Statement by the President of the Security Council

Country/entity
(Bougainville)
(United Nations)
Region
Cross-regional
Agreement name
Statement by the President of the Security Council
Date
22/04/1998
Agreement status
Unilateral document
Interim arrangement
No
Agreement/conflict level
Interstate/intrastate conflict(s) (Bougainville Conflict (1987 - 1998)
The conflict on Bougainville, an island under the jurisdiction of Papua New Guinea (PNG), began in 1987 as a dispute over compensation for the use of land by Bougainville Copper Ltd, a an Australian subsidiary. The underlying issue of independence soon emerged and the conflict escalated between the government of PNG and the native islanders, in turn spearheaded by the Bougainville Revolutionary Army (BRA). Until fighting ended in 1998, an estimated 20,000 died in the conflict. Several pre-negotiation agreements culminated in an agreement to a ‘permanent and irrevocable’ ceasefire, and a framework for normalizing the PNG-Bourgainville relationship, which included elections.

Bougainville Conflict (1987 - 1998) )
Stage
Implementation/renegotiation (Implementation modalities)
Conflict nature
Government/territory
Peace process
9: Bougainville: peace process
Parties
The United Nations Security Council
Third parties
Description

Agreement document
PG_980422_Statement by the President of the Security Council.pdf []

Groups

Children/youth
No specific mention.
Disabled persons
No specific mention.
Elderly/age
No specific mention.
Migrant workers
No specific mention.
Racial/ethnic/national group
No specific mention.
Religious groups
No specific mention.
Indigenous people
No specific mention.
Other groups
No specific mention.
Refugees/displaced persons
No specific mention.
Social class
No specific mention.

Gender

Women, girls and gender
No specific mention.
Men and boys
No specific mention.
LGBTI
No specific mention.
Family
No specific mention.

State definition

State definition
No specific mention.

Governance

Political institutions (new or reformed)
No specific mention.
Constitution's affirmation/renewal
No specific mention.
Constitutional reform/making
No specific mention.
Elections
No specific mention.
Electoral commission
No specific mention.
Political parties reform
No specific mention.
Civil society
No specific mention.
Traditional/religious leaders
No specific mention.
Public administration
No specific mention.

Power sharing

Political power sharing
No specific mention.
Territorial power sharing
No specific mention.
Economic power sharing
No specific mention.
Military power sharing
No specific mention.

Human rights and equality

Human rights/RoL
Page 1, "The Security Council encourages all parties to cooperate in promoting reconciliation, so that the objectives of the Lincoln Agreement can be met, and urges all parties to continue to cooperate in accordance with the Lincoln Agreement, namely, to achieve and maintain peace, to renounce the use of armed force and violence, to resolve any differences by consultation, both now and in the future, and to confirm their respect for human rights and the rule of law.
Equality
No specific mention.
Democracy
No specific mention.
Protection measures
No specific mention.
Human rights framework
No specific mention.
Civil and political rights
No specific mention.
Socio-economic rights
No specific mention.
NHRI
No specific mention.
Regional or international human rights institutions
No specific mention.
Mobility/access
No specific mention.
Detention procedures
No specific mention.
Media and communication
No specific mention.
Citizenship
No specific mention.

Justice sector reform

Criminal justice and emergency law
No specific mention.
State of emergency provisions
No specific mention.
Judiciary and courts
No specific mention.
Prisons and detention
No specific mention.
Traditional Laws
No specific mention.

Socio-economic reconstruction

Development or socio-economic reconstruction
No specific mention.
National economic plan
No specific mention.
Natural resources
No specific mention.
International funds
No specific mention.
Business
No specific mention.
Taxation
No specific mention.
Banks
No specific mention.

Land, property and environment

Land reform/rights
No specific mention.
Pastoralist/nomadism rights
No specific mention.
Cultural heritage
No specific mention.
Environment
No specific mention.
Water or riparian rights or access
No specific mention.

Security sector

Security Guarantees
No specific mention.
Ceasefire
Ceasefire provision
Page 1, "The Security Council, taking note of the development of the Bougainville conflict, strongly supports the Agreement on Peace, Security and Development on Bougainville, signed at Lincoln University, New Zealand, on 23 January 1998 (the Lincoln Agreement), contained in document S/1998/287, achieved by the Government of Papua New Guinea, the Bougainville Transitional Government, the Bougainville Resistance Force, the Bougainville Interim Government, the Bougainville Revolutionary Army and the Bougainville leaders, with regard to a ceasefire among conflicting parties.

"The Security Council welcomes the extension of the period of truce, and welcomes further a permanent and irrevocable ceasefire which will take effect on 30 April 1998 as stipulated in the Lincoln Agreement.

Page 1, ... "The Security Council commends the efforts of countries in the region for the resolution of the conflict, and welcomes the establishment, as outlined in the Lincoln Agreement, of the peace monitoring group composed of civilian and military personnel from Australia, Fiji, New Zealand and Vanuatu, the mandate of which is to monitor the implementation of the said Agreement. ...
Police
No specific mention.
Armed forces
No specific mention.
DDR
No specific mention.
Intelligence services
No specific mention.
Parastatal/rebel and opposition group forces
No specific mention.
Withdrawal of foreign forces
No specific mention.
Corruption
No specific mention.
Crime/organised crime
No specific mention.
Drugs
No specific mention.
Terrorism
No specific mention.

Transitional justice

Transitional justice general
No specific mention.
Amnesty/pardon
No specific mention.
Courts
No specific mention.
Mechanism
No specific mention.
Prisoner release
No specific mention.
Vetting
No specific mention.
Victims
No specific mention.
Missing persons
No specific mention.
Reparations
No specific mention.
Reconciliation
Page 1, "The Security Council encourages all parties to cooperate in promoting reconciliation, so that the objectives of the Lincoln Agreement can be met, and urges all parties to continue to cooperate in accordance with the Lincoln Agreement, namely, to achieve and maintain peace, to renounce the use of armed force and violence, to resolve any differences by consultation, both now and in the future, and to confirm their respect for human rights and the rule of law.

Implementation

UN signatory
UN statement
Other international signatory
No specific mention.
Referendum for agreement
No specific mention.
International mission/force/similar
Page 1, ... "The Security Council commends the efforts of countries in the region for the resolution of the conflict, and welcomes the establishment, as outlined in the Lincoln Agreement, of the peace monitoring group composed of civilian and military personnel from Australia, Fiji, New Zealand and Vanuatu, the mandate of which is to monitor the implementation of the said Agreement. ...

Page 1, "The Security Council notes that the Lincoln Agreement calls for the United Nations to play a role in Bougainville, and requests the Secretary-General to consider the composition and financial modalities of such involvement by the United Nations.
Enforcement mechanism
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh