal of foreign forces
No specific mention.
Corruption
No specific mention.
Crime/organised crime
No specific mention.
Drugs
No specific mention.
Terrorism
No specific mention.

Transitional justice

Transitional justice general
No specific mention.
Amnesty/pardon
No specific mention.
Courts
No specific mention.
Mechanism
No specific mention.
Prisoner release
No specific mention.
Vetting
No specific mention.
Victims
No specific mention.
Missing persons
No specific mention.
Reparations
No specific mention.
Reconciliation
No specific mention.

Implementation

UN signatory
UN Security Council Resolution.
Other international signatory
No specific mention.
Referendum for agreement
No specific mention.
International mission/force/similar
Page 1,
The Security Council,
Recalling its resolution 621 (1988) of 20 September 1988, by which it, inter alia, requested the Secretary-General to transmit to it a report on the holding of a referendum for self-determination of the people of Western Sahara and on ways and means to ensure the organization and supervision of such a referendum by the United Nations in cooperation with the Organization of African Unity,

Page 1,
The Security Council,
... Recalling further its resolution 658 ( 1990) of 27 June 1990, by which it approved the report of the Secretary-General of 18 June 1990,142 which contains the full text of the settlement proposals as accepted by the two parties on 30 August 1988, as well as an outline of the plan provided by the Secretary­ General in order to implement those proposals, and by which it requested the Secretary-General to transmit to it a further detailed report on his implementation plan, containing in particular an estimate of the cost of the United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara,

Page 1,
2. Expresses its full support for the efforts of the Secre­tary-General for the organization and the supervision, by the United Nations in cooperation with the Organization of African Unity, of a referendum for self-determination of the people of Western Sahara, in accordance with the objectives mentioned in his report;

Page 1,
4. Decides to establish, under its authority, a United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara in accordance with the report of 19 April 1991;

Page 1,
6. Request the Secretary-General to keep the Security Council regularly informed of the implementation of his settlement plan.
Enforcement mechanism
2. UN and OAU to supervise the referendum, and 4. a UN Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara.

UN endorsing 'Settlement Plan' proposed by UN and OAU and agreed between Morocco and Frente Polisario in 1988 providing for referendum on self-determination. 2. UN and OAU to supervise the referendum, and 4. a UN Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara.

Page 1,
2. Expresses its full support for the efforts of the Secre­tary-General for the organization and the supervision, by the United Nations in cooperation with the Organization of African Unity, of a referendum for self-determination of the people of Western Sahara, in accordance with the objectives mentioned in his report;

Page 1,
4. Decides to establish, under its authority, a United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara in accordance with the report of 19 April 1991;

The University of Edinburgh