Fundamental principles for the establishment of Peace in Angola (Bicesse Accords)

Country/entity
Angola
Region
Africa (excl MENA)
Agreement name
Fundamental principles for the establishment of Peace in Angola (Bicesse Accords)
Date
31/05/1991
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Interim arrangement
No
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Angolan Civil War (1975 - 2002)
The conflict has involved political divisions, and agreements emanate from two dyads. Unita-dyad. Immediately following Angola’s independence in 1975, a civil war broke out between the two main armed independence movements, the (then government) Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA) and the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA). The UN-mediated Lusaka Protocol in November 1994 did not end fighting and another attempt in 1998 failed due to continuous ceasefire violations. After internal splits and the killing of their founder Jonas Savimbi, UNITA was defeated by MPLA forces in 2002.

Cabinda dyad. Additionally, in the Cabinda enclave, the Front for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda (FLEC) fought a low intensity guerrilla warfare against the MPLA government since independence, but by the early 2000s, FLEC had lost significant operational power and in 2006 the group eventually declared a ceasefire.
Angolan Civil War (1975 - 2002) )
Stage
Ceasefire/related (Related)
Conflict nature
Government
Peace process
4: Angola: UNITA process
Parties
[Note: Actual signatories not listed, although parties appear to be Government of Angola and UNITA]
Third parties
Description
Attachment II Fundamental principles for the establishment of peace in Angola of the Bicesse Accords. This sets out the requirements in principle for establishing peace such as respect for human rights as well as more specific foundations such as consultation over amending the constitution and the establishment of a Joint Political-Military Commission.

Agreement document
AO_930531_Attachment II_Fundamental_Principles_for_the_Establishment_of_Peace_(Bicesse_Accords).pdf []

Groups

Children/youth
No specific mention.
Disabled persons
No specific mention.
Elderly/age
No specific mention.
Migrant workers
No specific mention.
Racial/ethnic/national group
No specific mention.
Religious groups
No specific mention.
Indigenous people
No specific mention.
Other groups
No specific mention.
Refugees/displaced persons
No specific mention.
Social class
No specific mention.

Gender

Women, girls and gender
No specific mention.
Men and boys
No specific mention.
LGBTI
No specific mention.
Family
No specific mention.

State definition

State definition
No specific mention.

Governance

Political institutions (new or reformed)
No specific mention.
Constitution's affirmation/renewal
No specific mention.
Constitutional reform/making
Page 1, Point 2
At the moment the cease-fire enters into force, UNITA will acquire the right to conduct and freely participate in political activities in accordance with the revised Constitution and the pertinent laws for the creation of a multi-party democracy.

Page 1, Point 3
The Angolan Government will hold discussions with all political forces in order to survey their opinions concerning the proposed changes in the Constitution. The Angolan Government will then work with all the parties to draft the laws that will regulate the electoral process.
Elections
Page 1, Point 1
Recognition by UNITA of the Angolan State, of President José Eduardo dos Santos and of the Angolan Government until the general elections are held.

Page 1, Point 3
The Angolan Government will hold discussions with all political forces in order to survey their opinions concerning the proposed changes in the Constitution. The Angolan Government will then work with all the parties to draft the laws that will regulate the electoral process.

Page 1, Point 6
The process of creating the National Army will begin with the entry into force of the cease-fire and will be concluded on the date of the elections, under terms to be agreed on between the Government of the People's Republic of Angola and UNITA. The neutrality of the National Army in the electoral process will be guaranteed by the Angolan parties, acting within the framework of CCPM, with the support of the international monitoring group.
Page 1, Point 4
Free and fair elections for a new Government will take place following voter registration conducted under the supervision of international elections observers, who will remain in Angola until they certify that the elections were free and fair and that the results have been officially announced. At the time of the signature of the cease-fire, the parties will determine the period within which free and fair elections must be held. The exact date of said elections will be established through consultation with all political forces in Angola.
Electoral commission
No specific mention.
Political parties reform
No specific mention.
Civil society
No specific mention.
Traditional/religious leaders
No specific mention.
Public administration
No specific mention.

Power sharing

Political power sharing
No specific mention.
Territorial power sharing
No specific mention.
Economic power sharing
No specific mention.
Military power sharing
Merger of forces
Point 6
The process of creating the National Army will begin with the entry into
force of the cease-fire and will be concluded on the date of the elections,
under terms to be agreed on between the Government of the People's Republic of
Angola and UNITA. The neutrality of the National Army in the electoral
process will be guaranteed by the Angolan parties, acting within the framework
of CCPM, with the support of the international monitoring group.
Joint command structures
Page 3, Annex
1. The Government of the People's Republic of Angola and UNITA agree to the
formation of a Joint Political-Military Commission (CCPM), to be established
at Luanda at the time of the signature of the "Fundamental principles tor the
establishment of peace in Angola".
2. CCPM shall be composed of representatives of the Government of the
People's Republic of Angola and of UNITA as members, and by representatives of
Portugal, the United States, and the Soviet Union as observers. In addition,
a representative of the United Nations may be invited to participate in the
meetings of CCPM.
3. It shall be the task of CCPM to see that the peace accords are applied,
theraby guaranteeing strict compliance with all political and military
understandings, and to make the final decision on possible violations of those
accords.
4. CCPM shall have the authority necessary to approve all the rules relating
to its functioning, particularly its own intarnal regulations. Its decisions
will be made by consensus between the Government of the People's Republic of
Angola and UNITA.

Human rights and equality

Human rights/RoL
Page 1, Point 5
Respect for human rights and basic freedoms, including the right of free association.
Equality
No specific mention.
Democracy
Page 1, Point 2
At the moment the cease-fire enters into force, UNITA will acquire the right to conduct and freely participate in political activities in accordance with the revised Constitution and the pertinent laws for the creation of a multi-party democracy.
Protection measures
No specific mention.
Human rights framework
No specific mention.
Civil and political rights
Freedom of association
Page 1, Point 5
Respect for human rights and basic freedoms, including the right of free association.
Socio-economic rights
No specific mention.
NHRI
No specific mention.
Regional or international human rights institutions
No specific mention.
Mobility/access
No specific mention.
Detention procedures
No specific mention.
Media and communication
No specific mention.
Citizenship
No specific mention.

Justice sector reform

Criminal justice and emergency law
No specific mention.
State of emergency provisions
No specific mention.
Judiciary and courts
No specific mention.
Prisons and detention
No specific mention.
Traditional Laws
No specific mention.

Socio-economic reconstruction

Development or socio-economic reconstruction
No specific mention.
National economic plan
No specific mention.
Natural resources
No specific mention.
International funds
No specific mention.
Business
No specific mention.
Taxation
No specific mention.
Banks
No specific mention.

Land, property and environment

Land reform/rights
No specific mention.
Pastoralist/nomadism rights
No specific mention.
Cultural heritage
No specific mention.
Environment
No specific mention.
Water or riparian rights or access
No specific mention.

Security sector

Security Guarantees
No specific mention.
Ceasefire
Ceasefire provision
Page 1, Point 6
The process of creating the National Army will begin with the entry into force of the cease-fire and will be concluded on the date of the elections, under terms to be agreed on between the Government of the People's Republic of Angola and UNITA. The neutrality of the National Army in the electoral process will be guaranteed by the Angolan parties, acting within the framework of CCPM, with the support of the international monitoring group.

Page 1, Point 7
Declaration and entry into force of the ceaae-fire throughout Angolan territory, in accordance with the agreement to be concluded on this subject between the Government of the People's Republic of Angola and UNITA,
Police
No specific mention.
Armed forces
Page 1, Point 6
The process of creating the National Army will begin with the entry into force of the cease-fire and will be concluded on the date of the elections, under terms to be agreed on between the Government of the People's Republic of Angola and UNITA. The neutrality of the National Army in the electoral process will be guaranteed by the Angolan parties, acting within the framework of CCPM, with the support of the international monitoring group.
DDR
No specific mention.
Intelligence services
No specific mention.
Parastatal/rebel and opposition group forces
Page 1, Point 1
Recognition by UNITA of the Angolan State, of President José Eduardo dos Santos and of the Angolan Government until the general elections are held.

Page 1, Point 2
At the moment the cease-fire enters into force, UNITA will acquire the right to conduct and freely participate in political activities in accordance with the revised Constitution and the pertinent laws for the creation of a multi-party democracy.

Page 1, Point 6
The process of creating the National Army will begin with the entry into force of the cease-fire and will be concluded on the date of the elections, under terms to be agreed on between the Government of the People's Republic of Angola and UNITA. The neutrality of the National Army in the electoral process will be guaranteed by the Angolan parties, acting within the framework of CCPM, with the support of the international monitoring group.
Withdrawal of foreign forces
No specific mention.
Corruption
No specific mention.
Crime/organised crime
No specific mention.
Drugs
No specific mention.
Terrorism
No specific mention.

Transitional justice

Transitional justice general
No specific mention.
Amnesty/pardon
No specific mention.
Courts
No specific mention.
Mechanism
No specific mention.
Prisoner release
No specific mention.
Vetting
No specific mention.
Victims
No specific mention.
Missing persons
No specific mention.
Reparations
No specific mention.
Reconciliation
No specific mention.

Implementation

UN signatory
No specific mention.
Other international signatory
No specific mention.
Referendum for agreement
No specific mention.
International mission/force/similar
Page 2, Annex
1. The Government of the People's Republic of Angola and UNITA agree to the formation of a Joint Political-Military Commission (CCPM), to be established at Luanda at the time of the signature of the "Fundamental principles tor the establishment of peace in Angola".
2. CCPM shall be composed of representatives of the Government of the People's Republic of Angola and of UNITA as members, and by representatives of Portugal, the United States, and the Soviet Union as observers. In addition, a representative of the United Nations may be invited to participate in the meetings of CCPM.
3. It shall be the task of CCPM to see that the peace accords are applied, thereby guaranteeing strict compliance with all political and military understandings, and to make the final decision on possible violations of those accords.
4. CCPM shall have the authority necessary to approve all the rules relating to its functioning, particularly its own internal regulations. Its decisions will be made by consensus between the Government of the People's Republic of Angola and UNITA.
Enforcement mechanism
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh