Country/entity
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Yugoslavia (former)
Region
Europe and Eurasia
Agreement name
Joint Statement
Date
08/07/1992
Agreement status
Agreement with subsequent status
Interim arrangement
No
Agreement/conflict level
Interstate/intrastate conflict(s) (Balkan Conflicts (1991 - 1995) (1998 - 2001)
Former Yugoslavia

The disintegration of former Yugoslavia post cold war saw conflicts which became mediated and produced peace agreements in Slovenia (where the brief independence conflict was mediated by the EC Troika in 1991), Croatia (between Croatian and Serb populations 1991-1995), in Bosnia (between Croatian, Serb and Bosniak populations 1992-1995), in Macedonia (where mediation played a key pre-emptive role in preventing large scale conflict in 2001), in Kosovo (between Kosovar Albanians and Serbian population and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY), but also between FRY and NATO, 1998-1999), and a conflict in the Presevo Valley (between Albanians in South Serbia and FRY, 2000-2001). The continued fall-out of the disintegration of former Yugoslavia also saw mediated agreement and ultimate dissolution of the Union between Serbia and Montenegro.

Bosnia-Herzegovina

In 1991, after nationalist parties won the first multi-party elections in the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, a violent process of disintegration commenced. With its mixed population, Bosnia-Herzegovina became the centre of the following civil war that began in 1992 between the newly formed army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (mostly Muslim Bosniacs), and the parastatal forces of self-declared Bosnian Croat (Herzeg-Bosnia) and Bosnian Serb (Republika Srpska) entities within Bosnia-Herzegovina, supported by Croatia and Serbia, with various, often short-lived, coalitions. The General Framework Agreement (Dayton Peace Agreement), signed in 1995, split the country into two ethno-federal entities, the Bosniak-Croat Federation and the Republika Srpska, and included continued peacekeeping and institutional administration by international actors.

Kosovo

The conflict between Serbs and Kosovar Albanians has a long history and always involved territorial disputes as well as ethno-political, cultural and linguistic factors. The most recent phase of the conflict began in November 1997 when the Albanian Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA or UCK) began their campaign for the independence of Kosovo from the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY – then Serbia and Montenegro). The subsequent war lasted until the NATO intervention, which undertook bombing campaigns of Belgrade and other places in Serbia during spring 1999. The main agreements solving the conflict were internationally driven and, finally, a UNSC resolution imposed a post-conflict arrangement in the wake of what was essentially a NATO military victory. In February 2008, Kosovo’s parliament declared independence, but independence is still internationally disputed.

Balkan Conflicts (1991 - 1995) (1998 - 2001) )
Stage
Pre-negotiation/process (Other)
Conflict nature
Government/territory
Peace process
125: Bosnia peace process
Parties
President of the Presidency of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Mr. Alija Izetbegovic; President of the Republic of Croatia, Dr. Franjo Tudjman
Third parties
Ministers of Foreign Affairs Dr. Haris Silajdzic and Prof. Dr. Zdenko Skrabalo, the Head of the Office of the President of the Republic of Croatia Mr. Hrvoje Sarinic, and the Foreign Policy Adviser of the President
Description
This short agreement provides for cooperation between the Republics of Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina in opposition to activities the forces of Serbia and Montenegro. Although it was made before the conflict between Croat and Bosniak forces in Bosnia, it has been included because it has a pre-negotiation function with regard to the Agreement on Friendship and Cooperation between the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Republic of Croatia, which dealt not just with non-aggression and Serbia, but outlined a constitutional agreement, that became important to post-conflict agreements between Bosnia and Croatia.

Agreement document
BA_920708_Joint Statement.pdf []

Groups

Children/youth
No specific mention.
Disabled persons
No specific mention.
Elderly/age
No specific mention.
Migrant workers
No specific mention.
Racial/ethnic/national group
Rhetorical
Page 1, 2.
...Because of justified concern for the lives and survival of the citizens of Sarajevo, the continuation of brutal aggression in other parts of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and ethnic cleansing operations in the attacked by the aggressor still go unpunished and are being concealed.
Religious groups
No specific mention.
Indigenous people
No specific mention.
Other groups
No specific mention.
Refugees/displaced persons
Rhetorical
Page 1, 4.
The Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina appreciates the efforts made by the international community and by the Republic of Croatia in providing help, and in particular the reception and accommodation of a great number of refugees, citizens of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Page 2, 5.
Both Presidents reiterate the commitment of their States to the principle whereby, after the cessation of war in the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the internal system of this State will be set up democratically on the basis of equality of the three constituent nations of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Social class
No specific mention.

Gender

Women, girls and gender
No specific mention.
Men and boys
No specific mention.
LGBTI
No specific mention.
Family
No specific mention.

State definition

State definition
Nature of state (general)
Page 2, 5.
Both Presidents reiterate the commitment of their States to the principle whereby, after the cessation of war in the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the internal system of this State will be set up democratically on the basis of equality of the three constituent nations of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Independence/secession
Page 1, 1.
In consideration of the fact that both the States have recognized each other, they will establish, as soon as possible, diplomatic relations at embassy level. It has also been decided that the representatives of both Governments should meet as soon as possible to discuss topical questions of interest for both States.

Page 1, 3.
In view of the foregoing, the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Republic of Croatia have common interests in the defence of their independence and territorial integrity from Serbian and Montenegran aggression.

Governance

Political institutions (new or reformed)
No specific mention.
Constitution's affirmation/renewal
No specific mention.
Constitutional reform/making
No specific mention.
Elections
No specific mention.
Electoral commission
No specific mention.
Political parties reform
No specific mention.
Civil society
No specific mention.
Traditional/religious leaders
No specific mention.
Public administration
No specific mention.

Power sharing

Political power sharing
No specific mention.
Territorial power sharing
No specific mention.
Economic power sharing
No specific mention.
Military power sharing
No specific mention.

Human rights and equality

Human rights/RoL
No specific mention.
Equality
Page 2, 5.
Both Presidents reiterate the commitment of their States to the principle whereby, after the cessation of war in the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the internal system of this State will be set up democratically on the basis of equality of the three constituent nations of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Democracy
Page 2, 5.
Both Presidents reiterate the commitment of their States to the principle whereby, after the cessation of war in the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the internal system of this State will be set up democratically on the basis of equality of the three constituent nations of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Protection measures
No specific mention.
Human rights framework
Treaty incorporation
Page 1, 3.
...Both Presidents have agreed that this common interest should be realized by ways and means envisioned in the United Nations Charter and underlying the Acts of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe.
Civil and political rights
No specific mention.
Socio-economic rights
No specific mention.
NHRI
No specific mention.
Regional or international human rights institutions
No specific mention.
Mobility/access
No specific mention.
Detention procedures
No specific mention.
Media and communication
No specific mention.
Citizenship
Citizen, general
Page 1, 2.
...All this is taking place at a time when the attention of the global public is drawn to the events in Sarajevo, where attempts are being made to establish an efficient airlift and an overland corridor to deliver humanitarian aid to the suffering citizens...

Page 1, 4.
The Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina appreciates the efforts made by the international community and by the Republic of Croatia in providing help, and in particular the reception and accommodation of a great number of refugees, citizens of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Justice sector reform

Criminal justice and emergency law
No specific mention.
State of emergency provisions
No specific mention.
Judiciary and courts
No specific mention.
Prisons and detention
No specific mention.
Traditional Laws
No specific mention.

Socio-economic reconstruction

Development or socio-economic reconstruction
Humanitarian assistance
Page 1, 2.
...All this is taking place at a time when the attention of the global public is drawn to the events in Sarajevo, where attempts are being made to establish an efficient airlift and an overland corridor to deliver humanitarian aid to the suffering citizens...
National economic plan
No specific mention.
Natural resources
No specific mention.
International funds
No specific mention.
Business
No specific mention.
Taxation
No specific mention.
Banks
No specific mention.

Land, property and environment

Land reform/rights
No specific mention.
Pastoralist/nomadism rights
No specific mention.
Cultural heritage
No specific mention.
Environment
No specific mention.
Water or riparian rights or access
No specific mention.

Security sector

Security Guarantees
No specific mention.
Ceasefire
No specific mention.
Police
No specific mention.
Armed forces
No specific mention.
DDR
No specific mention.
Intelligence services
No specific mention.
Parastatal/rebel and opposition group forces
Page 1, 2.
In the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina Serbian and Montenegran forces have launched a new offensive in the immediate vicinity of the border with the Republic of Croatia (Bosanska Posavina), and there have also been continuous attacks of these forces on parts of the Republic of Croatia stretching from Slavonski Brod to Zupanja...Because of justified concern for the lives and survival of the citizens of Sarajevo, the continuation of brutal aggression in other parts of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and ethnic cleansing operations in the attacked by the aggressor still go unpunished and are being concealed.
Withdrawal of foreign forces
No specific mention.
Corruption
No specific mention.
Crime/organised crime
No specific mention.
Drugs
No specific mention.
Terrorism
No specific mention.

Transitional justice

Transitional justice general
No specific mention.
Amnesty/pardon
No specific mention.
Courts
No specific mention.
Mechanism
No specific mention.
Prisoner release
No specific mention.
Vetting
No specific mention.
Victims
No specific mention.
Missing persons
No specific mention.
Reparations
No specific mention.
Reconciliation
No specific mention.

Implementation

UN signatory
No specific mention.
Other international signatory
No specific mention.
Referendum for agreement
No specific mention.
International mission/force/similar
No specific mention.
Enforcement mechanism
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh