Agreement by the Serbian Republic of Bosnia and Hercegovina with regard to the opening of Sarajevo airport

Country/entity
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Yugoslavia (former)
Region
Europe and Eurasia
Agreement name
Agreement by the Serbian Republic of Bosnia and Hercegovina with regard to the opening of Sarajevo airport
Date
01/06/1992
Agreement status
Unilateral document
Interim arrangement
No
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Balkan Conflicts (1991 - 1995) (1998 - 2001)
Former Yugoslavia

The disintegration of former Yugoslavia post cold war saw conflicts which became mediated and produced peace agreements in Slovenia (where the brief independence conflict was mediated by the EC Troika in 1991), Croatia (between Croatian and Serb populations 1991-1995), in Bosnia (between Croatian, Serb and Bosniak populations 1992-1995), in Macedonia (where mediation played a key pre-emptive role in preventing large scale conflict in 2001), in Kosovo (between Kosovar Albanians and Serbian population and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY), but also between FRY and NATO, 1998-1999), and a conflict in the Presevo Valley (between Albanians in South Serbia and FRY, 2000-2001). The continued fall-out of the disintegration of former Yugoslavia also saw mediated agreement and ultimate dissolution of the Union between Serbia and Montenegro.

Bosnia-Herzegovina

In 1991, after nationalist parties won the first multi-party elections in the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, a violent process of disintegration commenced. With its mixed population, Bosnia-Herzegovina became the centre of the following civil war that began in 1992 between the newly formed army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (mostly Muslim Bosniacs), and the parastatal forces of self-declared Bosnian Croat (Herzeg-Bosnia) and Bosnian Serb (Republika Srpska) entities within Bosnia-Herzegovina, supported by Croatia and Serbia, with various, often short-lived, coalitions. The General Framework Agreement (Dayton Peace Agreement), signed in 1995, split the country into two ethno-federal entities, the Bosniak-Croat Federation and the Republika Srpska, and included continued peacekeeping and institutional administration by international actors.

Kosovo

The conflict between Serbs and Kosovar Albanians has a long history and always involved territorial disputes as well as ethno-political, cultural and linguistic factors. The most recent phase of the conflict began in November 1997 when the Albanian Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA or UCK) began their campaign for the independence of Kosovo from the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY – then Serbia and Montenegro). The subsequent war lasted until the NATO intervention, which undertook bombing campaigns of Belgrade and other places in Serbia during spring 1999. The main agreements solving the conflict were internationally driven and, finally, a UNSC resolution imposed a post-conflict arrangement in the wake of what was essentially a NATO military victory. In February 2008, Kosovo’s parliament declared independence, but independence is still internationally disputed.

Balkan Conflicts (1991 - 1995) (1998 - 2001) )
Stage
Ceasefire/related (Related)
Conflict nature
Government/territory
Peace process
125: Bosnia peace process
Parties
On behalf of the Serbian Republic of Bosnia Herzegovina: Dr Nikola Koljevic, Member of the Presidency of Serbian Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina; Signed on behalf of UNPROFOR by Lt. Col R.P. Gray
Third parties
Description
This agreement commits the Serbian side to a ceasefire in and around Sarajevo, withdrawing all anti-aircraft weapons systems from the vicinity of the airport, to be concentrated at five locations supervised by UNPROFOR.

Agreement document
BA_920601_AgreementSerbianRepublicOpeningSarajevoAirport.pdf []

Groups

Children/youth
No specific mention.
Disabled persons
No specific mention.
Elderly/age
No specific mention.
Migrant workers
No specific mention.
Racial/ethnic/national group
No specific mention.
Religious groups
No specific mention.
Indigenous people
No specific mention.
Other groups
No specific mention.
Refugees/displaced persons
No specific mention.
Social class
No specific mention.

Gender

Women, girls and gender
No specific mention.
Men and boys
No specific mention.
LGBTI
No specific mention.
Family
No specific mention.

State definition

State definition
No specific mention.

Governance

Political institutions (new or reformed)
No specific mention.
Constitution's affirmation/renewal
No specific mention.
Constitutional reform/making
No specific mention.
Elections
No specific mention.
Electoral commission
No specific mention.
Political parties reform
No specific mention.
Civil society
No specific mention.
Traditional/religious leaders
No specific mention.
Public administration
No specific mention.

Power sharing

Political power sharing
No specific mention.
Territorial power sharing
No specific mention.
Economic power sharing
No specific mention.
Military power sharing
No specific mention.

Human rights and equality

Human rights/RoL
No specific mention.
Equality
No specific mention.
Democracy
No specific mention.
Protection measures
No specific mention.
Human rights framework
No specific mention.
Civil and political rights
No specific mention.
Socio-economic rights
No specific mention.
NHRI
No specific mention.
Regional or international human rights institutions
No specific mention.
Mobility/access
No specific mention.
Detention procedures
No specific mention.
Media and communication
No specific mention.
Citizenship
No specific mention.

Justice sector reform

Criminal justice and emergency law
No specific mention.
State of emergency provisions
No specific mention.
Judiciary and courts
No specific mention.
Prisons and detention
No specific mention.
Traditional Laws
No specific mention.

Socio-economic reconstruction

Development or socio-economic reconstruction
No specific mention.
National economic plan
No specific mention.
Natural resources
No specific mention.
International funds
No specific mention.
Business
No specific mention.
Taxation
No specific mention.
Banks
No specific mention.

Land, property and environment

Land reform/rights
No specific mention.
Pastoralist/nomadism rights
No specific mention.
Cultural heritage
No specific mention.
Environment
No specific mention.
Water or riparian rights or access
No specific mention.

Security sector

Security Guarantees
Page 1, 2.
All anti-aircraft weapon systems shall be withdrawn the maximum possible distance from positions from which they can engage the airport, flying aircraft or aircraft on the ground and that they shall be placed under UNPROFOR supervision. This distance is to exceed the maximum effective rage of each weapon system.

Page 1, 3.
That the location of such anti-aircraft weapons systems shall be in five or less locations as mutually agreed to by the Serbian side and UNPROFOR. These locations are to be collocated with the agreed upon locations for the indirect fire weapons systems as mentioned below.

Page 1, 4.
That all artillery, mortars, ground to ground missile systems and tanks within range of the airport will be concentrated in five locations agreed upon by the Serbian side and UNPROFOR. These five locations are to be subject to continuous UNPROFOR supervision commencing at a time mutually agreed upon by the Serbian side and UNPROFOR.

Page 1, 7.
That the Serbian side undertake to provide to UNPROFOR a map that details the precise number and type of weapons to be concentrated in the five designated locations. Such provided information shall be kept in the strictest confidence, shall not be known to the other side and shall only be known by Maj Gen Mackenzie, the personal assistant to the General, the senior military observer responsible for the supervision mission (Lt Col Gray), Lt Col Jones (the Canadian battalion commander tasked with protecting the airport) and the patrol coordinator responsible for tasking the patrols of supervision.

Page 2, 11.
This agreement refers to the use of indirect fire weapons and anti-aircraft weapons on the airport of Sarajevo as well as aircraft attempting to use the airport.
Ceasefire
Ceasefire provision
Page 1, 1.
The ceasefire agreed for 0600 hours on 15 June 1992 in and around Sarajevo shall be a durable one subject to verification by UNPROFOR and that the parties will provide liaison officers and escorts to assist in its verification.
Police
No specific mention.
Armed forces
No specific mention.
DDR
No specific mention.
Intelligence services
No specific mention.
Parastatal/rebel and opposition group forces
Page 1, 3.
That the location of such anti-aircraft weapons systems shall be in five or less locations as mutually agreed to by the Serbian side and UNPROFOR. These locations are to be collocated with the agreed upon locations for the indirect fire weapons systems as mentioned below.

Page 1, 4.
That all artillery, mortars, ground to ground missile systems and tanks within range of the airport will be concentrated in five locations agreed upon by the Serbian side and UNPROFOR. These five locations are to be subject to continuous UNPROFOR supervision commencing at a time mutually agreed upon by the Serbian side and UNPROFOR.

Page 1, 5.
That a commander from the Serbian side shall be nominated at each of the five locations as a liaison person to liaise directly with UNPROFOR personnel charged with the duty of supervising each location. Without prejudice to these liaison persons, UNPROFOR undertake to employ, at no cost to the Serbian side, an interpreter, should the nominated commander not speak English. This interpreter is to facilitate ready and meaningful liaison between the commander at the location and the UNPROFOR personnel charged with supervising that location. The interpreter will be at the choice of the Serbian side.
Withdrawal of foreign forces
No specific mention.
Corruption
No specific mention.
Crime/organised crime
No specific mention.
Drugs
No specific mention.
Terrorism
No specific mention.

Transitional justice

Transitional justice general
No specific mention.
Amnesty/pardon
No specific mention.
Courts
No specific mention.
Mechanism
No specific mention.
Prisoner release
No specific mention.
Vetting
No specific mention.
Victims
No specific mention.
Missing persons
No specific mention.
Reparations
No specific mention.
Reconciliation
No specific mention.

Implementation

UN signatory
Signed on behalf of UNPROFOR by Lt. Col R.P. Gray
Other international signatory
No specific mention.
Referendum for agreement
No specific mention.
International mission/force/similar
Page 1, 1.
The ceasefire agreed for 0600 hours on 15 June 1992 in and around Sarajevo shall be durable one subject to verification by UNPROFOR and that the parties will provide liaison officers and escorts to assist in its verification.

Page 1, 2.
All anti-aircraft weapon systems shall be withdrawn the maximum possible distance from positions from which they can engage the airport, flying aircraft or aircraft on the ground and that they shall be placed under UNPROFOR supervision. This distance is to exceed the maximum effective rage of each weapon system.

Page 1, 3.
That the location of such anti-aircraft weapons systems shall be in five or less locations as mutually agreed to by the Serbian side and UNPROFOR. These locations are to be collocated with the agreed upon locations for the indirect fire weapons systems as mentioned below.

Page 1, 4.
That all artillery, mortars, ground to ground missile systems and tanks within range of the airport will be concentrated in five locations agreed upon by the Serbian side and UNPROFOR. These five locations are to be subject to continuous UNPROFOR supervision commencing at a time mutually agreed upon by the Serbian side and UNPROFOR.

Page 1, 5.
That a commander from the Serbian side shall be nominated at each of the five locations as a liaison person to liaise directly with UNPROFOR personnel charged with the duty of supervising each location. Without prejudice to these liaison persons, UNPROFOR undertake to employ, at no cost to the Serbian side, an interpreter, should the nominated commander not speak English. This interpreter is to facilitate ready and meaningful liaison between the commander at the location and the UNPROFOR personnel charged with supervising that location. The interpreter will be at the choice of the Serbian side.

Page 1, 6.
That the Serbian side agree to up to 40 UNPROFOR personnel, residing at Lukavica barracks at a cost to be borne personally and individually by each of the UNPROFOR personnel so residing at Lukavica barracks.

Page 1, 7.
That the Serbian side undertake to provide to UNPROFOR a map that details the precise number and type of weapons to be concentrated in the five designated locations. Such provided information shall be kept in the strictest confidence, shall not be known to the other side and shall only be known by Maj Gen Mackenzie, the personal assistant to the General, the senior military observer responsible for the supervision mission (Lt Col Gray), Lt Col Jones (the Canadian battalion commander tasked with protecting the airport) and the patrol coordinator responsible for tasking the patrols of supervision.

Page 1, 8.
That the Serbian side agree to provide vehicle escorts to UNPROFOR personnel tasked with the supervision of the five locations until such time, as mutually agreed between the Serbian side and UNPROFOR, that UNPROFOR personnel are confident of finding their own way to the locations in safety.

Page 2, 9.
That the supervision mission of the agreed upon five locations shall commence as soon as possible as mutually agreed upon by the Serbian side and UNPROFOR. The commencement date may be as early as 20 June 1992.
Enforcement mechanism
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh