Final agreement reached between SRSG, Mr Akashi and the Bosnian Serb civilian and military authorities, Belgrade, 23 April 1994

Country/entity
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Yugoslavia (former)
Region
Europe and Eurasia
Agreement name
Final agreement reached between SRSG, Mr Akashi and the Bosnian Serb civilian and military authorities, Belgrade, 23 April 1994
Date
23/04/1994
Agreement status
Unilateral document
Interim arrangement
No
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Balkan Conflicts (1991 - 1995) (1998 - 2001)
Former Yugoslavia

The disintegration of former Yugoslavia post cold war saw conflicts which became mediated and produced peace agreements in Slovenia (where the brief independence conflict was mediated by the EC Troika in 1991), Croatia (between Croatian and Serb populations 1991-1995), in Bosnia (between Croatian, Serb and Bosniak populations 1992-1995), in Macedonia (where mediation played a key pre-emptive role in preventing large scale conflict in 2001), in Kosovo (between Kosovar Albanians and Serbian population and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY), but also between FRY and NATO, 1998-1999), and a conflict in the Presevo Valley (between Albanians in South Serbia and FRY, 2000-2001). The continued fall-out of the disintegration of former Yugoslavia also saw mediated agreement and ultimate dissolution of the Union between Serbia and Montenegro.

Bosnia-Herzegovina

In 1991, after nationalist parties won the first multi-party elections in the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, a violent process of disintegration commenced. With its mixed population, Bosnia-Herzegovina became the centre of the following civil war that began in 1992 between the newly formed army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (mostly Muslim Bosniacs), and the parastatal forces of self-declared Bosnian Croat (Herzeg-Bosnia) and Bosnian Serb (Republika Srpska) entities within Bosnia-Herzegovina, supported by Croatia and Serbia, with various, often short-lived, coalitions. The General Framework Agreement (Dayton Peace Agreement), signed in 1995, split the country into two ethno-federal entities, the Bosniak-Croat Federation and the Republika Srpska, and included continued peacekeeping and institutional administration by international actors.

Kosovo

The conflict between Serbs and Kosovar Albanians has a long history and always involved territorial disputes as well as ethno-political, cultural and linguistic factors. The most recent phase of the conflict began in November 1997 when the Albanian Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA or UCK) began their campaign for the independence of Kosovo from the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY – then Serbia and Montenegro). The subsequent war lasted until the NATO intervention, which undertook bombing campaigns of Belgrade and other places in Serbia during spring 1999. The main agreements solving the conflict were internationally driven and, finally, a UNSC resolution imposed a post-conflict arrangement in the wake of what was essentially a NATO military victory. In February 2008, Kosovo’s parliament declared independence, but independence is still internationally disputed.

Balkan Conflicts (1991 - 1995) (1998 - 2001) )
Stage
Ceasefire/related (Ceasefire)
Conflict nature
Government/territory
Peace process
125: Bosnia peace process
Parties
SRSG Mr Akashi; Bosnian Serb Civilian and Military Authorities
Third parties
Description
This agreement provides for an immediate and total cease-fire in and around the area of Gorazde, to be monitored by a UNPROFOR battalion. It also provides for immediate medical evacuations, complete freedom of movement for UNPROFOR personnel and humanitarian organisations, and the immediate start of negotiations.

Agreement document
BA_940423_Gorazde Cease-Fire Agreement.pdf []

Groups

Children/youth
No specific mention.
Disabled persons
No specific mention.
Elderly/age
No specific mention.
Migrant workers
No specific mention.
Racial/ethnic/national group
No specific mention.
Religious groups
No specific mention.
Indigenous people
No specific mention.
Other groups
No specific mention.
Refugees/displaced persons
No specific mention.
Social class
No specific mention.

Gender

Women, girls and gender
No specific mention.
Men and boys
No specific mention.
LGBTI
No specific mention.
Family
No specific mention.

State definition

State definition
No specific mention.

Governance

Political institutions (new or reformed)
No specific mention.
Constitution's affirmation/renewal
No specific mention.
Constitutional reform/making
No specific mention.
Elections
No specific mention.
Electoral commission
No specific mention.
Political parties reform
No specific mention.
Civil society
Page 1, 4.
COMPLETE FREEDOM OF MOVEMENT FOR ALL PERSONNEL OF UNPROFOR AND HUMANITARIAN ORGANIZATIONS.
Traditional/religious leaders
No specific mention.
Public administration
No specific mention.

Power sharing

Political power sharing
No specific mention.
Territorial power sharing
No specific mention.
Economic power sharing
No specific mention.
Military power sharing
No specific mention.

Human rights and equality

Human rights/RoL
No specific mention.
Equality
No specific mention.
Democracy
No specific mention.
Protection measures
No specific mention.
Human rights framework
No specific mention.
Civil and political rights
No specific mention.
Socio-economic rights
No specific mention.
NHRI
No specific mention.
Regional or international human rights institutions
No specific mention.
Mobility/access
Page 1, 4.
COMPLETE FREEDOM OF MOVEMENT FOR ALL PERSONNEL OF UNPROFOR AND HUMANITARIAN ORGANIZATIONS.
Detention procedures
No specific mention.
Media and communication
No specific mention.
Citizenship
No specific mention.

Justice sector reform

Criminal justice and emergency law
No specific mention.
State of emergency provisions
No specific mention.
Judiciary and courts
No specific mention.
Prisons and detention
No specific mention.
Traditional Laws
No specific mention.

Socio-economic reconstruction

Development or socio-economic reconstruction
No specific mention.
National economic plan
No specific mention.
Natural resources
No specific mention.
International funds
No specific mention.
Business
No specific mention.
Taxation
No specific mention.
Banks
No specific mention.

Land, property and environment

Land reform/rights
No specific mention.
Pastoralist/nomadism rights
No specific mention.
Cultural heritage
No specific mention.
Environment
No specific mention.
Water or riparian rights or access
No specific mention.

Security sector

Security Guarantees
No specific mention.
Ceasefire
Ceasefire provision
Page 1, 1.
AN IMMEDIATE AND TOTAL CEASE-FIRE IN AND AROUND THE AREA OF GORAZDE FROM 1200 HRS, 23 APRIL 1994.

Page 1, 2.
AS A FIRST STEP, URGENT DEPLOYMENT OF AN UNPROFOR BATTALION IN AN AREA OF THREE KILOMETRES FROM THE CENTRE OF GORAZDE, ON BOTH SIDES OF THE DRINA RIVER, FROM WHICH BOSNIAN SERB FORCES WILL BE REDEPLOYED BY MID-NIGHT ON 23 APRIL 1994, TO CLOSELY MONITOR, SUPERVISE AND REPORT ON THE OBSERVANCE OF THE CEASE-FIRE BY BOTH PARTIES. IN ADDITION, IMMEDIATELY AFTERWARDS, AND NOT LATER THAN MID-NIGHT 26 APRIL 1994, HEAVY WEAPONS WILL BE WITHDRAWN OUT OF A 20 KILOMETRE RADIUS OF THE CENTRE OF GORAZDE (BUT INSIDE THE TERRITORY OF BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA) AND OUT OF RANGE SO AS NOT TO CONSTITUTE A THREAT TO THE GORAZDE SAFE AREA, WITHOUT PREJUDICE TO THE PROCEDURES TO BE SUBSEQUENTLY AGREED IN ACCORDANCE WITH RESOLUTION 913, PARAGRAPH 3.
Police
No specific mention.
Armed forces
No specific mention.
DDR
No specific mention.
Intelligence services
No specific mention.
Parastatal/rebel and opposition group forces
Page 1, 2.
AS A FIRST STEP, URGENT DEPLOYMENT OF AN UNPROFOR BATTALION IN AN AREA OF THREE KILOMETRES FROM THE CENTRE OF GORAZDE, ON BOTH SIDES OF THE DRINA RIVER, FROM WHICH BOSNIAN SERB FORCES WILL BE REDEPLOYED BY MID-NIGHT ON 23 APRIL 1994, TO CLOSELY MONITOR, SUPERVISE AND REPORT ON THE OBSERVANCE OF THE CEASE-FIRE BY BOTH PARTIES. IN ADDITION, IMMEDIATELY AFTERWARDS, AND NOT LATER THAN MID-NIGHT 26 APRIL 1994, HEAVY WEAPONS WILL BE WITHDRAWN OUT OF A 20 KILOMETRE RADIUS OF THE CENTRE OF GORAZDE (BUT INSIDE THE TERRITORY OF BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA) AND OUT OF RANGE SO AS NOT TO CONSTITUTE A THREAT TO THE GORAZDE SAFE AREA, WITHOUT PREJUDICE TO THE PROCEDURES TO BE SUBSEQUENTLY AGREED IN ACCORDANCE WITH RESOLUTION 913, PARAGRAPH 3.
Withdrawal of foreign forces
No specific mention.
Corruption
No specific mention.
Crime/organised crime
No specific mention.
Drugs
No specific mention.
Terrorism
No specific mention.

Transitional justice

Transitional justice general
No specific mention.
Amnesty/pardon
No specific mention.
Courts
No specific mention.
Mechanism
No specific mention.
Prisoner release
No specific mention.
Vetting
No specific mention.
Victims
No specific mention.
Missing persons
No specific mention.
Reparations
No specific mention.
Reconciliation
No specific mention.

Implementation

UN signatory
MR AKASHI, SPECIAL REPRESENTATIVE OF THE SECRETARY-GENERAL FOR THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA
Other international signatory
No specific mention.
Referendum for agreement
No specific mention.
International mission/force/similar
Page 1, 2.
AS A FIRST STEP, URGENT DEPLOYMENT OF AN UNPROFOR BATTALION IN AN AREA OF THREE KILOMETRES FROM THE CENTRE OF GORAZDE, ON BOTH SIDES OF THE DRINA RIVER, FROM WHICH BOSNIAN SERB FORCES WILL BE REDEPLOYED BY MID-NIGHT ON 23 APRIL 1994, TO CLOSELY MONITOR, SUPERVISE AND REPORT ON THE OBSERVANCE OF THE CEASE-FIRE BY BOTH PARTIES. IN ADDITION, IMMEDIATELY AFTERWARDS, AND NOT LATER THAN MID-NIGHT 26 APRIL 1994, HEAVY WEAPONS WILL BE WITHDRAWN OUT OF A 20 KILOMETRE RADIUS OF THE CENTRE OF GORAZDE (BUT INSIDE THE TERRITORY OF BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA) AND OUT OF RANGE SO AS NOT TO CONSTITUTE A THREAT TO THE GORAZDE SAFE AREA, WITHOUT PREJUDICE TO THE PROCEDURES TO BE SUBSEQUENTLY AGREED IN ACCORDANCE WITH RESOLUTION 913, PARAGRAPH 3.

Page 1, 4.
COMPLETE FREEDOM OF MOVEMENT FOR ALL PERSONNEL OF UNPROFOR AND HUMANITARIAN ORGANIZATIONS.
Enforcement mechanism
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh