The Protocol of Estoril (Bicesse Accords)

Country/entity
Angola
Region
Africa (excl MENA)
Agreement name
The Protocol of Estoril (Bicesse Accords)
Date
31/05/1991
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Interim arrangement
No
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Angolan Civil War (1975 - 2002)
The conflict has involved political divisions, and agreements emanate from two dyads. Unita-dyad. Immediately following Angola’s independence in 1975, a civil war broke out between the two main armed independence movements, the (then government) Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA) and the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA). The UN-mediated Lusaka Protocol in November 1994 did not end fighting and another attempt in 1998 failed due to continuous ceasefire violations. After internal splits and the killing of their founder Jonas Savimbi, UNITA was defeated by MPLA forces in 2002.

Cabinda dyad. Additionally, in the Cabinda enclave, the Front for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda (FLEC) fought a low intensity guerrilla warfare against the MPLA government since independence, but by the early 2000s, FLEC had lost significant operational power and in 2006 the group eventually declared a ceasefire.
Angolan Civil War (1975 - 2002) )
Stage
Framework/substantive - partial (Other)
Conflict nature
Government
Peace process
4: Angola: UNITA process
Parties
[Note: Signatories not listed, however parties are stated to be the Government of Angola and UNITA]
Third parties
[Note: Signatories not listed, however the Portuguese Government is mentioned as mediator and it is stated the agreement was done in the presence of observers from the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics]
Description
The final attachment of the Bicesse Accords, this protocol deals with immediate concerns for the consolidation of peace including an emphasis on ensuring the security of the electoral process and the merger of the armed forces of the Government of Angola and UNITA.

Agreement document
AO_930531_Attachment IV_Protocol_of_Estoril_(Bicesse_Accords).pdf []

Groups

Children/youth
No specific mention.
Disabled persons
No specific mention.
Elderly/age
No specific mention.
Migrant workers
No specific mention.
Racial/ethnic/national group
No specific mention.
Religious groups
No specific mention.
Indigenous people
No specific mention.
Other groups
No specific mention.
Refugees/displaced persons
No specific mention.
Social class
No specific mention.

Gender

Women, girls and gender
No specific mention.
Men and boys
No specific mention.
LGBTI
No specific mention.
Family
No specific mention.

State definition

State definition
No specific mention.

Governance

Political institutions (new or reformed)
No specific mention.
Constitution's affirmation/renewal
No specific mention.
Constitutional reform/making
No specific mention.
Elections
Page 1, I. ELECTIONS
1. Elections will take place in Angola to choose the President of the Republic and the National Assembly. The question of whether or not those elections will be held simultaneously will be decided through consultations among all Angolan political forces.
2. The President will be elected by direct and secret suffrage, through a majority system, with recourse to a second round, if necessary.
3. The National Assembly will be elected by direct and secret suffrage, through a system of proportional representation at the national level.
4. The elections will be preceded by an official election campaign period, the duration of which will be determined following a process of consultations involving all Angolan political forces. A technical opinion from a specialized international body such as the United Nations, for example, will be obtained on the question of the desirable duration of the election campaign in Angola. That opinion, however, will not be considered bindinq by any of the parties.
5. All Angolan citizens of adult age may vote, participate in the election campaign, and stand for election without any discrimination or intimidation. The definition of what is to be understood as "adult age" will be dealt with [page 47] in the election law, to be drafted following the cease-fire, after a process of consultations between the Government of the People's Republic of Angola and all Angolan political forces.
6. The voting will be secret, and special provisions will be made for those who cannot read or write. Those provisions will be included in the election law, to be drafted following the cease-fire, after a process of consultations between the Government of the People's Republic of Angola and all Angolan political forces.
7. All political parties and interested persons will have the opportunity to organize and to participate in the elections process on an equal tooting, regardless of their political positions.
8. Total freedom of expression, association, and access to the media will be guaranteed.
9. The parties have accepted the tripartite proposal by the delegations of Portugal in its capacity of mediator, and the United States and the Soviet Union as observers, to the effect that 1 September to 30 November 1992 will be the period within which free and fair elections should be held in Angola, the cease-fire being signed in May 1991. The parties have reached an understanding that the following tripartite declaration is to be taken into consideration in the discussion of the precise date for the holding of elections:

Page 2, I. ELECTIONS
9. ... "Taking into consideration the logistical difficulties in organizing the elections process, specifically the desirability that the elections be held during the dry season, and the need to reduce the high costs that the international community will have to bear in monitoring the cease-fire, the delegations of Portugal, the United States and the Soviet Union heartily recommend that the elections be held during the first part of the suggested period, preferably between 1 September and 1 October 1992."

Page 2, II. JOINT POLITICAL-MILITARY COMMISSION (CCPM)
3. In the light of the foregoing, CCPM, with headquarters in Luanda, should structure itself so as to:
3.1 Guarantee the conditions of peace Cor the holding of free, fair, multi-party, and internationally verifiable elections;
3.2 Ensure the fulfilment of all the political understandings resulting from the Peace Accords relating to the electoral process;

Page 4, IV, POLITICAL RIGHTS TO RE EXERCISED BY UNITA FOLLOWING THE CEASE-FIRE
1. ... (g) The right to present candidates in the elections;

Page 4, VI. FORMATION OF THE ANGOLAN ARMED FORCES, A. Identification and general principles
4. The process of formation of the Armed Forces shall begin with the entry into force of the cease-fire and end on the date of the elections.
Electoral commission
No specific mention.
Political parties reform
Rebels transitioning to political parties
Page 5
IV, POLITICAL RIGHTS TO RE EXERCISED BY UNITA FOLLOWING
THE CEASE-FIRE
1. According to the provisions contained in tho document entitled "Concepts
for resolving the issues still pending between the Government of the People's
Republic of Angola and UNITA", and in the document on "Fundamental principles
for the establishment of peace in Angola", at the time of entry into force of
the cease-fire, UNITA will acquire the right to conduct and froely participate
in political activities, according to the revised Constitution and the
pertinent laws for the creation of a multi-party democracy, particularly
including the following riqhts:
(a) Freedom of expression;
(b) The right to present, publish and freely debate its political
programme;
(c) The right to recruit and enrol members;
(d) The right to hold meetings and demonstrations;
(e) The right of access to the govornmont media;
(f) The right to free movement and personal safety of its members;
(g) The right to present candidates in tho elections;
(h) The right to open headquarters and representativo offices anywhere
in Angola.
2. Without prejudice to the stipulations of the previous paragraph, which
permit UNITA to exercise those rights immediately, UNITA must, after entry
into force of the cease-fire, satisfy the formal requirements for its
registration as a political party pursuant to the "Political Parties Law" of
the People's Republic of Angola.
Other political parties reform
page 2, I
7, All political parties and interested persons will have the opportunity to organize and to participate in the elections process on an equal footing, regardless of their political positions.
Civil society
No specific mention.
Traditional/religious leaders
No specific mention.
Public administration
Page 4, V. ADMINISTRATIVE STRUCTURES
1. Both parties accept the principle of the extension of the Central Administration to those areas of Angola that are presently beyond the range of its authority.
2. Both parties recognize that such extension must not be made abruptly or endanger the free circulation of persons and goods, the activities of the political forces, and the execution of the tasks related to the electoral process.

Power sharing

Political power sharing
No specific mention.
Territorial power sharing
No specific mention.
Economic power sharing
No specific mention.
Military power sharing
Merger of forces
Page 6, VI. FORMATION OF THE ANGOLAN ARMED FORCES, B. Troop strength
3. Each of the parties shall provide the Army with a total of 20,000 men, distributed as follows:
15,000 soldiers, of whom 7,500 are to be operations personnel;
3,000 non-commissioned officers;
2,000 officers.

Pages 5-6.

2.4 In principle, there will be three monitoring teams for each Angolan province. CCPM may modify the number of monitoring teams in accordance with the needs of each province.

J , l Consonant with the invitation from the Government, UNITA will participate in the police force that is responsible for maintaining public order.

3.2 To that end, shortly after entry into force of the cease-fire, and as a means of strengthening trust between the parties, the availability of vacancies in the ranks of the police force to be filled by personnel designated by UNITA will be guaranteed, and those personnel will be given appropriate training.
. . .
4. UNITA will be responsible for the personal safety of its highest-ranking leaders. The Government of the People's Republic of Angola will grant police status to the membars of UNITA in charge of guaranteeing that safety.
Joint command structures
Page 7, C. COMMAND STRUCTURES OF THE ANGOLAN ARMED FORCES
Page 2, II. JOINT POLITICAL-MILITARY COMMISSION (CCPM)
1. According to the document entitled "Concepts for resolving the issues still pending between the Government of the People's Republic of Angola and UNITA", and the annex to the "Fundamental principles for the establishment of peace in Angola", the Joint Political-Military Commission (CCPM) has as its mission the overall political supervision of the cease-fire process. It will have the duty to see that the Peace Accords are applied, thereby guaranteeing strict compliance with all political and military understandings, and to make the final decision on possible violations of those Accords.
2. CCPM will have the authority necessary to approve all rules relating to its own functioning, particularly its own internal regulations. Its decisions will be made by consensus between the Government of the People's Republic of Anqola and UNITA, after hearing the opinion of the Observers.
3. Angolan Armed Forces High Command
(a) The overall mission of the High Command of the Angolan Armed Forces is to detail the generic directives received from CCFA, with a view to staffing the structural units and supporting the forces;
(b) The High Command is composed [during the period] prior to the elections, of two general officers having equal rank, designated by each of the parties. Its decisions shall be valid only when signed by those two general officers;

[Summary: Page 58 contains a diagram outlining the command structure of the newly formed and merged armed forces.]
Proportionality
Page 3, III. PRINCIPLES RELATING TO THE ISSUE OF INTERNAL SECURITY DURING THE PERIOD BETWEEN THE ENTRY INTO FORCE OF THE CEASE-FIRE AND THE HOLDING OF ELECTIONS
3.2 To that end, shortly after entry into force of the cease-fire, and as a means of strengthening trust between the parties, the availability of vacancies in the ranks of the police force to be filled by personnel designated by UNITA will be guaranteed, and those personnel will be given appropriate training.
Other
III.
PRINCIPLES RELATING TO THE ISSUE OF INTERNAL SECURITY DURING THE PERIOD BETWEEN THE ENTRY INTO FORCE OF THE CEASE-FIRE AND THE HOLDING OF ELECTIONS

2.1 The neutrality of the police, whose functions and activities are the responsibility of the Government of the People's Republic of Angola, shall be the object of verification and monitoring by teams of monitors composed of two members designated by the Government of the People 's Republic of Angola, two members designated by UNITA and one expert in police affairs to be designated by and subordinate to the United Nations command structure.

2.2 Within the sphere of their authority, the monitoring teams shall have as their specific mandate the duty to visit police facilities, examine their activities, and investigate possible violations of political rights committed by the police. These teams may move freely throughout the entire territory of Angola.

2.3 The monitoring teams are subordinate to CCPM, and must submit reports of their activities to that body.

Human rights and equality

Human rights/RoL
No specific mention.
Equality
No specific mention.
Democracy
Page 3, III. PRINCIPLES RELATING TO THE ISSUE OF INTERNAL SECURITY DURING THE PERIOD BETWEEN THE ENTRY INTO FORCE OF THE CEASE-FIRE AND THE HOLDING OF ELECTIONS
1. All Angolans shall have the right to conduct and participate in political activities without intimidation, in accordance with the revised Constitution and pertinent laws for the creation of a multi-party democracy, and the provisions of the Peace Accords.

Page 4 IV, POLITICAL RIGHTS TO RE EXERCISED BY UNITA FOLLOWING THE CEASE-FIRE
1. ... (d) The right to hold meetings and demonstrations;
Protection measures
No specific mention.
Human rights framework
No specific mention.
Civil and political rights
Freedom of movement
Page 4, IV, POLITICAL RIGHTS TO RE EXERCISED BY UNITA FOLLOWING THE CEASE-FIRE
1. ... (f) The right to free movement and personal safety of its members;

Page 4, V. ADMINISTRATIVE STRUCTURES
1. Both parties accept the principle of the extension of the Central Administration to those areas of Angola that are presently beyond the range of its authority.
2. Both parties recognize that such extension must not be made abruptly or endanger the free circulation of persons and goods, the activities of the political forces, and the execution of the tasks related to the electoral process.
Freedom of association
Page 1, I. ELECTIONS
8. Total freedom of expression, association, and access to the media will be guaranteed.

Page 4, IV, POLITICAL RIGHTS TO RE EXERCISED BY UNITA FOLLOWING THE CEASE-FIRE
1. ... (c) The right to recruit and enrol members;
Vote and take part
Page 4, IV, POLITICAL RIGHTS TO RE EXERCISED BY UNITA FOLLOWING THE CEASE-FIRE
1. ... (f) The right to free movement and personal safety of its members;
Thought, opinion, conscience and religion
Page 1, I. ELECTIONS
8. Total freedom of expression, association, and access to the media will be guaranteed.

Page 4, IV, POLITICAL RIGHTS TO RE EXERCISED BY UNITA FOLLOWING THE CEASE-FIRE
1. ... (a) Freedom of expression;
(b) The right to present, publish and freely debate its political programme;
Socio-economic rights
No specific mention.
NHRI
No specific mention.
Regional or international human rights institutions
No specific mention.
Mobility/access
Page 4, V. ADMINISTRATIVE STRUCTURES
2. Both parties recognize that such extension must not be made abruptly or endanger the free circulation of persons and goods, the activities of the political forces, and the execution of the tasks related to the electoral process.
Detention procedures
No specific mention.
Media and communication
Media roles
Page 1, I. ELECTIONS
8. Total freedom of expression, association, and access to the media will be guaranteed.
Media logistics
Page 4, IV, POLITICAL RIGHTS TO RE EXERCISED BY UNITA FOLLOWING THE CEASE-FIRE
1. ... (e) The right of access to the government media;
Citizenship
Citizens, specific rights
Page 1, I. Elections

5. All Angolan citizens of adult age may vote, participate in the election campaign, and stand for election without any discrimination or intimidation. The definition of what is to be understood as "adult age" will be dealt with in the election law, to be drafted following the cease-fire, alter a process of consultation between the Government of the People's Republic of Angola and
all Angolan political forces.
Citizenship other
Page 6,
VI. 1''0RMATION 0 ' TIIE ANGOLAN ARMED FORCES
A, Identific tion nd goneral prlnc!ple
Whereas the peace procass bot.woen the Government of" the People's Republic of Angola and UNITA
presupposes the need to form armed forces,

The Government of the People's Republic of Angola and UNITA agree to the following:

1. An Angolan Armed Forces shall be formed.

2. The Angolan Armed Forces:

. . .
(c) Shall be composed exclusively of Angolan citizens; furthermore, its
organizational structure is unitary for the entire territory;

Justice sector reform

Criminal justice and emergency law
No specific mention.
State of emergency provisions
No specific mention.
Judiciary and courts
No specific mention.
Prisons and detention
No specific mention.
Traditional Laws
No specific mention.

Socio-economic reconstruction

Development or socio-economic reconstruction
No specific mention.
National economic plan
No specific mention.
Natural resources
No specific mention.
International funds
No specific mention.
Business
No specific mention.
Taxation
No specific mention.
Banks
No specific mention.

Land, property and environment

Land reform/rights
No specific mention.
Pastoralist/nomadism rights
No specific mention.
Cultural heritage
No specific mention.
Environment
No specific mention.
Water or riparian rights or access
No specific mention.

Security sector

Security Guarantees
No specific mention.
Ceasefire
General commitments
Page 1, I. ELECTIONS
6. The voting will be secret, and special provisions will be made for those who cannot read or write. Those provisions will be included in the election law, to be drafted following the cease-fire, after a process of consultations between the Government of the People's Republic of Angola and all Angolan political forces.

Page 5, VI. FORMATION OF THE ANGOLAN ARMED FORCES, A. Identification and general principles
4. The process of formation of the Armed Forces shall begin with the entry into force of the cease-fire and end on the date of the elections.
Police
Page 3, III. PRINCIPLES RELATING TO THE ISSUE OF INTERNAL SECURITY DURING THE PERIOD BETWEEN THE ENTRY INTO FORCE OF THE CEASE-FIRE AND THE HOLDING OF ELECTIONS
2.1 The neutrality of the police, whose functions and activities are the responsibility of the Government of the People's Republic of Angola, shall be the object of verification and monitoring by teams of monitors composed of two members designated by the Government of the People's Republic of Angola, two members designated by UNITA and one expert in police affairs to be designated by and subordinate to the United Nations command structure.
2.2 Within the sphere of their authority, the monitoring teams shall have as their specific mandate the duty to visit police facilities, examine their activities, and investigate possible violations of political rights committed by the police. These teams may move freely throughout the entire territory of Angola.
... 3.1 Consonant with the invitation from the Government, UNITA will participate in the police force that is responsible for maintaining public order.
3.2 To that end, shortly after entry into force of the cease-fire, and as a means of strengthening trust between the parties, the availability of vacancies in the ranks of the police force to be filled by personnel designated by UNITA will be guaranteed, and those personnel will be given appropriate training.
4. UNITA will be responsible for the personal safety of its highest-ranking leaders. The Government of the People's Republic of Angola will grant police status to the members of UNITA in charge of guaranteeing that safety.
Armed forces
Page 4, VI. FORMATION OF THE ANGOLAN ARMED FORCES, A. Identification and general principles
Whereas the peace process between the Government of the People's Republic of Angola and UNITA presupposes the need to form armed forces, The Government of the People's Republic of Angola and UNITA agree to the following:
1. An Angolan Armed Forces shall be formed.
2. The Angolan Armed Forces:
(a) Shall have as their overall mission the defence and safeguarding of independence and territorial integrity;
(b) May, in compliance with provisions of law, perform other missions of general interest that are the responsibility of the State, or collaborate in tasks related to satisfying the basic needs and improving the quality of life of the population, without prejudice to the aforesaid overall mission;
(c) Shall be composed exclusively of Angolan citizens; furthermore, its organizational structure is unitary for the entire territory;
(d) Shall have such composition, high command structure, troops, mechanisms, and equipment as determined in accordance with foreseeable external threats and the country's socio-economic conditions;
(e) Are non-partisan and obey the competent organs of sovereignty, within the principle of subordination to political authority;

Page 5, VI. FORMATION OF THE ANGOLAN ARMED FORCES, A. Identification and general principles
2. ... (f) Swear publicly to respect the Constitution and other laws of the Republic.
3. Members of the military on active duty shall enjoy active voting status, but may not use their duties or the structural units of the Angolan Armed Forces to interfere in any other partisan political or union activities.
4. The process of formation of the Armed Forces shall begin with the entry into force of the cease-fire and end on the date of the elections.
5. The process of formation of the Armed Forces shall evolve simultaneously with the assembly, disarmament, and integration into civilian life of the
troops that are gradually being demobilized as a consequence of the cease-fire.
6. Recruitment into the Angolan Armed Forces during the period prior to the elections shall proceed in accordance with the principle of free will, drawing from the ranks of troops that are now part of FAPLA and FALA.
7. It is mandatory that all military personnel incorporated into the Angolan Armed Forces prior to the date of the elections, attend professional training courses with a view to achieving unification in terms of doctrine and procedure that is conducive to the development of an essential esprit de corps.
8. The neutrality of the Armed Forces during the period prior to the holding of the elections shall be guaranteed by the Angolan parties acting within the framework of CCPM and the Joint Commission for the Formation of the Armed Forces (CCFA).
9. By the time the elections are held, only the Angolan Armed Forces shall exist; there may be no other troops whatsoever. All members of the present armed forces of each party who do not become members of the Angolan Armed Forces shall be demobilized prior to the holding of elections.
10. Both parties agree that individual rights acquired by military personnel of the Angolan Armed Forces during the period prior to the elections shall continue to be assured, and that the structural units created up to that point to consolidate those same Armed Forces shall be safeguarded.
11. The units of the Angolan Armed Forces shall be formed beginning at the platoon level.

Page 5, VI. FORMATION OF THE ANGOLAN ARMED FORCES, B. Troop strength
1. The patties ajreo that the troop strength of the Angolan Armed Forces by the time* of the elections shall be as follows:
Army 40 000
Air Force 6 000
Navy 4 000
2. Army personnel shall be distributed in accordance with the following plan:
15,000 operations soldiers, 7,200 of whom shall belong to the
Military Regions, 4,800 to the Army General Reserve and 3,000 to the
Special Forces;

Page 6, VI. FORMATION OF THE ANGOLAN ARMED FORCES, B. Troop strength
2. ... 15,000 soldiers for support services and administration;
6,000 non-commissioned officers;
4,000 officers.
3. Each of the parties shall provide the Army with a total of 20,000 men, distributed as follows:
15,000 soldiers, of whom 7,500 are to be operations personnel;
3,000 non-commissioned officers;
2,000 officers.
4. The first troops i:;signed to the Air Force and Navy shall be furnished from the respective bi inches of the FAPLA, inasmuch as FALA does not have such units. As soon as the process of training the Angolan Armed Forces begins, UNITA will be able to participate in the Air Force and Navy under terms to be defined within the framework of CCFA.
5. The Navy and the Air Force shall be subject to verification and monitoring, without prejudice to their being permitted to carry out controlled missions as a means of assuring their operationality and the defence of economic interests. As soon as the Navy and the Air Force units become part of the Angolan Armed Forces, they shall be subordinate to the High Command of the Angolan Armed Forces.

Page 6, VI. FORMATION OF THE ANGOLAN ARMED FORCES, C. Command structures of the Anglan Armed Forces
1. General Principles
(a) A Joint Commission for the Formation of the Armed Forces (CCFA) shall exist, created specifically to direct the process of formation of the Angolan Armed Forces and subordinate to the CCPM;
(b) The Angolan Armed Forces Command Structure, including the High Command of the Angolan Armed Forces and the commands of the three branches (Army, Air Force and Navy) is shown on the diagram in the annex;
(c) The entire command structure of the Angolan Armed Forces, although derived during the period of its formation from FAPLA and FALA, is to become strictly non-partisan and will receive directives and orders from only CCPM, CCFA and the Angolan Armed Forces chain of command;
(d) Appointments to the Angolan Armed Forces High Command and the commands of the three branches of the Anqolan Armed Forces are to be proposed by CCFA and approved by CCPM;
(e) The logistics of the Angolan Armed Forces shall be joint, and a Logistical and Infrastructure Command, subordinate to the High Command of the Angolan Armed Forces, shall be created for this purpose.

Page 7, VI. FORMATION OF THE ANGOLAN ARMED FORCES, C. Command structures of the Anglan Armed Forces
3. Angolan Armed Forces High Command
(a) The overall mission of the High Command of the Angolan Armed Forces is to detail the generic directives received from CCFA, with a view to staffing the structural units and supporting the forces;
(b) The High Command is composed [during the period] prior to the elections, of two general officers having equal rank, designated by each of the parties. Its decisions shall be valid only when signed by those two general officers;
(c) The High Command is assisted by the Angolan Armed Forces Genera] Staff (EMGFAA), which shall have at least the following staff units, headed by general officers or by field officers:
Office staff;
Planning and organization staff;
Military doctrine and instruction staff;
Legislation staff;
Information staff;
Public relations staff;
Justice and discipline staff;
Operations staff.

Page 8, VI. FORMATION OF THE ANGOLAN ARMED FORCES, C. Command structures of the Anglan Armed Forces
5. Air Force
The Air Force shall be formed on the basis of the FAPLA Air Force, in accordance with the provision in section B, items 4 and 5 above. The details will be contained in directives issued by CCFA.

Page 8, VI. FORMATION OF THE ANGOLAN ARMED FORCES, C. Command structures of the Anglan Armed Forces
6. Navy
The Navy shall be formed on the basis of the FAPLA navy, in accordance with the provision in section B, items 4 and 5 above. The details will be contained in directives to be issued by CCFA.

Page 8, VI. FORMATION OF THE ANGOLAN ARMED FORCES, C. Command structures of the Anglan Armed Forces
7. Logistical and Infrastructure Command
(a) The Logistical and Infrastructure Command is to be created, and is to be directly subordinate to the High Command of the Angolan Armed Forces;
(b) The Logistical and Infrastructure Command shall have as its overall function to plan and propose administrative and logistical support for the Angolan Armed Forces and guarantee that it is provided to the Angolan Armed Forces via common services. In particular, it will be responsible for the logistics of production and procurement;
(c) The Logistical and Infrastructure Command is to be commanded by a General, assisted by a Second Commander (a general officer) and by a General Staff that, initially, will include the following:
Infrastructure Staff;
Common Services Staff;
Ee-equipment Staff;
- Finance Staff;
(d) The Logistical and Infrastructure Command has command over those support units that may be assigned to it.

Page 8, VI. FORMATION OF THE ANGOLAN ARMED FORCES, C. Command structures of the Anglan Armed Forces
8. Phasing and establishing the timetable for the process
... fourth phase: appointment of the commanders of the Military Regions and the brigade commanders
Fifth phase: appointment of the commands of the three branches;
(b) Immediately following the appointment of each command, the General Staffs are to be organised)
(c) The administrative and logistical support system is organized within the principle of transformation, without loss or rupture of existing structures, in accordance with EMUFAA plans approved by CCFA.

Page 8, VI. FORMATION OF THE ANGOLAN ARMED FORCES, D. Technical, assistance From foreign countries
The parties will inform the Portuguese Government, not later than the date of notification of their acceptance of the Accords, as to which country or countries will be invited to render assistance in the Angolan Armed Forces formation process
DDR
DDR programmes
Page 8-9, VI. FORMATION OF THE ANGOLAN ARMED FORCES, E. Demobilization
The accommodation of the demobilized forcos constitute» a national problem that, must be studied jointly by the two parties and submitted to CCPM for review and a decision. The same treatment should be given the problem of people who have been physically disabled by the war.
Intelligence services
No specific mention.
Parastatal/rebel and opposition group forces
Page 3, III. PRINCIPLES RELATING TO THE ISSUE OF INTERNAL SECURITY DURING THE PERIOD BETWEEN THE ENTRY INTO FORCE OF THE CEASE-FIRE AND THE HOLDING OF ELECTIONS
3.2 To that end, shortly after entry into force of the cease-fire, and as a means of strengthening trust between the parties, the availability of vacancies in the ranks of the police force to be filled by personnel designated by UNITA will be guaranteed, and those personnel will be given appropriate training.
4. UNITA will be responsible for the personal safety of its highest-ranking leaders. The Government of the People's Republic of Angola will grant police status to the members of UNITA in charge of guaranteeing that safety.
Withdrawal of foreign forces
No specific mention.
Corruption
No specific mention.
Crime/organised crime
No specific mention.
Drugs
No specific mention.
Terrorism
No specific mention.

Transitional justice

Transitional justice general
No specific mention.
Amnesty/pardon
No specific mention.
Courts
No specific mention.
Mechanism
No specific mention.
Prisoner release
No specific mention.
Vetting
No specific mention.
Victims
No specific mention.
Missing persons
No specific mention.
Reparations
No specific mention.
Reconciliation
No specific mention.

Implementation

UN signatory
No specific mention.
Other international signatory
No specific mention.
Referendum for agreement
No specific mention.
International mission/force/similar
Page 2, II. JOINT POLITICAL-MILITARY COMMISSION (CCPM)
5. CCPM shall be composed of representatives of the Government of the People's Republic of Angola and of UMITA as members, and by representatives of Portugal, the United States and the Soviet Union as observers. The United Nations may be represented, in the capacity o£ invited guest.
5.1 Members and observers shall be supported by assistants and technical advisers for the areas assigned to them, namely:
(a) Joint Cease-Fire Verification and Monitoring Commission (CMVF);
(b) Joint Commission for the Formation of tho Angolan Armed Forces (CCFA);
(c) The Political Commission.
6. The meetings of CCPM shall be presided over, alternately in accordance with the principle of rotation, by Uiu Government of the People's Republic of Angola and by UNITA, without prejudice to the principle of consensus in the decision-making process.

Page 3, II. JOINT POLITICAL-MILITARY COMMISSION (CCPM)
7. It shall be the responsibility of CCPM to draft its internal regulations, as well as to determine its budget.
8. The mandate of CCPM ends on the date the elected Government takes office.

Page 3, III. PRINCIPLES RELATING TO THE ISSUE OF INTERNAL SECURITY DURING THE PERIOD BETWEEN THE ENTRY INTO FORCE OF THE CEASE-FIRE AND THE HOLDING OF ELECTIONS
2.3 The monitoring teams are subordinate to CCPM, and must submit reports of their activities to that body.
2.4 In principle, there will be three monitoring teams for each Angolan province. CCPM may modify the number of monitoring teams in accordance with the needs of each province.

Page 4, V. ADMINISTRATIVE STRUCTURES
3. Both parties agree to leave for a later date the study of the actual implementation of such extension, which will be carried out within the framework of CCPM by competent teams composed of representatives of the Government of the People's Republic of Angola and UNITA. Those teams may have recourse to international technical advisers.

Page 6, VI. FORMATION OF THE ANGOLAN ARMED FORCES, C. Command Structures of the Angolan Armed Forces
2. Joint Commission for the Formation of the Armed Forces
(a) CCFA, which is directly subordinate to CCPM, constitutes the transitional body, until the date of the elections, between the political-military echelon and the Angolan Armed Forces echelon;
(b) CCFA is to be composed of representatives of FAPLA and FALA as members, assisted by representatives of the country(ies) selected to advise them during the formation process of the Angolan Armed Forces;
(c) The duties of CCFA shall be as follows; however, other duties may be assigned to it by CCPM:
Propose to CCPM the rules applicable to he Angolan Armed Forces;
Propose to CCPM the budget to be allocated to the Angolan Armed Forces [for the period] prior to the elections;

Page 7, VI. FORMATION OF THE ANGOLAN ARMED FORCES, C. Command Structures of the Angolan Armed Forces
2. Joint Commission for the Formation of the Armed Forces
... (c) ... Undertake strategic planning for the Angolan Armed Forces [during the period] prior to the elections;
Propose to CCPM the criteria for selecting personnel from FAPLA and FALA for purposes of forming the Angolan Armed Forces;
Propose to CCPM the names of the principal commanding officers of FAA, down to and including the brigade echelon;
Draft directives concerning the phasing of the process of staffing the structural units of FAA.
Enforcement mechanism
No specific mention.

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