Agreement among the parties to halt the conflict in Central Bosnia

Country/entity
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Yugoslavia (former)
Region
Europe and Eurasia
Agreement name
Agreement among the parties to halt the conflict in Central Bosnia
Date
09/06/1993
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Interim arrangement
No
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Balkan Conflicts (1991 - 1995) (1998 - 2001)
Former Yugoslavia

The disintegration of former Yugoslavia post cold war saw conflicts which became mediated and produced peace agreements in Slovenia (where the brief independence conflict was mediated by the EC Troika in 1991), Croatia (between Croatian and Serb populations 1991-1995), in Bosnia (between Croatian, Serb and Bosniak populations 1992-1995), in Macedonia (where mediation played a key pre-emptive role in preventing large scale conflict in 2001), in Kosovo (between Kosovar Albanians and Serbian population and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY), but also between FRY and NATO, 1998-1999), and a conflict in the Presevo Valley (between Albanians in South Serbia and FRY, 2000-2001). The continued fall-out of the disintegration of former Yugoslavia also saw mediated agreement and ultimate dissolution of the Union between Serbia and Montenegro.

Bosnia-Herzegovina

In 1991, after nationalist parties won the first multi-party elections in the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, a violent process of disintegration commenced. With its mixed population, Bosnia-Herzegovina became the centre of the following civil war that began in 1992 between the newly formed army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (mostly Muslim Bosniacs), and the parastatal forces of self-declared Bosnian Croat (Herzeg-Bosnia) and Bosnian Serb (Republika Srpska) entities within Bosnia-Herzegovina, supported by Croatia and Serbia, with various, often short-lived, coalitions. The General Framework Agreement (Dayton Peace Agreement), signed in 1995, split the country into two ethno-federal entities, the Bosniak-Croat Federation and the Republika Srpska, and included continued peacekeeping and institutional administration by international actors.

Kosovo

The conflict between Serbs and Kosovar Albanians has a long history and always involved territorial disputes as well as ethno-political, cultural and linguistic factors. The most recent phase of the conflict began in November 1997 when the Albanian Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA or UCK) began their campaign for the independence of Kosovo from the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY – then Serbia and Montenegro). The subsequent war lasted until the NATO intervention, which undertook bombing campaigns of Belgrade and other places in Serbia during spring 1999. The main agreements solving the conflict were internationally driven and, finally, a UNSC resolution imposed a post-conflict arrangement in the wake of what was essentially a NATO military victory. In February 2008, Kosovo’s parliament declared independence, but independence is still internationally disputed.

Balkan Conflicts (1991 - 1995) (1998 - 2001) )
Stage
Ceasefire/related (Ceasefire)
Conflict nature
Government/territory
Peace process
125: Bosnia peace process
Parties
COL Karisik; COL Filipovic
Third parties
WITNESS: BRIGADIER G de V W Hayes, UNPROFOR B-H Chief of Staff; CAE Jean-Pierre Thebault, ECMM/HRC Zenica
Description
This agreement provides for an absolute ceasefire, to be monitored by UNPROFOR and ECMM. It also provides for release of prisoners and detainees, mechanisms to facilitate the return of displaced persons, and freedom of movement.

Agreement document
BA_930609_Agreement Among the Parties to Halt the Conflict in Central Bosnia.pdf []

Groups

Children/youth
No specific mention.
Disabled persons
No specific mention.
Elderly/age
No specific mention.
Migrant workers
No specific mention.
Racial/ethnic/national group
No specific mention.
Religious groups
No specific mention.
Indigenous people
No specific mention.
Other groups
No specific mention.
Refugees/displaced persons
Substantive
Page 2, ARTICLE II, RELEASE OF PRISONERS/DETAINEES, RETURN OF DISPLACED PERSONS, 2. RETURN OF DISPLACED PERSONS, (a)
In accordance with Article 5 of the Agreement on 12 May 1993, the Parties shall provide assistance in restoring displaced persons to their property or places of residence.

Page 2, ARTICLE II, RELEASE OF PRISONERS/DETAINEES, RETURN OF DISPLACED PERSONS, 2. RETURN OF DISPLACED PERSONS, (b)
UNHCR will immediately be helped by both Parties to identify displaced persons, give them aid, and guarantee the safety and security of all displaced persons in returning to their homes.
Social class
No specific mention.

Gender

Women, girls and gender
No specific mention.
Men and boys
No specific mention.
LGBTI
No specific mention.
Family
No specific mention.

State definition

State definition
No specific mention.

Governance

Political institutions (new or reformed)
No specific mention.
Constitution's affirmation/renewal
No specific mention.
Constitutional reform/making
No specific mention.
Elections
No specific mention.
Electoral commission
No specific mention.
Political parties reform
No specific mention.
Civil society
Page 1, ARTICLE II, RELEASE OF PRISONERS/DETAINEES, RETURN OF DISPLACED PERSONS, 1. RELEASE OF PRISONERS/DETAINEES, (b)
A Joint Humanitarian Commission shall be immediately established with representatives from both sides, ICRC, UNHCR, ECMM, and UNPROFOR in order to monitor the release of all prisoners, on an all for all basis, and visit all alleged places of detention.

Page 2, ARTICLE II, RELEASE OF PRISONERS/DETAINEES, RETURN OF DISPLACED PERSONS, 1. RELEASE OF PRISONERS/DETAINEES, (e)
The Parties shall cooperate fully with UNPROFOR, ECMM, UNHCR, and ICRC and shall ensure that detainees are released in a way that ensures their safety.

Page 2, ARTICLE II, RELEASE OF PRISONERS/DETAINEES, RETURN OF DISPLACED PERSONS, 2. RETURN OF DISPLACED PERSONS, (b)
UNHCR will immediately be helped by both Parties to identify displaced persons, give them aid, and guarantee the safety and security of all displaced persons in returning to their homes.
Traditional/religious leaders
No specific mention.
Public administration
No specific mention.

Power sharing

Political power sharing
No specific mention.
Territorial power sharing
No specific mention.
Economic power sharing
No specific mention.
Military power sharing
No specific mention.

Human rights and equality

Human rights/RoL
No specific mention.
Equality
No specific mention.
Democracy
No specific mention.
Protection measures
Protection of groups
Page 1, Preamble

Recognizing that the Geneva Convention of 12 August 1949 and the Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949 and Relating to Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts (Protocol 1), apply to the present conflict,
Human rights framework
Treaty incorporation
Page 1, Untitled preamble
...Recognizing that the Geneva Convention of 12 August 1949 and the Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949 and Relating to Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts (Protocol 1), apply to the present conflict...

Page 1, ARTICLE II, RELEASE OF PRISONERS/DETAINEES, RETURN OF DISPLACED PERSONS, 1. RELEASE OF PRISONERS/DETAINEES, (a)
In accordance with international law, all persons detained within the power of each Party, whether civilian or military, shall be released beginning upon entry into force of this Agreement. All detainees shall be released no later than 1600 hours on 12 June 1993.
Civil and political rights
No specific mention.
Socio-economic rights
No specific mention.
NHRI
No specific mention.
Regional or international human rights institutions
No specific mention.
Mobility/access
Page 2, ARTICLE III, FREEDOM OF MOVEMENT, 1.
In accordance with Article I of the Agreement on 12 May 1993, the convoy currently detained at the check-point north of Prozor shall be given immediate, free, safe and unimpeded access to roads so as to continue to its destination. The Parties shall, to the extent possible, provide assistance to protect the convoy if it is attacked.

Page 2, ARTICLE III, FREEDOM OF MOVEMENT, 2.
In accordance with the same Article, the Parties shall ensure constant freedom of movement for all civilian convoys to travel throughout the area.
Detention procedures
No specific mention.
Media and communication
No specific mention.
Citizenship
No specific mention.

Justice sector reform

Criminal justice and emergency law
No specific mention.
State of emergency provisions
No specific mention.
Judiciary and courts
No specific mention.
Prisons and detention
No specific mention.
Traditional Laws
No specific mention.

Socio-economic reconstruction

Development or socio-economic reconstruction
Humanitarian assistance
Page 2, ARTICLE II, RELEASE OF PRISONERS/DETAINEES, RETURN OF DISPLACED PERSONS, 2. RETURN OF DISPLACED PERSONS, (b)
UNHCR will immediately be helped by both Parties to identify displaced persons, give them aid, and guarantee the safety and security of all displaced persons in returning to their homes.
National economic plan
No specific mention.
Natural resources
No specific mention.
International funds
No specific mention.
Business
No specific mention.
Taxation
No specific mention.
Banks
No specific mention.

Land, property and environment

Land reform/rights
No specific mention.
Pastoralist/nomadism rights
No specific mention.
Cultural heritage
No specific mention.
Environment
No specific mention.
Water or riparian rights or access
No specific mention.

Security sector

Security Guarantees
No specific mention.
Ceasefire
Ceasefire provision
Page 1, ARTICLE I, CESSATION OF HOSTILITIES, 1.
Beginning at 1400 hours on 10 June, 1993, an absolute ceasefire and freeze of all military activities, including military movements, deployment of forces and establishment of fortifications, shall be observed between the Parties.

Page 1, ARTICLE I, CESSATION OF HOSTILITIES, 2.
Further details of the implementation of this ceasefire will be discussed by the respective military commanders at a meeting in Kiseljak at 1100 on Thursday 10 June 1993.

Page 1, ARTICLE I, CESSATION OF HOSTILITIES, 3.
UNPROFOR and ECMM shall monitor the implementation of cessation of hostilities.

Page 2, ARTICLE IV, IMPLEMENTATION OF THE AGREEMENT
Due to difficulties encountered in the implementation of the Agreement of 12 May 1993, both parties have agreed that UNPROFOR shall assist in the implementation of this agreement through daily reporting, by Headquarters B-H Command, of the progress of both parties, to Headquarters UNPROFOR. This report shall include specifically details on the ceasefires in Travnik and Mostar at well as the articles of this agreement. Breaches of the ceasefire and complaints about failure to implement the articles of this agreement shall be made to Headquarters B-H Command.
Police
No specific mention.
Armed forces
No specific mention.
DDR
No specific mention.
Intelligence services
No specific mention.
Parastatal/rebel and opposition group forces
No specific mention.
Withdrawal of foreign forces
No specific mention.
Corruption
No specific mention.
Crime/organised crime
No specific mention.
Drugs
No specific mention.
Terrorism
No specific mention.

Transitional justice

Transitional justice general
No specific mention.
Amnesty/pardon
No specific mention.
Courts
No specific mention.
Mechanism
No specific mention.
Prisoner release
Page 1, ARTICLE II, RELEASE OF PRISONERS/DETAINEES, RETURN OF DISPLACED PERSONS, 1. RELEASE OF PRISONERS/DETAINEES, (a)
In accordance with international law, all persons detained within the power of each Party, whether civilian or military, shall be released beginning upon entry into force of this Agreement. All detainees shall be released no later than 1600 hours on 12 June 1993.

Page 1, ARTICLE II, RELEASE OF PRISONERS/DETAINEES, RETURN OF DISPLACED PERSONS, 1. RELEASE OF PRISONERS/DETAINEES, (b)
A Joint Humanitarian Commission shall be immediately established with representatives from both sides, ICRC, UNHCR, ECMM, and UNPROFOR in order to monitor the release of all prisoners, on an all for all basis, and visit all alleged places of detention.

Page 1, ARTICLE II, RELEASE OF PRISONERS/DETAINEES, RETURN OF DISPLACED PERSONS, 1. RELEASE OF PRISONERS/DETAINEES, (c)
In particular, all those prisoners listed in the attached annex covering the towns of Kiseljak, Zenica, Busovaca, Konjic and Mostar, are to be released as well as all prisoners resulting from the recent conflict in Travnik. Also, special attention will be paid to the situation in Prozor, Tarcin, and Caplinja.

Page 1, ARTICLE II, RELEASE OF PRISONERS/DETAINEES, RETURN OF DISPLACED PERSONS, 1. RELEASE OF PRISONERS/DETAINEES, (d)
In case of individuals alleged to be criminals, the Joint Humanitarian Commission will investigate the allegations as far as possible in order to recommend further action.

Page 2, ARTICLE II, RELEASE OF PRISONERS/DETAINEES, RETURN OF DISPLACED PERSONS, 1. RELEASE OF PRISONERS/DETAINEES, (e)
The Parties shall cooperate fully with UNPROFOR, ECMM, UNHCR, and ICRC and shall ensure that detainees are released in a way that ensures their safety.
Vetting
No specific mention.
Victims
Page 1, Untitled preamble
...Recognizing that the Geneva Convention of 12 August 1949 and the Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949 and Relating to Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts (Protocol 1), apply to the present conflict...
Missing persons
No specific mention.
Reparations
No specific mention.
Reconciliation
No specific mention.

Implementation

UN signatory
WITNESS: BRIGADIER G de V W Hayes, UNPROFOR B-H Chief of Staff;
Other international signatory
No specific mention.
Referendum for agreement
No specific mention.
International mission/force/similar
Page 1, ARTICLE I, CESSATION OF HOSTILITIES, 3.
UNPROFOR and ECMM shall monitor the implementation of cessation of hostilities.

Page 1, ARTICLE II, RELEASE OF PRISONERS/DETAINEES, RETURN OF DISPLACED PERSONS, 1. RELEASE OF PRISONERS/DETAINEES, (b)
A Joint Humanitarian Commission shall be immediately established with representatives from both sides, ICRC, UNHCR, ECMM, and UNPROFOR in order to monitor the release of all prisoners, on an all for all basis, and visit all alleged places of detention.

Page 2, ARTICLE II, RELEASE OF PRISONERS/DETAINEES, RETURN OF DISPLACED PERSONS, 1. RELEASE OF PRISONERS/DETAINEES, (e)
The Parties shall cooperate fully with UNPROFOR, ECMM, UNHCR, and ICRC and shall ensure that detainees are released in a way that ensures their safety.

Enforcement mechanism
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh