Cease-fire Agreement

Country/entity
Croatia
Yugoslavia (former)
Region
Europe and Eurasia
Agreement name
Cease-fire Agreement
Date
01/09/1991
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Interim arrangement
No
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Balkan Conflicts (1991 - 1995) (1998 - 2001)
Former Yugoslavia

The disintegration of former Yugoslavia post cold war saw conflicts which became mediated and produced peace agreements in Slovenia (where the brief independence conflict was mediated by the EC Troika in 1991), Croatia (between Croatian and Serb populations 1991-1995), in Bosnia (between Croatian, Serb and Bosniak populations 1992-1995), in Macedonia (where mediation played a key pre-emptive role in preventing large scale conflict in 2001), in Kosovo (between Kosovar Albanians and Serbian population and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY), but also between FRY and NATO, 1998-1999), and a conflict in the Presevo Valley (between Albanians in South Serbia and FRY, 2000-2001). The continued fall-out of the disintegration of former Yugoslavia also saw mediated agreement and ultimate dissolution of the Union between Serbia and Montenegro.

Bosnia-Herzegovina

In 1991, after nationalist parties won the first multi-party elections in the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, a violent process of disintegration commenced. With its mixed population, Bosnia-Herzegovina became the centre of the following civil war that began in 1992 between the newly formed army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (mostly Muslim Bosniacs), and the parastatal forces of self-declared Bosnian Croat (Herzeg-Bosnia) and Bosnian Serb (Republika Srpska) entities within Bosnia-Herzegovina, supported by Croatia and Serbia, with various, often short-lived, coalitions. The General Framework Agreement (Dayton Peace Agreement), signed in 1995, split the country into two ethno-federal entities, the Bosniak-Croat Federation and the Republika Srpska, and included continued peacekeeping and institutional administration by international actors.

Kosovo

The conflict between Serbs and Kosovar Albanians has a long history and always involved territorial disputes as well as ethno-political, cultural and linguistic factors. The most recent phase of the conflict began in November 1997 when the Albanian Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA or UCK) began their campaign for the independence of Kosovo from the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY – then Serbia and Montenegro). The subsequent war lasted until the NATO intervention, which undertook bombing campaigns of Belgrade and other places in Serbia during spring 1999. The main agreements solving the conflict were internationally driven and, finally, a UNSC resolution imposed a post-conflict arrangement in the wake of what was essentially a NATO military victory. In February 2008, Kosovo’s parliament declared independence, but independence is still internationally disputed.

Balkan Conflicts (1991 - 1995) (1998 - 2001) )
Stage
Ceasefire/related (Ceasefire)
Conflict nature
Government/territory
Peace process
127: Croatia negotiation process
Parties
For the European Community and its member States: HANS VAN DEN BROEK
For the Presidency of the SFRY, acting also in its capacity of Collective Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces: STIPE MESIC, PRESIDENT OF PRESIDENCY
For the Federal Executive Council: ANTE MARKOVIC, PRESIDENT
For the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina: ALIJA IZETBEGOVIC, PRESIDENT OF THE PRESIDENCY
For the Republic of Montenegro: MOMIR BULATOVIC, PRESIDENT OF PRESIDENCY
For the Republic of Croatia: FRANJO TUDJMAN, PRESIDENT
For the Republic of Macedonia: KIRO GLIGOROV, PRESIDENT
For the Republic of Slovenia: MILAN KUCAN, PRESIDENT OF THE PRESIDENCY
For the Republic of Serbia: SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC, PRESIDENT
Third parties
Description
This agreement provides for an immediate cease-fire in the Republic of Croatia; disarmament and demobilisation of all paramilitary forces, the Croatian National Guard and the Yugoslav People's Army. It also provides for the European Community Observer Mission to expand its activities to monitor implementation of the agreement.

Agreement document
HR_910901_Cease-fire Agreement.pdf []

Groups

Children/youth
No specific mention.
Disabled persons
No specific mention.
Elderly/age
No specific mention.
Migrant workers
No specific mention.
Racial/ethnic/national group
Substantive
Page 1, 2.
In order to ensure the comprehensive and effective control of the cease-fire, the signatories agree that supervision be carried out by the Yugoslav People's Army, the Croatian authorities and representatives of the Serbian population in Croatia involved in hostilities.
Religious groups
No specific mention.
Indigenous people
No specific mention.
Other groups
No specific mention.
Refugees/displaced persons
No specific mention.
Social class
No specific mention.

Gender

Women, girls and gender
No specific mention.
Men and boys
No specific mention.
LGBTI
No specific mention.
Family
No specific mention.

State definition

State definition
No specific mention.

Governance

Political institutions (new or reformed)
No specific mention.
Constitution's affirmation/renewal
No specific mention.
Constitutional reform/making
No specific mention.
Elections
No specific mention.
Electoral commission
No specific mention.
Political parties reform
No specific mention.
Civil society
No specific mention.
Traditional/religious leaders
No specific mention.
Public administration
No specific mention.

Power sharing

Political power sharing
No specific mention.
Territorial power sharing
No specific mention.
Economic power sharing
No specific mention.
Military power sharing
No specific mention.

Human rights and equality

Human rights/RoL
No specific mention.
Equality
No specific mention.
Democracy
No specific mention.
Protection measures
No specific mention.
Human rights framework
No specific mention.
Civil and political rights
No specific mention.
Socio-economic rights
No specific mention.
NHRI
No specific mention.
Regional or international human rights institutions
No specific mention.
Mobility/access
No specific mention.
Detention procedures
No specific mention.
Media and communication
No specific mention.
Citizenship
No specific mention.

Justice sector reform

Criminal justice and emergency law
No specific mention.
State of emergency provisions
No specific mention.
Judiciary and courts
No specific mention.
Prisons and detention
No specific mention.
Traditional Laws
No specific mention.

Socio-economic reconstruction

Development or socio-economic reconstruction
No specific mention.
National economic plan
No specific mention.
Natural resources
No specific mention.
International funds
No specific mention.
Business
No specific mention.
Taxation
No specific mention.
Banks
No specific mention.

Land, property and environment

Land reform/rights
No specific mention.
Pastoralist/nomadism rights
No specific mention.
Cultural heritage
No specific mention.
Environment
No specific mention.
Water or riparian rights or access
No specific mention.

Security sector

Security Guarantees
No specific mention.
Ceasefire
Ceasefire provision
Page 1, 1.
The cease-fire shall be put into effect in the Republic of Croatia. It was agreed that the cease-fire should include the following points:
- end to the use of force;
- all armed units and all persons bearing arms shall immediately and unconditionally refrain from opening fire and halt all activities which might provoke armed clashes;
- all the parties in conflict shall immediately stop any further movements, save those aimed at withdrawal, in order to avoid direct contact and they shall withdraw from their present or earlier positions where hostilities were or are in progress;
- the parties in conflict in immediate contact shall disengage and withdraw to positions beyond the range of hand fire-weapons;
- mortars and other weaponry shall be withdrawn beyond the range of the parties earlier in conflict;
- all paramilitary forces (with the exception of police forces) and irregular units shall be disarmed and dissolved;
- the members of the Croatian National Guard shall be demobilised and the Yugoslav People's Army shall withdraw to barracks so that neither shall anticipate monitoring activities as noted in paragraph 2.
All parties agree to ensure the effective and immediate realization of the above quoted points of the cease fire.

Page 1, 2.
In order to ensure the comprehensive and effective control of the cease-fire, the signatories agree that supervision be carried out by the Yugoslav People's Army, the Croatian authorities and representatives of the Serbian population in Croatia involved in hostilities.

Page 1, 3.
The signatories also agree together with Yugoslav institutions that the Observer Mission of the EC and its member States should expand their present activities in order to be able to take part in the above mentioned monitoring of the implementation of the Agreement, in keeping with the provisions of the Memorandum on Understanding appended to this Agreement, submitted to the European Community and its member States. The signatories of this Agreement are pledged to guarantee the safety of the members of the Observer mission, especially by issuing precise orders that no unit or individual shall open fire on the Mission or in its vicinity.

Page 1, 4.
Any violation of the cease-fire will be reported to the Observer mission.
Police
Page 1, 1.
The cease-fire shall be put into effect in the Republic of Croatia. It was agreed that the cease-fire should include the following points:
...- all paramilitary forces (with the exception of police forces) and irregular units shall be disarmed and dissolved;...
Armed forces
No specific mention.
DDR
Demilitarisation provisions
Page 1, 1.
The cease-fire shall be put into effect in the Republic of Croatia. It was agreed that the cease-fire should include the following points:
...- all paramilitary forces (with the exception of police forces) and irregular units shall be disarmed and dissolved;...- the members of the Croatian National Guard shall be demobilised and the Yugoslav People's Army shall withdraw to barracks so that neither shall anticipate monitoring activities as noted in paragraph 2....
Intelligence services
No specific mention.
Parastatal/rebel and opposition group forces
Page 1, 1.
The cease-fire shall be put into effect in the Republic of Croatia. It was agreed that the cease-fire should include the following points:
...- all paramilitary forces (with the exception of police forces) and irregular units shall be disarmed and dissolved;...- the members of the Croatian National Guard shall be demobilised and the Yugoslav People's Army shall withdraw to barracks so that neither shall anticipate monitoring activities as noted in paragraph 2....

Page 1, 2.
In order to ensure the comprehensive and effective control of the cease-fire, the signatories agree that supervision be carried out by the Yugoslav People's Army, the Croatian authorities and representatives of the Serbian population in Croatia involved in hostilities.
Withdrawal of foreign forces
No specific mention.
Corruption
No specific mention.
Crime/organised crime
No specific mention.
Drugs
No specific mention.
Terrorism
No specific mention.

Transitional justice

Transitional justice general
No specific mention.
Amnesty/pardon
No specific mention.
Courts
No specific mention.
Mechanism
No specific mention.
Prisoner release
No specific mention.
Vetting
No specific mention.
Victims
No specific mention.
Missing persons
No specific mention.
Reparations
No specific mention.
Reconciliation
No specific mention.

Implementation

UN signatory
No specific mention.
Other international signatory
For the European Community and its member States: HANS VAN DEN BROEK
Referendum for agreement
No specific mention.
International mission/force/similar
Page 1, 3.
The signatories also agree together with Yugoslav institutions that the Observer Mission of the EC and its member States should expand their present activities in order to be able to take part in the above mentioned monitoring of the implementation of the Agreement, in keeping with the provisions of the Memorandum on Understanding appended to this Agreement, submitted to the European Community and its member States. The signatories of this Agreement are pledged to guarantee the safety of the members of the Observer mission, especially by issuing precise orders that no unit or individual shall open fire on the Mission or in its vicinity.

Page 1, 4.
Any violation of the cease-fire will be reported to the Observer mission.
Enforcement mechanism
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh