Sarajevo Joint Declaration

Country/entity
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Yugoslavia (former)
Region
Europe and Eurasia
Agreement name
Sarajevo Joint Declaration
Date
12/11/1993
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Interim arrangement
No
Agreement/conflict level
Interstate/intrastate conflict(s) (Balkan Conflicts (1991 - 1995) (1998 - 2001)
Former Yugoslavia

The disintegration of former Yugoslavia post cold war saw conflicts which became mediated and produced peace agreements in Slovenia (where the brief independence conflict was mediated by the EC Troika in 1991), Croatia (between Croatian and Serb populations 1991-1995), in Bosnia (between Croatian, Serb and Bosniak populations 1992-1995), in Macedonia (where mediation played a key pre-emptive role in preventing large scale conflict in 2001), in Kosovo (between Kosovar Albanians and Serbian population and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY), but also between FRY and NATO, 1998-1999), and a conflict in the Presevo Valley (between Albanians in South Serbia and FRY, 2000-2001). The continued fall-out of the disintegration of former Yugoslavia also saw mediated agreement and ultimate dissolution of the Union between Serbia and Montenegro.

Bosnia-Herzegovina

In 1991, after nationalist parties won the first multi-party elections in the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, a violent process of disintegration commenced. With its mixed population, Bosnia-Herzegovina became the centre of the following civil war that began in 1992 between the newly formed army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (mostly Muslim Bosniacs), and the parastatal forces of self-declared Bosnian Croat (Herzeg-Bosnia) and Bosnian Serb (Republika Srpska) entities within Bosnia-Herzegovina, supported by Croatia and Serbia, with various, often short-lived, coalitions. The General Framework Agreement (Dayton Peace Agreement), signed in 1995, split the country into two ethno-federal entities, the Bosniak-Croat Federation and the Republika Srpska, and included continued peacekeeping and institutional administration by international actors.

Kosovo

The conflict between Serbs and Kosovar Albanians has a long history and always involved territorial disputes as well as ethno-political, cultural and linguistic factors. The most recent phase of the conflict began in November 1997 when the Albanian Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA or UCK) began their campaign for the independence of Kosovo from the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY – then Serbia and Montenegro). The subsequent war lasted until the NATO intervention, which undertook bombing campaigns of Belgrade and other places in Serbia during spring 1999. The main agreements solving the conflict were internationally driven and, finally, a UNSC resolution imposed a post-conflict arrangement in the wake of what was essentially a NATO military victory. In February 2008, Kosovo’s parliament declared independence, but independence is still internationally disputed.

Balkan Conflicts (1991 - 1995) (1998 - 2001) )
Stage
Implementation/renegotiation (Implementation modalities)
Conflict nature
Government/territory
Peace process
125: Bosnia peace process
Parties
H.E. HARIS Silajdzic Prime Minister of the Government of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina; H.E. MATE Granic Deputy Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Croatia
Third parties
Witnessed by H.E. Hikmet CETIN Minister for Foreign Affairs of The Republic of Turkey
Description
This short agreement contains implementation modalities for the principles of statements signed by the Presidents of Croatia and Bosnia, Franjo Tudjman and Alija Izetbegovic, regarding military conflict between the HVO and Army of Bosnia and Herzegovina, free passage of humanitarian aid, and to continue dialogue to solve issues between Croats and Bosniacs.

Agreement document
BA_931112_Sarajevo Joint Declaration.pdf []

Groups

Children/youth
No specific mention.
Disabled persons
No specific mention.
Elderly/age
No specific mention.
Migrant workers
No specific mention.
Racial/ethnic/national group
Rhetorical
Page 1, Untitled Preamble
In this context particular attention was paid to the latest peace initiatives. In this respect they have agreed that every political effort must be exerted on the bilateral and multilateral levels to end further deterioration of relations between the Bosnian Croats and Bosniacs in order to create a positive framework for the restoration of the peace process.

Page 2, 4.
All other remaining controversial political, military, territorial and other issues between the Bosnian Croats and the Bosniacs shall be resolved only through political means and without the use of force and a special mechanism for the coordination of all activities regarding the protection of rights and interests of the two peoples shall be established with the good offices of Turkey and other countries.

Page 2, 5.
The sides shall continue their working dialogue on ministerial and other levels on all open questions with a view to bringing about a solution to Croat-Bosniac relations and preparations for the reactivation of the peace process.
Religious groups
No specific mention.
Indigenous people
No specific mention.
Other groups
No specific mention.
Refugees/displaced persons
Substantive
Page 1-2, 2.
The immediate assurances and guarantees for free and unhindered passage of humanitarian aid convoys to all parties and areas shall be given by the respective highest authorities. For the purposes of the realization of the above-mentioned, the parties have agreed on the following:
...
(e) To establish a Joint Commission, with the mandate to coordinate all activities relating to humanitarian convoys and to cooperate with the United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR), the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and other humanitarian agencies;
Social class
No specific mention.

Gender

Women, girls and gender
No specific mention.
Men and boys
No specific mention.
LGBTI
No specific mention.
Family
No specific mention.

State definition

State definition
No specific mention.

Governance

Political institutions (new or reformed)
No specific mention.
Constitution's affirmation/renewal
No specific mention.
Constitutional reform/making
No specific mention.
Elections
No specific mention.
Electoral commission
No specific mention.
Political parties reform
No specific mention.
Civil society
Page 1-2, 2.
The immediate assurances and guarantees for free and unhindered passage of humanitarian aid convoys to all parties and areas shall be given by the respective highest authorities. For the purposes of the realization of the above-mentioned, the parties have agreed on the following:
...
(e) To establish a Joint Commission, with the mandate to coordinate all activities relating to humanitarian convoys and to cooperate with the United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR), the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and other humanitarian agencies;

Page 2, 3.
To continue to revive the activities of previously established joint working groups for the release of all detainees, in cooperation with the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) and other international agencies.
Traditional/religious leaders
No specific mention.
Public administration
No specific mention.

Power sharing

Political power sharing
No specific mention.
Territorial power sharing
No specific mention.
Economic power sharing
No specific mention.
Military power sharing
No specific mention.

Human rights and equality

Human rights/RoL
Page 2, 4.
All other remaining controversial political, military, territorial and other issues between the Bosnian Croats and the Bosniacs shall be resolved only through political means and without the use of force and a special mechanism for the coordination of all activities regarding the protection of rights and interests of the two peoples shall be established with the good offices of Turkey and other countries.
Equality
No specific mention.
Democracy
No specific mention.
Protection measures
Protection of rights and legal frameworks
Page 2,

4. All other remaining controversial political, military, territorial and other issues
between the Bosnian Croats and the Bosniacs shall be resolved only through political
means and without the use of force and a special mechanism for the coordination of all
activities regarding the protection of rights and interests of the two peoples shall be
established with the good offices of Turkey and other countries
Human rights framework
No specific mention.
Civil and political rights
No specific mention.
Socio-economic rights
No specific mention.
NHRI
No specific mention.
Regional or international human rights institutions
No specific mention.
Mobility/access
Page 1-2, 2.
The immediate assurances and guarantees for free and unhindered passage of humanitarian aid convoys to all parties and areas shall be given by the respective highest authorities. For the purposes of the realization of the above-mentioned, the parties have agreed on the following:
(a) To appeal jointly to the United Nations Security Council, the European Community and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization to provide for the free passage of humanitarian convoys by all means, including the use of force;
(b) To open immediately a humanitarian aid corridor on the route Ploce - Metkovic - Capljina - Mostar -Jablanica - Tarcin - Kiseljak - Visoko;
(c) To use the Kamenska - Tomislavgrad - Gornji Vakuf - Novi Travnik – Travnik -Zenica corridor until the above-mentioned corridor is available;
(d) To organize immediately two convoys for the Central Bosnia area, i.e., one for Nova Bila and the other for Maglaj;
Detention procedures
No specific mention.
Media and communication
No specific mention.
Citizenship
No specific mention.

Justice sector reform

Criminal justice and emergency law
No specific mention.
State of emergency provisions
No specific mention.
Judiciary and courts
No specific mention.
Prisons and detention
No specific mention.
Traditional Laws
No specific mention.

Socio-economic reconstruction

Development or socio-economic reconstruction
Humanitarian assistance
Page 1-2, 2.
The immediate assurances and guarantees for free and unhindered passage of humanitarian aid convoys to all parties and areas shall be given by the respective highest authorities. For the purposes of the realization of the above-mentioned, the parties have agreed on the following:
(a) To appeal jointly to the United Nations Security Council, the European Community and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization to provide for the free passage of humanitarian convoys by all means, including the use of force;
(b) To open immediately a humanitarian aid corridor on the route Ploce - Metkovic - Capljina - Mostar -Jablanica - Tarcin - Kiseljak - Visoko;
(c) To use the Kamenska - Tomislavgrad - Gornji Vakuf - Novi Travnik – Travnik -Zenica corridor until the above-mentioned corridor is available;
(d) To organize immediately two convoys for the Central Bosnia area, i.e., one for Nova Bila and the other for Maglaj;
(e) To establish a Joint Commission, with the mandate to coordinate all activities relating to humanitarian convoys and to cooperate with the United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR), the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and other humanitarian agencies;
(f) To coordinate their activities in order to provide for the repair of energy supply systems.
National economic plan
No specific mention.
Natural resources
No specific mention.
International funds
No specific mention.
Business
No specific mention.
Taxation
No specific mention.
Banks
No specific mention.

Land, property and environment

Land reform/rights
No specific mention.
Pastoralist/nomadism rights
No specific mention.
Cultural heritage
No specific mention.
Environment
No specific mention.
Water or riparian rights or access
No specific mention.

Security sector

Security Guarantees
No specific mention.
Ceasefire
Ceasefire provision
Page 1, 1.
To prepare and organize an urgent meeting of the highest political and military leadership of the Army of Bosnia and Herzegovina and HVO, not later than within five to seven days, in order to reach a comprehensive agreement on all military issues relating to the establishment of the cease-fire and final cessation of all hostilities and military activities. It was agreed that, during the preparations for this meeting, both sides would strictly refrain from all military activities.
Police
No specific mention.
Armed forces
No specific mention.
DDR
No specific mention.
Intelligence services
No specific mention.
Parastatal/rebel and opposition group forces
No specific mention.
Withdrawal of foreign forces
No specific mention.
Corruption
No specific mention.
Crime/organised crime
No specific mention.
Drugs
No specific mention.
Terrorism
No specific mention.

Transitional justice

Transitional justice general
No specific mention.
Amnesty/pardon
No specific mention.
Courts
No specific mention.
Mechanism
No specific mention.
Prisoner release
Page 2, 3.
To continue to revive the activities of previously established joint working groups for the release of all detainees, in cooperation with the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) and other international agencies.
Vetting
No specific mention.
Victims
No specific mention.
Missing persons
No specific mention.
Reparations
No specific mention.
Reconciliation
No specific mention.

Implementation

UN signatory
No specific mention.
Other international signatory
Witnessed by H.E. Hikmet CETIN Minister for Foreign Affairs of The Republic of Turkey
Referendum for agreement
No specific mention.
International mission/force/similar
Page 1-2, 2.
The immediate assurances and guarantees for free and unhindered passage of humanitarian aid convoys to all parties and areas shall be given by the respective highest authorities. For the purposes of the realization of the above-mentioned, the parties have agreed on the following:
(a) To appeal jointly to the United Nations Security Council, the European Community and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization to provide for the free passage of humanitarian convoys by all means, including the use of force;
...
(e) To establish a Joint Commission, with the mandate to coordinate all activities relating to humanitarian convoys and to cooperate with the United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR), the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and other humanitarian agencies;
Enforcement mechanism
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh