Agreement in Implementation of Security Council Resolution 802 (1993)

Country/entity
Croatia
Yugoslavia (former)
Region
Europe and Eurasia
Agreement name
Agreement in Implementation of Security Council Resolution 802 (1993)
Date
06/04/1993
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Interim arrangement
No
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Balkan Conflicts (1991 - 1995) (1998 - 2001)
Former Yugoslavia

The disintegration of former Yugoslavia post cold war saw conflicts which became mediated and produced peace agreements in Slovenia (where the brief independence conflict was mediated by the EC Troika in 1991), Croatia (between Croatian and Serb populations 1991-1995), in Bosnia (between Croatian, Serb and Bosniak populations 1992-1995), in Macedonia (where mediation played a key pre-emptive role in preventing large scale conflict in 2001), in Kosovo (between Kosovar Albanians and Serbian population and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY), but also between FRY and NATO, 1998-1999), and a conflict in the Presevo Valley (between Albanians in South Serbia and FRY, 2000-2001). The continued fall-out of the disintegration of former Yugoslavia also saw mediated agreement and ultimate dissolution of the Union between Serbia and Montenegro.

Bosnia-Herzegovina

In 1991, after nationalist parties won the first multi-party elections in the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, a violent process of disintegration commenced. With its mixed population, Bosnia-Herzegovina became the centre of the following civil war that began in 1992 between the newly formed army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (mostly Muslim Bosniacs), and the parastatal forces of self-declared Bosnian Croat (Herzeg-Bosnia) and Bosnian Serb (Republika Srpska) entities within Bosnia-Herzegovina, supported by Croatia and Serbia, with various, often short-lived, coalitions. The General Framework Agreement (Dayton Peace Agreement), signed in 1995, split the country into two ethno-federal entities, the Bosniak-Croat Federation and the Republika Srpska, and included continued peacekeeping and institutional administration by international actors.

Kosovo

The conflict between Serbs and Kosovar Albanians has a long history and always involved territorial disputes as well as ethno-political, cultural and linguistic factors. The most recent phase of the conflict began in November 1997 when the Albanian Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA or UCK) began their campaign for the independence of Kosovo from the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY – then Serbia and Montenegro). The subsequent war lasted until the NATO intervention, which undertook bombing campaigns of Belgrade and other places in Serbia during spring 1999. The main agreements solving the conflict were internationally driven and, finally, a UNSC resolution imposed a post-conflict arrangement in the wake of what was essentially a NATO military victory. In February 2008, Kosovo’s parliament declared independence, but independence is still internationally disputed.

Balkan Conflicts (1991 - 1995) (1998 - 2001) )
Stage
Ceasefire/related (Mixed)
Conflict nature
Government/territory
Peace process
127: Croatia negotiation process
Parties
Z. LEROTIC; S. JARCEVIC
Third parties
D. OWEN
Description
This agreement contains mechanisms to implement UNSC Resolution 802 (1993), UNSC Resolution 762 (1992) and the Vance Plan. This includes a ceasefire between the Croatian government armed forces and the local Serb authorities, opening and reconstruction by UNPROFOR of airport, bridge and dam facilities, and commencement of talks.

Agreement document
HR_930406_Agreement in implementation of UNSCR 802 (1993).pdf []

Groups

Children/youth
No specific mention.
Disabled persons
No specific mention.
Elderly/age
No specific mention.
Migrant workers
No specific mention.
Racial/ethnic/national group
No specific mention.
Religious groups
No specific mention.
Indigenous people
No specific mention.
Other groups
No specific mention.
Refugees/displaced persons
No specific mention.
Social class
No specific mention.

Gender

Women, girls and gender
No specific mention.
Men and boys
No specific mention.
LGBTI
No specific mention.
Family
No specific mention.

State definition

State definition
No specific mention.

Governance

Political institutions (new or reformed)
No specific mention.
Constitution's affirmation/renewal
No specific mention.
Constitutional reform/making
No specific mention.
Elections
No specific mention.
Electoral commission
No specific mention.
Political parties reform
No specific mention.
Civil society
No specific mention.
Traditional/religious leaders
No specific mention.
Public administration
No specific mention.

Power sharing

Political power sharing
No specific mention.
Territorial power sharing
No specific mention.
Economic power sharing
No specific mention.
Military power sharing
No specific mention.

Human rights and equality

Human rights/RoL
No specific mention.
Equality
No specific mention.
Democracy
No specific mention.
Protection measures
No specific mention.
Human rights framework
No specific mention.
Civil and political rights
No specific mention.
Socio-economic rights
No specific mention.
NHRI
No specific mention.
Regional or international human rights institutions
No specific mention.
Mobility/access
Page 1, 4.
Maslenica Bridge, Zemunik Airport and Peruca Dam, including their associated facilities, as well as the roads from Zadar to the Bridge, that from Zadar to the Airport, that from the Bridge via Rovanjska to Seline, and that from Sinj to the Dam, are to be available for civilian use by all persons. In the areas referred to in paragraph 2 above, such use, as well as all necessary reconstruction, shall be under the exclusive control of UNPROFOR.
Detention procedures
No specific mention.
Media and communication
No specific mention.
Citizenship
No specific mention.

Justice sector reform

Criminal justice and emergency law
No specific mention.
State of emergency provisions
No specific mention.
Judiciary and courts
No specific mention.
Prisons and detention
No specific mention.
Traditional Laws
No specific mention.

Socio-economic reconstruction

Development or socio-economic reconstruction
No specific mention.
National economic plan
No specific mention.
Natural resources
No specific mention.
International funds
No specific mention.
Business
No specific mention.
Taxation
No specific mention.
Banks
No specific mention.

Land, property and environment

Land reform/rights
No specific mention.
Pastoralist/nomadism rights
No specific mention.
Cultural heritage
No specific mention.
Environment
No specific mention.
Water or riparian rights or access
No specific mention.

Security sector

Security Guarantees
No specific mention.
Ceasefire
Ceasefire provision
Page 1, 1.
In implementation of paragraph 1 of Security Council resolution 802, the armed forces of the Republic of Croatia shall cease hostile activities within or adjacent to the United Nations Protected Areas at 00:01 hours on the fourth day after the entry into force of this agreement. The Government of the Republic of Croatia and the Serb local authorities shall henceforth comply strictly with the cease-fire arrangements already agreed.

Page 1, 2.
The armed forces of the Republic of Croatia shall commence, within five days of the cessation of hostilities pursuant to paragraph 1, to return to the lines of confrontation existing before the outbreak of hostilities on 22 January 1993 and shall complete this return within a further five days, in accordance with a schedule established by UNPROFOR. No armed forces of the Serb local authorities shall move into any area from which the Croatian Government armed forces thus withdraw.

Page 1, 3.
In parallel to the withdrawal of Croatian Government armed forces pursuant to paragraph 2 and in accordance with a schedule established by UNPROFOR that may not extend beyond 10 days after the cessation of hostilities pursuant to paragraph 1, all heavy weapons shall be placed under the supervision of UNPROFOR in accordance with the Vance Plan.

Page 1, 6.
In order to enable UNPROFOR to carry out the functions foreseen for it under this agreement, UNPROFOR is to re-establish and strengthen its military and police presence in each area from which Croatian Government armed forces are to withdraw pursuant to paragraph 2 above, before such area is vacated. The parties shall request the United Nations to strengthen UNPROFOR to carry out these functions under the Vance Plan.
Police
Page 1, 6.
In order to enable UNPROFOR to carry out the functions foreseen for it under this agreement, UNPROFOR is to re-establish and strengthen its military and police presence in each area from which Croatian Government armed forces are to withdraw pursuant to paragraph 2 above, before such area is vacated. The parties shall request the United Nations to strengthen UNPROFOR to carry out these functions under the Vance Plan.
Armed forces
No specific mention.
DDR
Demilitarisation provisions
Page 1, 3.
In parallel to the withdrawal of Croatian Government armed forces pursuant to paragraph 2 and in accordance with a schedule established by UNPROFOR that may not extend beyond 10 days after the cessation of hostilities pursuant to paragraph 1, all heavy weapons shall be placed under the supervision of UNPROFOR in accordance with the Vance Plan.
Intelligence services
No specific mention.
Parastatal/rebel and opposition group forces
Page 1, 1.
In implementation of paragraph 1 of Security Council resolution 802, the armed forces of the Republic of Croatia shall cease hostile activities within or adjacent to the United Nations Protected Areas at 00:01 hours on the fourth day after the entry into force of this agreement. The Government of the Republic of Croatia and the Serb local authorities shall henceforth comply strictly with the cease-fire arrangements already agreed.

Page 1, 2.
The armed forces of the Republic of Croatia shall commence, within five days of the cessation of hostilities pursuant to paragraph 1, to return to the lines of confrontation existing before the outbreak of hostilities on 22 January 1993 and shall complete this return within a further five days, in accordance with a schedule established by UNPROFOR. No armed forces of the Serb local authorities shall move into any area from which the Croatian Government armed forces thus withdraw.
Withdrawal of foreign forces
No specific mention.
Corruption
No specific mention.
Crime/organised crime
No specific mention.
Drugs
No specific mention.
Terrorism
No specific mention.

Transitional justice

Transitional justice general
No specific mention.
Amnesty/pardon
No specific mention.
Courts
No specific mention.
Mechanism
No specific mention.
Prisoner release
No specific mention.
Vetting
No specific mention.
Victims
No specific mention.
Missing persons
No specific mention.
Reparations
No specific mention.
Reconciliation
No specific mention.

Implementation

UN signatory
No specific mention.
Other international signatory
No specific mention.
Referendum for agreement
No specific mention.
International mission/force/similar
Page 1, 2.
The armed forces of the Republic of Croatia shall commence, within five days of the cessation of hostilities pursuant to paragraph 1, to return to the lines of confrontation existing before the outbreak of hostilities on 22 January 1993 and shall complete this return within a further five days, in accordance with a schedule established by UNPROFOR. No armed forces of the Serb local authorities shall move into any area from which the Croatian Government armed forces thus withdraw.

Page 1, 3.
In parallel to the withdrawal of Croatian Government armed forces pursuant to paragraph 2 and in accordance with a schedule established by UNPROFOR that may not extend beyond 10 days after the cessation of hostilities pursuant to paragraph 1, all heavy weapons shall be placed under the supervision of UNPROFOR in accordance with the Vance Plan.

Page 1, 4.
Maslenica Bridge, Zemunik Airport and Peruca Dam, including their associated facilities, as well as the roads from Zadar to the Bridge, that from Zadar to the Airport, that from the Bridge via Rovanjska to Seline, and that from Sinj to the Dam, are to be available for civilian use by all persons. In the areas referred to in paragraph 2 above, such use, as well as all necessary reconstruction, shall be under the exclusive control of UNPROFOR.

Page 1, 5.
The parties agree to begin, under the auspices as appropriate of UNPROFOR or the ICFY Steering Committee Co-Chairmen, to implement immediately the remaining provisions of the Vance Plan and of all relevant Security Council resolutions, including 762 (1992). To this end the parties shall commence talks, under the auspices of the Co-Chairmen, no later than 15 days after the entry into force of this agreement.

Page 1, 6.
In order to enable UNPROFOR to carry out the functions foreseen for it under this agreement, UNPROFOR is to re-establish and strengthen its military and police presence in each area from which Croatian Government armed forces are to withdraw pursuant to paragraph 2 above, before such area is vacated. The parties shall request the United Nations to strengthen UNPROFOR to carry out these functions under the Vance Plan.
Enforcement mechanism
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh