Agreement on the Demilitarization of Srebrenica and Zepa concluded between Lt Gen Ratko Mladic and Gen Sefer Halilovic on 8 May 1993 in the presence of Lt Gen Philippe Morillon

Country/entity
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Yugoslavia (former)
Region
Europe and Eurasia
Agreement name
Agreement on the Demilitarization of Srebrenica and Zepa concluded between Lt Gen Ratko Mladic and Gen Sefer Halilovic on 8 May 1993 in the presence of Lt Gen Philippe Morillon
Date
08/05/1993
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Interim arrangement
No
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Balkan Conflicts (1991 - 1995) (1998 - 2001)
Former Yugoslavia

The disintegration of former Yugoslavia post cold war saw conflicts which became mediated and produced peace agreements in Slovenia (where the brief independence conflict was mediated by the EC Troika in 1991), Croatia (between Croatian and Serb populations 1991-1995), in Bosnia (between Croatian, Serb and Bosniak populations 1992-1995), in Macedonia (where mediation played a key pre-emptive role in preventing large scale conflict in 2001), in Kosovo (between Kosovar Albanians and Serbian population and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY), but also between FRY and NATO, 1998-1999), and a conflict in the Presevo Valley (between Albanians in South Serbia and FRY, 2000-2001). The continued fall-out of the disintegration of former Yugoslavia also saw mediated agreement and ultimate dissolution of the Union between Serbia and Montenegro.

Bosnia-Herzegovina

In 1991, after nationalist parties won the first multi-party elections in the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, a violent process of disintegration commenced. With its mixed population, Bosnia-Herzegovina became the centre of the following civil war that began in 1992 between the newly formed army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (mostly Muslim Bosniacs), and the parastatal forces of self-declared Bosnian Croat (Herzeg-Bosnia) and Bosnian Serb (Republika Srpska) entities within Bosnia-Herzegovina, supported by Croatia and Serbia, with various, often short-lived, coalitions. The General Framework Agreement (Dayton Peace Agreement), signed in 1995, split the country into two ethno-federal entities, the Bosniak-Croat Federation and the Republika Srpska, and included continued peacekeeping and institutional administration by international actors.

Kosovo

The conflict between Serbs and Kosovar Albanians has a long history and always involved territorial disputes as well as ethno-political, cultural and linguistic factors. The most recent phase of the conflict began in November 1997 when the Albanian Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA or UCK) began their campaign for the independence of Kosovo from the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY – then Serbia and Montenegro). The subsequent war lasted until the NATO intervention, which undertook bombing campaigns of Belgrade and other places in Serbia during spring 1999. The main agreements solving the conflict were internationally driven and, finally, a UNSC resolution imposed a post-conflict arrangement in the wake of what was essentially a NATO military victory. In February 2008, Kosovo’s parliament declared independence, but independence is still internationally disputed.

Balkan Conflicts (1991 - 1995) (1998 - 2001) )
Stage
Ceasefire/related (Related)
Conflict nature
Government/territory
Peace process
125: Bosnia peace process
Parties
Lt Gen Ratko Mladic; Gen Sefer Halilovic
Third parties
Witnessed by: Lt Gen Philippe Morillon Representative of UNPROFOR
Description
This agreement provides for the demilitarization of Srebrenica and Zepa as safe areas under the control of UNPROFOR. It also provides for the evacuation of the seriously ill and wounded and freedom of movement for humanitarian supplies.

Agreement document
BA_930508_DemilitarizationSrebrenicaZepo.pdf []

Groups

Children/youth
No specific mention.
Disabled persons
No specific mention.
Elderly/age
No specific mention.
Migrant workers
No specific mention.
Racial/ethnic/national group
No specific mention.
Religious groups
No specific mention.
Indigenous people
No specific mention.
Other groups
No specific mention.
Refugees/displaced persons
No specific mention.
Social class
No specific mention.

Gender

Women, girls and gender
No specific mention.
Men and boys
No specific mention.
LGBTI
No specific mention.
Family
No specific mention.

State definition

State definition
No specific mention.

Governance

Political institutions (new or reformed)
No specific mention.
Constitution's affirmation/renewal
No specific mention.
Constitutional reform/making
No specific mention.
Elections
No specific mention.
Electoral commission
No specific mention.
Political parties reform
No specific mention.
Civil society
No specific mention.
Traditional/religious leaders
No specific mention.
Public administration
No specific mention.

Power sharing

Political power sharing
No specific mention.
Territorial power sharing
No specific mention.
Economic power sharing
No specific mention.
Military power sharing
No specific mention.

Human rights and equality

Human rights/RoL
No specific mention.
Equality
No specific mention.
Democracy
No specific mention.
Protection measures
No specific mention.
Human rights framework
Treaty incorporation
Page 1, Untitled Preamble
Confirming also that the GENEVA CONVENTIONS OF 12 AUGUST 1949 AND THE PROTOCOL ADDITIONAL TO THE GENEVA CONVENTIONS OF 12 AUGUST 1949, AND RELATING TO THE PROTECTION OF VICTIMS OF INTERNATIONAL ARMED CONFLICTS (PROTOCOL I) are fully applicable in the conflict in Bosnia and Hercegovina.
Civil and political rights
No specific mention.
Socio-economic rights
No specific mention.
NHRI
No specific mention.
Regional or international human rights institutions
No specific mention.
Mobility/access
Page 2, SECTION 1, DEMILITARIZATION, ARTICLE 5
...In order to be able to resupply and rotate the unit, UNPROFOR shall have freedom of movement to and from the demilitarized zone...

Page 3, SECTION 3, PROTECTION OF OBJECTS INDISPENSABLE TO THE SURVIVAL OF THE POPULATION IN THE DEMILITARIZED ZONE, ARTICLE 6
Complete freedom of movement is granted to all humanitarian supplies of food medicine and shelter as required by the population.

Page 3, SECTION 4, MEDICAL EVACUATION, ARTICLE 8
Both sides will guarantee the evacuation of the seriously wounded and sick to the hospitals and places according to their wish. The evacuation will be carried out by UNPROFOR by air (helicopters) or by road if this is necessary.
Detention procedures
No specific mention.
Media and communication
No specific mention.
Citizenship
No specific mention.

Justice sector reform

Criminal justice and emergency law
No specific mention.
State of emergency provisions
No specific mention.
Judiciary and courts
No specific mention.
Prisons and detention
No specific mention.
Traditional Laws
No specific mention.

Socio-economic reconstruction

Development or socio-economic reconstruction
Humanitarian assistance
Page 3, SECTION 3, PROTECTION OF OBJECTS INDISPENSABLE TO THE SURVIVAL OF THE POPULATION IN THE DEMILITARIZED ZONE, ARTICLE 6
Complete freedom of movement is granted to all humanitarian supplies of food medicine and shelter as required by the population.
National economic plan
No specific mention.
Natural resources
No specific mention.
International funds
No specific mention.
Business
No specific mention.
Taxation
No specific mention.
Banks
No specific mention.

Land, property and environment

Land reform/rights
No specific mention.
Pastoralist/nomadism rights
No specific mention.
Cultural heritage
No specific mention.
Environment
No specific mention.
Water or riparian rights or access
Page 2-3, SECTION 3, PROTECTION OF OBJECTS INDISPENSABLE TO THE SURVIVAL OF THE POPULATION IN THE DEMILITARIZED ZONE, ARTICLE 6
Without prejudice to the provisions made in PROTOCOL 1, article 54, all objects indispensable to the survival of the population in the demilitarized zones in particular the water supplies shall be kept intact. These objects shall be open to inspections by UNPROFOR.

Security sector

Security Guarantees
Page 3, SECTION 6, MINEFIELDS, Article 9
Both sides are obliged to give UNPROFOR the details of the minefields.
Ceasefire
General commitments
Page 2, SECTION 1, DEMILITARIZATION, ARTICLE 3
Every military or paramilitary unit will have either to withdraw from the demilitarized zone or submit/hand over their weapons. Ammunition, mines, explosives and combat supplies in the demilitarized zones will be handed over/submitted to UNPROFOR...
Police
Page 3, SECTION 4, POLICE, ARTICLE 7
At the beginning of the demilitarization process UNCIVPOL will oversee the maintenance of law and order in the demilitarized zone.
Armed forces
No specific mention.
DDR
Demilitarisation provisions
Page 1, Untitled Preamble
Reconfirming the demilitarization of the city of Srebrenica

Page 1, SECTION 1, THE DEMILITARIZED ZONE, ARTICLE 1
To demilitarize the areas of Srebrenica and Zepa. The demilitarized areas will include the area within the current lines of conflict. The precise boundaries will be marked by the
UNPROFOR commander on the ground after consultations. At a later stage Contracting Parties can agree, verbally or in writing, to enlarge the demilitarized zone.

Page 1, SECTION 1, THE DEMILITARIZED ZONE, ARTICLE 2
On the ground the demilitarized zone shall be marked by UNPROFOR by means of boards on which is stated in English, Serbian and Bosnian written in Cyrillic and Latin as follows:
DEMILITARIZED ZONE ANY MILITARY OPERATION IS STRICTLY FORBIDDEN (ARTICLE 60, PROTOCOL l ADDITIONAL TO THE GENEVA CONVENTIONS) DEMILITARIZOVANA ZONA SVAKA VOJNA OPERACIJA JE STROGO ZABRANJENA (CLAN 60, PROTOKOL I DODATNI ZENEVSKE KONVENCIJE)

Page 2, SECTION 1, DEMILITARIZATION, ARTICLE 3
Every military or paramilitary unit will have either to withdraw from the demilitarized zone or submit/hand over their weapons. Ammunition, mines, explosives and combat supplies in the demilitarized zones will be handed over/submitted to UNPROFOR. After submission/hand over of all weapons, ammunition, mines and combat supplies in the DMZ, the contracting parties will declare that the demilitarization is complete. Submitting/hand over will be completed:
a. In Srebrenica by Mon 10 May 1993 by 1700 hours.
b. In Zepa by Wed 12 May 1993 by 1700 hours.
Submitting/hand over of weapons will be observed by a team of 3 officers from both sides together with UNPROFOR officers who will arrange the places where the handover will be done.

Page 2, SECTION 1, DEMILITARIZATION, ARTICLE 4
UNPROFOR shall take the handed over/submitted weapons into custody. UNPROFOR shall take the handed over/submitted ammunition into custody seperately.

Page 2, SECTION 1, DEMILITARIZATION, ARTICLE 5
UNPROFOR shall control the demilitarized zone. To be able to implement this, an UNPROFOR unit and UNMOs with sufficient strength to control the area shall be present in the demilitarized zone. Until the Contracting Parties agree otherwise the UNPROFOR strength shall be of at least a company group with command and supplying elements in each demilitarized zone. In order to be able to resupply and rotate the unit, UNPROFOR shall have freedom of movement to and from the demilitarized zone. Non combatants who are in or who are willing to enter the demilitarized zone, except "members of UNPROFOR, are not permitted to have in their possession any weapon, ammunition or explosives. Weapons, ammunition and explosives in their possession shall be seized by UNPROFOR. Combatants will not be allowed to enter or to be in the demilitarized zone.

Page 3, SECTION 8, WITHDRAWAL OF WEAPONS AND TROOPS, ARTICLE 11
When both sides in the presence of UNPROFOR agree that the operation has been completed all heavy weapons and units that constitute a menace to the demilitarized zones which will have been established in Zepa and Srebrenica will be withdrawn. Heavy weapons and tanks will be concentrated in limited areas that will be monitored by UNPROFOR and in principle out of range of the demilitarized zone. Infantry will be withdrawn to a range from which their weapons cannot constitute a menace to the security of the demilitarized zone, in principle 1.5kms.
Intelligence services
No specific mention.
Parastatal/rebel and opposition group forces
Page 2, SECTION 1, DEMILITARIZATION, ARTICLE 3
Every military or paramilitary unit will have either to withdraw from the demilitarized zone or submit/hand over their weapons. Ammunition, mines, explosives and combat supplies in the demilitarized zones will be handed over/submitted to UNPROFOR...
Withdrawal of foreign forces
No specific mention.
Corruption
No specific mention.
Crime/organised crime
No specific mention.
Drugs
No specific mention.
Terrorism
No specific mention.

Transitional justice

Transitional justice general
No specific mention.
Amnesty/pardon
No specific mention.
Courts
No specific mention.
Mechanism
No specific mention.
Prisoner release
No specific mention.
Vetting
No specific mention.
Victims
Page 3, SECTION 4, MEDICAL EVACUATION, ARTICLE 8
Both sides will guarantee the evacuation of the seriously wounded and sick to the hospitals and places according to their wish. The evacuation will be carried out by UNPROFOR by air (helicopters) or by road if this is necessary.

Page 3, SECTION 7, PRISONERS OF WAR AND KILLED PERSONS, ARTICLE 10
Both sides will submit the lists of the prisoners of war as well as the places where the killed soldiers are buried to UNPROFOR.
Missing persons
No specific mention.
Reparations
No specific mention.
Reconciliation
No specific mention.

Implementation

UN signatory
Witnessed and signed by Lt. Gen Philippe Morillon, Representative of UNPROFOR
Other international signatory
No specific mention.
Referendum for agreement
No specific mention.
International mission/force/similar
Page 1, SECTION 1, THE DEMILITARIZED ZONE, ARTICLE 1
To demilitarize the areas of Srebrenica and Zepa. The demilitarized areas will include the area within the current lines of conflict. The precise boundaries will be marked by the UNPROFOR commander on the ground after consultations. At a later stage Contracting Parties can agree, verbally or in writing, to enlarge the demilitarized zone.

Page 2, SECTION 1, DEMILITARIZATION, ARTICLE 3
Every military or paramilitary unit will have either to withdraw from the demilitarized zone or submit/hand over their weapons. Ammunition, mines, explosives and combat supplies in the demilitarized zones will be handed over/submitted to UNPROFOR. After submission/hand over of all weapons, ammunition, mines and combat supplies in the DMZ, the contracting parties will declare that the demilitarization is complete. Submitting/hand over will be completed:
a. In Srebrenica by Mon 10 May 1993 by 1700 hours.
b. In Zepa by Wed 12 May 1993 by 1700 hours.
Submitting/hand over of weapons will be observed by a team of 3 officers from both sides together with UNPROFOR officers who will arrange the places where the handover will be done.

Page 2, SECTION 1, DEMILITARIZATION, ARTICLE 4
UNPROFOR shall take the handed over/submitted weapons into custody. UNPROFOR shall take the handed over/submitted ammunition into custody seperately.

Page 2, SECTION 1, DEMILITARIZATION, ARTICLE 5
UNPROFOR shall control the demilitarized zone. To be able to implement this, an UNPROFOR unit and UNMOs with sufficient strength to control the area shall be present in the demilitarized zone. Until the Contracting Parties agree otherwise the UNPROFOR strength shall be of at least a company group with command and supplying elements in each demilitarized zone. In order to be able to resupply and rotate the unit, UNPROFOR shall have freedom of movement to and from the demilitarized zone. Non combatants who are in or who are willing to enter the demilitarized zone, except "members of UNPROFOR, are not permitted to have in their possession any weapon, ammunition or explosives. Weapons, ammunition and explosives in their possession shall be seized by UNPROFOR. Combatants will not be allowed to enter or to be in the demilitarized zone.

Page 2-3, SECTION 3, PROTECTION OF OBJECTS INDISPENSABLE TO THE SURVIVAL OF THE POPULATION IN THE DEMILITARIZED ZONE, ARTICLE 6
Without prejudice to the provisions made in PROTOCOL 1, article 54, all objects indispensable to the survival of the population in the demilitarized zones in particular the water supplies shall be kept intact. These objects shall be open to inspections by UNPROFOR.

Page 3, SECTION 4, POLICE, ARTICLE 7
At the beginning of the demilitarization process UNCIVPOL will oversee the maintenance of law and order in the demilitarized zone.

Page 3, SECTION 4, MEDICAL EVACUATION, ARTICLE 8
Both sides will guarantee the evacuation of the seriously wounded and sick to the hospitals and places according to their wish. The evacuation will be carried out by UNPROFOR by air (helicopters) or by road if this is necessary.

Page 3, SECTION 8, WITHDRAWAL OF WEAPONS AND TROOPS, ARTICLE 11
When both sides in the presence of UNPROFOR agree that the operation has been completed all heavy weapons and units that constitute a menace to the demilitarized zones which will have been established in Zepa and Srebrenica will be withdrawn. Heavy weapons and tanks will be concentrated in limited areas that will be monitored by UNPROFOR and in principle out of range of the demilitarized zone. Infantry will be withdrawn to a range from which their weapons cannot constitute a menace to the security of the demilitarized zone, in principle 1.5kms.

Page 4, SECTION 9, ARTICLE 12
All areas of dispute will be solved by negotiations by both parties in the presence of UNPROFOR.

Enforcement mechanism
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh