Agreement on the Bilateral and Final Ceasefire, End of Hostilities, and the Laying down of Weapons

Country/entity
Colombia
Region
Americas
Agreement name
Agreement on the Bilateral and Final Ceasefire, End of Hostilities, and the Laying down of Weapons
Date
23/06/2016
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Interim arrangement
No
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Colombian Conflict (1964 - )
The Colombian conflict is really a set of conflicts and the peace agreements reflect both different processes relating to different conflict groups and dyads, and processes taking place at different times in a complex peace process history. The Colombian civil war has its roots in the late 1940s and the violent infighting between liberal and the conservative factions. Emerging from the liberal tradition with a thorough grounding in nationalist communist ideology, the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia—People's Army (FARC) began its armed insurrection against the Colombian government in 1964. Other left-wing guerrillas emerged as well, most notably the socialist/populist M-19, which would later be integrated into the formal political system in the peace process of 1990s; the National Liberation Army (ELN), which has strong roots in liberation theology, and the Maoist Ejército Popular de Liberación (EPL) (also part of the 1990 process, less successfully). Several stages of peace processes were undertaken by the various sides, which were further complicated by the emergence of right-wing paramilitary ‘self-defence’ forces. The peace agreement between the Colombian government under President Uribe and the main alliance of the paramilitary groups, the United Self-Defence Forces of Colombia (AUC), concluded in 2005 and is still heavily disputed as several remnants are still active, but now subsumed under the heading ‘Bacrim’ (Bandas criminales). In addition, FARC and ELN maintain a military presence, but both demonstrate a strong interest in completing successful peace negotiations with the government, with the most recent agreements being between FARC and the Government.

Colombian Conflict (1964 - ) )
Stage
Ceasefire/related (Ceasefire)
Conflict nature
Government
Peace process
101: Colombia V - Santos
Parties
By the National Government:
Humberto de la Calle
Head of the National Government Peace Delegation

By the FARC -EP:
Iván Márquez
Head of the FARC-EP Peace Delegation
Third parties
By the Guarantor Countries:
By the Republic of Cuba
By the Kingdom of Norway

By the accompanying countries:
By the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela
By the Republic of Chile
Description
This agreement provides for a final ceasefire, end of hostilities, and laying down of weapons between the national government and the FARC-EP. It defines bilateral and definitive ceasefire and end of hostilities as the “end the offensive actions between the Security Forces and the FARC-EP, as well as hostilities and any behaviour that is forbidden by the annexe of the rules” defined in this agreement. It defines the laying down of weapons (DA, Dejación de Armas) as “a traceable, technical and verifiable procedure through which the United Nations (UN) will receive the entirety of the FARC-EP’s arsenal so it can be used to build monuments.”
Specially, it defines how information should be provided to relevant authorities and commissions, broadcasting and communication of the progress of the implementation to national and international public, and the implementation time table. It further defines rules governing the CFHBD and DA, and provides for a Monitoring and Verification mechanism, dispute settlements procedures, territory-based and area-based mechanisms, transitional (Veredales) Zones of Normalisation, security zone (around the zones of normalisation), encampment zones and transit routes, and procedure to lay down weapons.

Agreement document
CO_160623_Acuerdo Bilateral-tr.pdf []

Agreement document (original language)
CO_160623_borrador-conjunto-cfhbd-y-da.pdf []

Groups

Children/youth
No specific mention.
Disabled persons
No specific mention.
Elderly/age
No specific mention.
Migrant workers
No specific mention.
Racial/ethnic/national group
No specific mention.
Religious groups
No specific mention.
Indigenous people
Substantive
Summary: The agreement ensures throughout that a territorial, differential, and gender-based approach is adopted in the design, implementation and monitoring of the policies and strategies provided for in the agreement. This implicitly grants special attention to indigenous, rural communities and areas mostly affected by the conflict and requires to take into account the various threats, particularities and experiences of different people in their communities and territories.
Other groups
No specific mention.
Refugees/displaced persons
No specific mention.
Social class
No specific mention.

Gender

Women, girls and gender
Page 6-7, Transitional (Veredales) Zones of Normalisation:
[...]
During the term of the Agreement on CFHBD and DA, the FARC-EP will designate a group of 60 of its members (men and women) that can be mobilised at a national level to perform duties related to the Peace Agreement. Likewise, for each ZVTN, FARC-EP will designate a group of 10 of its members that can be mobilised at a municipal and departmental level, to fulfil tasks related to the Peace Agreement. For these offsets, members of the FARC-EP will agree on security measures with the National Government, which will make available two protection teams per zone for the movement. The exit from ZVTNs will be under the responsibility of FARC-EP orders.
Men and boys
Gender neutral wording
Page 6-7, Transitional (Veredales) Zones of Normalisation:
[...]
During the term of the Agreement on CFHBD and DA, the FARC-EP will designate a group of 60 of its members (men and women) that can be mobilised at a national level to perform duties related to the Peace Agreement. Likewise, for each ZVTN, FARC-EP will designate a group of 10 of its members that can be mobilised at a municipal and departmental level, to fulfil tasks related to the Peace Agreement. For these offsets, members of the FARC-EP will agree on security measures with the National Government, which will make available two protection teams per zone for the movement. The exit from ZVTNs will be under the responsibility of FARC-EP orders.
LGBTI
No specific mention.
Family
No specific mention.

State definition

State definition
No specific mention.

Governance

Political institutions (new or reformed)
General references
Page 1, Preamble:
[...]
The National Government in compliance with the terms agreed in point 2 “Political participation: opening up democracy to build peace”, reaffirms its commitment to the implementation of measures that will lead to full political and citizen participation in all social and political sectors, including measures to ensure mobilisation and citizen participation in matters of public interest, as well as facilitating the formation of new political movements and parties with the guarantee of participation, in secure conditions.
Likewise, the National Government reaffirms its commitment to that agreed in points 3.4. and 3.6. of point 3 End of Conflict, among which is the creation of a Integrated Security System for Political Activity, in the agreed terms in point 2 Political Participation, as part of a modern and qualitatively new concept of security that, in the context of the end of the conflict, is founded on respect for human dignity, on promoting and respecting human rights, and in defence of democratic values, in particular on protecting rights and freedoms of those who exercise the politics, especially of those who after the end of the armed conflict have transformed themselves into a political movement, and that therefore must be recognised and treated as such.
Additionally, the National Government and the FARC-EP express their commitment to contributing to the emergence of a new culture which would ban the use of weapons when exercising politics , and working together to achieve a national consensus in which all political, economic, and social sectors are agreed upon by exercising politics in which the values of democracy, free exchange of ideas and civilised debate; in which there is no room for intolerance and politically motivated persecution. This compromise is part of ensuring the non-repetition of the events that contributed to armed conflict between Colombians for political reasons.
Temporary new institutions
Page 7, Transitional (Veredales) Zones of Normalisation
[...]
The National Government and the FARC-EP commit to implementing this Agreement is carried out without limiting in any manner the functioning of non-armed authorities, the development of regions’ economic, political and social activity, life in the communities, and the ability for people to exercise their rights; they will also not limit the normal functioning of communal, social, and political organisations that have a presence in the territories.
[...]
Within the ZVTN the full force of the Social State based on the rule of law will be ensured, for which the functioning of civil authorities will be maintained without limitations. The non-armed civil authorities that have presence in the areas will remain and continue to perform their functions in the same manner, without prejudice towards that agreed in the CFHBD. The ZVTN may not be used for demonstrations of a political nature.
Constitution's affirmation/renewal
No specific mention.
Constitutional reform/making
No specific mention.
Elections
No specific mention.
Electoral commission
No specific mention.
Political parties reform
No specific mention.
Civil society
Page 1, Preamble:
[...]
The National Government in compliance with the terms agreed in point 2 “Political participation: opening up democracy to build peace”, reaffirms its commitment to the implementation of measures that will lead to full political and citizen participation in all social and political sectors, including measures to ensure mobilisation and citizen participation in matters of public interest, as well as facilitating the formation of new political movements and parties with the guarantee of participation, in secure conditions.

Page 2, Announcement and Inception of the CFHBD and DA:
The National Government and the FARC-EP will inform the national and international public opinion about what they agreed upon: “to end in a definitive manner the offensive actions between security forces and FARC-EP, as well as hostilities and any behaviour that is forbidden by the annexe of the rules that govern the CFHBD and DA in the present agreement. The CFHBD and the DA process will begin day D at H hours”.
Once the aforementioned announcement has been made, a reasonable timeframe will be established for deploying the MM&V, and for adapting territory-based mechanisms of the FARC-EP and security forces.

Page 5, Monitoring and Verification:
[...]
The MM&V has interaction with communities, social organisations, political actors and State institutions, at national, regional and local level, which may contribute to its work by providing information, helping in broadcasting its reports to the public, as well as presenting proposals and suggestions.

Page 7, Transitional (Veredales) Zones of Normalisation
[...]
The National Government and the FARC-EP commit to implementing this Agreement is carried out without limiting in any manner the functioning of non-armed authorities, the development of regions’ economic, political and social activity, life in the communities, and the ability for people to exercise their rights; they will also not limit the normal functioning of communal, social, and political organisations that have a presence in the territories.
Traditional/religious leaders
No specific mention.
Public administration
No specific mention.

Power sharing

Political power sharing
No specific mention.
Territorial power sharing
No specific mention.
Economic power sharing
No specific mention.
Military power sharing
No specific mention.

Human rights and equality

Human rights/RoL
Page 1, Preamble:
[...]
Likewise, the National Government reaffirms its commitment to that agreed in points 3.4. and 3.6. of point 3 End of Conflict, among which is the creation of a Integrated Security System for Political Activity, in the agreed terms in point 2 Political Participation, as part of a modern and qualitatively new concept of security that, in the context of the end of the conflict, is founded on respect for human dignity, on promoting and respecting human rights, and in defence of democratic values, in particular on protecting rights and freedoms of those who exercise the politics, especially of those who after the end of the armed conflict have transformed themselves into a political movement, and that therefore must be recognised and treated as such.

Page 7, Transitional (Veredales) Zones of Normalisation
[...]
The National Government and the FARC-EP commit to implementing this Agreement is carried out without limiting in any manner the functioning of non-armed authorities, the development of regions’ economic, political and social activity, life in the communities, and the ability for people to exercise their rights; they will also not limit the normal functioning of communal, social, and political organisations that have a presence in the territories.
Equality
Page 1, Preamble:
[...]
Additionally, the National Government and the FARC-EP express their commitment to contributing to the emergence of a new culture which would ban the use of weapons when exercising politics , and working together to achieve a national consensus in which all political, economic, and social sectors are agreed upon by exercising politics in which the values of democracy, free exchange of ideas and civilised debate; in which there is no room for intolerance and politically motivated persecution. This compromise is part of ensuring the non-repetition of the events that contributed to armed conflict between Colombians for political reasons.
Democracy
Page 1, Preamble:
[...]
Likewise, the National Government reaffirms its commitment to that agreed in points 3.4. and 3.6. of point 3 End of Conflict, among which is the creation of a Integrated Security System for Political Activity, in the agreed terms in point 2 Political Participation, as part of a modern and qualitatively new concept of security that, in the context of the end of the conflict, is founded on respect for human dignity, on promoting and respecting human rights, and in defence of democratic values, in particular on protecting rights and freedoms of those who exercise the politics, especially of those who after the end of the armed conflict have transformed themselves into a political movement, and that therefore must be recognised and treated as such.
Additionally, the National Government and the FARC-EP express their commitment to contributing to the emergence of a new culture which would ban the use of weapons when exercising politics , and working together to achieve a national consensus in which all political, economic, and social sectors are agreed upon by exercising politics in which the values of democracy, free exchange of ideas and civilised debate; in which there is no room for intolerance and politically motivated persecution. This compromise is part of ensuring the non-repetition of the events that contributed to armed conflict between Colombians for political reasons.
Protection measures
No specific mention.
Human rights framework
No specific mention.
Civil and political rights
Other
Page 7, Transitional (Veredales) Zones of Normalisation:
[...]
During the period of validity of the ZVTN the right for civilians to carry and possess weapons within these areas will be suspended.
Socio-economic rights
No specific mention.
NHRI
No specific mention.
Regional or international human rights institutions
No specific mention.
Mobility/access
Page 6, Transitional (Veredales) Zones of Normalisation:
[...]
The ZVTN are located by common agreement and have road (accessible by land or fluvial routes) access; their limits correspond to the limits of the ‘veredas’ [Smallest municipal entity in Colombia] where they are located; they may be extended or reduced by mutual agreement depending on the size of the ‘veredas’ where they are located. They also have a reasonable spread that allows monitoring and verification by the MM&V and fulfilment of the objectives of the ZVTN, using geographical features or characteristics of the terrain as reference.

Page 8, Airspace:
Starting from Day D, airspace will be used in the following manner:
Military flights above the ZVTN and security Zones will be restricted to 5,000 feet high. In the event of a disaster, public calamity, or medical emergency, civilian aircrafts will be allowed, subject to coordination between the MM&V and the National Government and FARC-EP.
Detention procedures
No specific mention.
Media and communication
Other
Page 2, Announcement and Inception of the CFHBD and DA:
The National Government and the FARC-EP will inform the national and international public opinion about what they agreed upon: “to end in a definitive manner the offensive actions between security forces and FARC-EP, as well as hostilities and any behaviour that is forbidden by the annexe of the rules that govern the CFHBD and DA in the present agreement. The CFHBD and the DA process will begin day D at H hours”.
Once the aforementioned announcement has been made, a reasonable timeframe will be established for deploying the MM&V, and for adapting territory-based mechanisms of the FARC-EP and security forces.

Page 3, Broadcasting and Communication:
With the signature of the CFHBD and DA Agreement, precise instructions will be given to the security forces and the FARC-EP structures, so that they can carry out the necessary actions to start CFHBD and DA.

Page 5, Monitoring and Verification:
[...]
The MM&V has interaction with communities, social organisations, political actors and State institutions, at national, regional and local level, which may contribute to its work by providing information, helping in broadcasting its reports to the public, as well as presenting proposals and suggestions.
Citizenship
No specific mention.

Justice sector reform

Criminal justice and emergency law
No specific mention.
State of emergency provisions
No specific mention.
Judiciary and courts
No specific mention.
Prisons and detention
No specific mention.
Traditional Laws
No specific mention.

Socio-economic reconstruction

Development or socio-economic reconstruction
Socio-economic development
Page 7, Transitional (Veredales) Zones of Normalisation
[...]
The National Government and the FARC-EP commit to implementing this Agreement is carried out without limiting in any manner the functioning of non-armed authorities, the development of regions’ economic, political and social activity, life in the communities, and the ability for people to exercise their rights; they will also not limit the normal functioning of communal, social, and political organisations that have a presence in the territories.
National economic plan
No specific mention.
Natural resources
No specific mention.
International funds
No specific mention.
Business
No specific mention.
Taxation
No specific mention.
Banks
No specific mention.

Land, property and environment

Land reform/rights
No specific mention.
Pastoralist/nomadism rights
No specific mention.
Cultural heritage
No specific mention.
Environment
No specific mention.
Water or riparian rights or access
No specific mention.

Security sector

Security Guarantees
Page 1, Preamble:
[...]
Likewise, the National Government reaffirms its commitment to that agreed in points 3.4. and 3.6. of point 3 End of Conflict, among which is the creation of a Integrated Security System for Political Activity, in the agreed terms in point 2 Political Participation, as part of a modern and qualitatively new concept of security that, in the context of the end of the conflict, is founded on respect for human dignity, on promoting and respecting human rights, and in defence of democratic values, in particular on protecting rights and freedoms of those who exercise the politics, especially of those who after the end of the armed conflict have transformed themselves into a political movement, and that therefore must be recognised and treated as such.
Additionally, the National Government and the FARC-EP express their commitment to contributing to the emergence of a new culture which would ban the use of weapons when exercising politics , and working together to achieve a national consensus in which all political, economic, and social sectors are agreed upon by exercising politics in which the values of democracy, free exchange of ideas and civilised debate; in which there is no room for intolerance and politically motivated persecution. This compromise is part of ensuring the non-repetition of the events that contributed to armed conflict between Colombians for political reasons.

Page 3, Timetable:
The National Government and the FARC-EP have agreed to establish a logical sequence for developing the activities of the CFHBD and DA. To this end, they will carry out actions described in the annexed timetable which uses events and dates before day D hour H as reference.
The procedures and terms for developing the present Agreement are described in the following annexes and protocols:
[...]
5. Security
1. People’s Security
2. Transit Security
3. Territory-based and Area-based mechanisms security
4. Weapons, ammunition and explosives transport
5. Weapons, ammunition and explosives handling
6. Weapons, ammunition and explosives storage
7. Weapons, ammunition and explosives control

Page 6-7, Transitional (Veredales) Zones of Normalisation:
[...]
During the term of the Agreement on CFHBD and DA, the FARC-EP will designate a group of 60 of its members (men and women) that can be mobilised at a national level to perform duties related to the Peace Agreement. Likewise, for each ZVTN, FARC-EP will designate a group of 10 of its members that can be mobilised at a municipal and departmental level, to fulfil tasks related to the Peace Agreement. For these offsets, members of the FARC-EP will agree on security measures with the National Government, which will make available two protection teams per zone for the movement. The exit from ZVTNs will be under the responsibility of FARC-EP orders.
[...]
During the period of validity of the ZVTN the right for civilians to carry and possess weapons within these areas will be suspended.

Page 9, Security:
Considering security as a transversal element of responsibility for the CFHBD and DA, based on the principles of respecting life and human dignity; the National Government and the FARC-EP have defined together some security protocols that will allow for comprehensively minimising potential threats that can affect or infringe upon the people and property involved in the CFHBD and DA.
Security conditions implemented from the beginning of the CFHBD and DA will guarantee the protection of the monitoring and verification team members, the FARC-EP members, the National Government delegates, the Security Forces delegates, and other participants in the process, as well as the coordination of movements and mechanisms in the field.
The security handling FARC-EP weapons, ammunition and explosives during the CFHBD and DA, functions within the framework of security protocols that include the transportation, handling, storage and control of the above.
The security measures for the CFHBD and DA will give the ability to State to ensure the security and the effective development of this process, and prevent, dismantle and neutralise any eventuality that puts it at risk.
The security measures for the CFHBD and DA equally require the FARC-EP to comply with their obligations.
Similarly, the National Government, through the Security Forces, continues to guarantee coexistence and security conditions for the civilian population during this process.
The agreed security protocols are based on a concept of security in which individuals and communities are its central axis, and are also based on comprehensive and contextualised threat prevention that will help mitigate the risks that may affect the goals of the CFHBD and DA.
For implementing security measures in the CFHBD and DA, the following protocols have been jointly developed, that will create a sense of security and confidence to the participants in this process:
- People’s security
- Transit security
- Security in territory-based mechanisms and ZVTN
- Security for the Weapon, ammunition, and explosives (through its transport, handling, storage and control).


Page 11, Procedure:
[...]
The FARC-EP will contribute in various ways, including providing information, cleaning and decontamination of territories affected by anti-personnel mines (MAP), improvised explosive devices (IEDS), other unexploded devices (UXO) or explosive remnants of war (ERW) in general, taking into account that agreed in points 4 and 5, and that agreed in the point on reintegration into civilian life, in regard to the FARC-EP participation in action against mines.
Ceasefire
Ceasefire provision
[This agreement provides in its entirety for a final ceasefire, end of hostilities, and laying down of weapons between the national government and the FARC-EP. It defines bilateral and definitive ceasefire and end of hostilities as the “end the offensive actions between the Security Forces and the FARC-EP, as well as hostilities and any behaviour that is forbidden by the annexe of the rules” defined in this agreement.Specially, it defines how information should be provided to relevant authorities and commissions, broadcasting and communication of the progress of the implementation to national and international public, and the implementation time table. It further defines rules governing the CFHBD and DA, and provides for a Monitoring and Verification mechanism, dispute settlements procedures, territory-based and area-based mechanisms, transitional (Veredales) Zones of Normalisation, security zone (around the zones of normalisation), encampment zones and transit routes, and procedure of laying down weapons.
The handling of FARC-EP weapons, ammunition and explosives includes their transportation, handling, storage and control. The disarmament implies an organised, traceable and verifiable process that develops over two phases, called Arms Control and Laying down of Weapons, integrating the following technical procedures: registration, identification, monitoring and verification of possession, collection, storage, destruction, removal, and disposal].
Police
Page 7, Transitional (Veredales) Zones of Normalisation:
[...]
In the event of any fact or circumstance arises within a ZVTN that requires the presence of the National Police or any other armed State Authority, this will be done whilst informing the MM&V, so as to be able to coordinate entry in accordance with the protocols agreed by the National Government and the FARC-EP.

Page 8, Security Zone:
Around each ZVTN a security zone will be established where there can be no security force units, or members of the FARC-EP, with the exception of the monitoring and verification teams escorted by police security when the circumstances so require. Any police proceeding, that does not involve the security of the MM&V, which is required in the security zone, is done with prior coordination with the MM&V and in accordance with the Protocols agreed between the National Government and the FARC-EP. The width of the security zone is of 1 kilometre around each ZVTN.
Armed forces
No specific mention.
DDR
DDR programmes
[This agreement provides in its entirety for a final ceasefire, end of hostilities, and laying down of weapons between the national government and the FARC-EP. It defines bilateral and definitive ceasefire and end of hostilities as the “end the offensive actions between the Security Forces and the FARC-EP, as well as hostilities and any behaviour that is forbidden by the annexe of the rules” defined in this agreement. It defines laying down of weapons (DA, Dejación de Armas) as “a traceable, technical and verifiable procedure through which the United Nations (UN) will receive the entirety of the FARC-EP’s arsenal so it can be used to build monuments.”
Specially, it defines how information should be provided to relevant authorities and commissions, broadcasting and communication of the progress of the implementation to national and international public, and the implementation time table. It further defines rules governing the CFHBD and DA, and provides for a Monitoring and Verification mechanism, dispute settlements procedures, territory-based and area-based mechanisms, transitional (Veredales) Zones of Normalisation, security zone (around the zones of normalisation), encampment zones and transit routes, and procedure to lay down weapons.
The DDR process includes as well provisions for the reintegration into civilian life of their combatants, the FARC-EP such as education or professional trainings, ensure welfare in the demobilisation zones such as health care, civil registration sessions, and other measures to prepare for reintegration.
The handling of FARC-EP weapons, ammunition and explosives includes their transportation, handling, storage and control. The disarmament implies an organised, traceable and verifiable process that develops over two phases, called Arms Control and Laying down of Weapons, integrating the following technical procedures: registration, identification, monitoring and verification of possession, collection, storage, destruction, removal, and disposal].
Intelligence services
No specific mention.
Parastatal/rebel and opposition group forces
Page 1, Preamble:
[...]
Likewise, the National Government reaffirms its commitment to that agreed in points 3.4. and 3.6. of point 3 End of Conflict, among which is the creation of a Integrated Security System for Political Activity, in the agreed terms in point 2 Political Participation, as part of a modern and qualitatively new concept of security that, in the context of the end of the conflict, is founded on respect for human dignity, on promoting and respecting human rights, and in defence of democratic values, in particular on protecting rights and freedoms of those who exercise the politics, especially of those who after the end of the armed conflict have transformed themselves into a political movement, and that therefore must be recognised and treated as such.

Page 2, Definitions:
The Bilateral and Definitive Ceasefire and End of Hostilities (CFHBD)
Definitively end the offensive actions between the Security Forces and the FARC-EP, as well as hostilities and any behaviour that is forbidden by the annexe of the rules that govern the CFHBD. The definitive and bilateral ceasefire and end of hostilities (CFHBD) will begin on day D at H hours.
Laying down of Weapons (DA, Dejación de Armas)
It is a traceable, technical and verifiable procedure through which the United Nations (UN) will receive the entirety of the FARC-EP’s arsenal so it can be used to build monuments.
Objective
The objective of the present agreement on CFHBD and DA is to definitively end offensive acts between the security forces and the FARC-EP, and in general end hostilities and any act mentioned in the rules that govern the CFHBD, including the effect on the population, and thus create conditions that will allow for the final agreement to begin being implemented, as well as the laying down of weapons and prepare institutions and the country for the reintegration to civilian life of the FARC-EP.
Provision of information
The National Government and the FARC-EP deliver data gradually, appropriately detailed, and in the moments agreed to facilitate the planning and implementation of:
1. The Mechanism for Monitoring and Verifying (MM&V) 2. Budget and logistics 3. security and field mechanisms 4. Fulfilment of tasks inherent to the CFHBD process; as well as 5. The laying down of weapons and 6. The reintegration of FARC-EP into civilian life.

Page 3, Broadcasting and Communication:
With the signature of the CFHBD and DA Agreement, precise instructions will be given to the security forces and the FARC-EP structures, so that they can carry out the necessary actions to start CFHBD and DA.

Page 3, Timetable:
The National Government and the FARC-EP have agreed to establish a logical sequence for developing the activities of the CFHBD and DA. To this end, they will carry out actions described in the annexed timetable which uses events and dates before day D hour H as reference.
[...]
This list of protocols is subject to changes agreed between the National Government and the FARC-EP.

Page 4, Rules governing the CFHBD and DA:
[...]
In the annex regarding the matter, which is an integral part of the present agreement, actions which the security forces and the FARC-EP commit to not performing are clearly identified.

Page 4-5, Monitoring and Verification:
[...]
The MM&V will be a tripartite technical mechanism, and will be composed of representatives of the National Government (the security forces), the FARC-EP, and an international component consisting of a political mission of unarmed observers of the UN, composed mainly of observers from member countries of the Latin American and Caribbean States Community (CELAC).

Page 5, Dispute settlements for CFHBD and DA:
Regional and National Verification authorities are responsible of observing and verifying the incidents or violations of this Agreement of CFHBD and DA, in accordance with the information documented by the monitoring teams, as well as submitting recommendations to the National Government and the FARC-EP, to prevent or correct acts that violate the CFHBD and DA.

Page 5, Adapting territory-based and area-based mechanisms:
For the purposes of complying with the Agreement on the CFHBD and DA; as well as to advance the preparations for the process of economic, political and social reintegration of the FARC-EP into civilian life, in accordance with their interests, as stated in sub-point 2 of point 3 of the General Agreement for Ending Conflict and Building Stable and Lasting Peace; the National Government and the FARC-EP agree to establish 23 Transitional Veredal Zones [Smallest municipal entity in Colombia] of Normalisation [Spanish Acronym ZVTN], and 8 camps.
Starting from day D+1, security forces will reorganise the presence of the troops to facilitate movement of FARC-EP structures to these areas and to comply with the Agreement on the CFHBD and DA.
For their part, starting from day D+5, the various missions, commissions and Tactical Combat Units (UTC) of the FRAC-EP fronts will be moving toward the previously agreed ZVTN, along routes established by mutual agreement between the National Government and the FARC-EP.
All of the above is monitored and verified by the MM&V; in accordance with the mandate of said mechanism; with the text of this Agreement and with the Protocols agreed upon by the National Government and the FARC-EP.

Page 6-8, Transitional (Veredales) Zones of Normalisation:
[...]
In developing the Agreement on CFHBD and DA, both security forces and the FARC-EP must comply with the rules that govern the CFHBD and DA, as well as with the other chapters and protocols that make up the Agreement on CFHBD and DA. The MM&V has no-limit access to the ZVTN stipulated in annex X to the present agreement, and to the security force units, committed to the mechanisms specified in annex Y of this Agreement.
[...]
While the ZVTN are in operation, the FARC-EP are responsible of their combatants within these zones. The exit of FARC-EP combatants towards the camps is done without weapons and civilly.
Once strengths of the FARC-EP have been identified, the National Government will suspend the arrest warrants of all members of the FARC-EP that are within the ZVTN, on delivery from the FARC-EP of a list of all its members present in each.
FARC-EP members that, by virtue of the amnesty law, have benefited from the release from imprisonment, if they so wish, may integrate into these areas to continue the process of reintegration into civilian life. To this end, places to stay outside the camps within the ZVTN sites will be organised.
During the term of the Agreement on CFHBD and DA, the FARC-EP will designate a group of 60 of its members (men and women) that can be mobilised at a national level to perform duties related to the Peace Agreement. Likewise, for each ZVTN, FARC-EP will designate a group of 10 of its members that can be mobilised at a municipal and departmental level, to fulfil tasks related to the Peace Agreement. For these offsets, members of the FARC-EP will agree on security measures with the National Government, which will make available two protection teams per zone for the movement. The exit from ZVTNs will be under the responsibility of FARC-EP orders.
The FARC-EP members designated for the tasks referred to in the preceding paragraph must immediately store weapons in containers under verification of the CI-MM&V. Likewise so must any FARC-EP member that requires exit to receive emergency medical attention or specialised medical treatment that is not provided within the ZVTN.
The National Government and the FARC-EP commit to implementing this Agreement is carried out without limiting in any manner the functioning of non-armed authorities, the development of regions’ economic, political and social activity, life in the communities, and the ability for people to exercise their rights; they will also not limit the normal functioning of communal, social, and political organisations that have a presence in the territories.
[...]
Non-armed civil authorities can permanently enter ZVTN with no limitation, except for areas of the camps where FARC-EP structures are located. Each ZVTN will have a reception area, to greet people arriving.
[...]
The MM&V’s mission is to monitor and verify the implementation of the Protocols agreed by the National Government and the FARC-EP for the ZVTN and units of the Security Forces involved in the mechanisms set forth in Annex Y of this Agreement.
In the event of any fact or circumstance arises within a ZVTN that requires the presence of the National Police or any other armed State Authority, this will be done whilst informing the MM&V, so as to be able to coordinate entry in accordance with the protocols agreed by the National Government and the FARC-EP.
The number of camps within each ZVTN, agreed by the National Government and the FARC-EP, will be determined by the ground conditions and the number of combatants within the area. In any case the camps will be located in such a way that the MM&V can exercise its function of monitoring and verifying the Agreement on CFHBD and DA.
In developing the process of preparing for the reintegration into civilian life of their combatants, the FARC-EP, in coordination with the National Government, can perform all types of training within the ZVTN of FARC-EP members in productive labour, at primary education, secondary education, or professional level, according to their needs.
For its part, within the ZVTN the National Government in agreement with the FARC-EP, will put in place measures and preparatory actions for reintegration, and other measures necessary to facilitate the transition to legality of the FARC-EP, as well as to ensure welfare in the ZVTN, which may include but will not be limited to: health care, civil registration sessions, and other measures to prepare for reintegration.

Page 8, Security Zone:
Around each ZVTN a security zone will be established where there can be no security force units, or members of the FARC-EP, with the exception of the monitoring and verification teams escorted by police security when the circumstances so require. Any police proceeding, that does not involve the security of the MM&V, which is required in the security zone, is done with prior coordination with the MM&V and in accordance with the Protocols agreed between the National Government and the FARC-EP. The width of the security zone is of 1 kilometre around each ZVTN.

Page 8, Beginning of Transit:
On day D+1, a delegate of the National Government and one of the FARC-EP will deliver the coordinates of the location of the Security Forces and FARC-EP units to the CI- MM&V, so as to be able to adopt the necessary measures to enable the movement of the FARC-EP structures to the ZVTN securely, whilst being monitored and verified by the MM&V.
These movements can be made whilst escorted by the MM&V, if the National Government and the FARC-EP so require.

Page 8, Airspace:
Starting from Day D, airspace will be used in the following manner:
Military flights above the ZVTN and security Zones will be restricted to 5,000 feet high. In the event of a disaster, public calamity, or medical emergency, civilian aircrafts will be allowed, subject to coordination between the MM&V and the National Government and FARC-EP.

Page 9, Security:
Considering security as a transversal element of responsibility for the CFHBD and DA, based on the principles of respecting life and human dignity; the National Government and the FARC-EP have defined together some security protocols that will allow for comprehensively minimising potential threats that can affect or infringe upon the people and property involved in the CFHBD and DA.
Security conditions implemented from the beginning of the CFHBD and DA will guarantee the protection of the monitoring and verification team members, the FARC-EP members, the National Government delegates, the Security Forces delegates, and other participants in the process, as well as the coordination of movements and mechanisms in the field.
The security handling FARC-EP weapons, ammunition and explosives during the CFHBD and DA, functions within the framework of security protocols that include the transportation, handling, storage and control of the above.
[...]
The security measures for the CFHBD and DA equally require the FARC-EP to comply with their obligations.

Page 9-10, Logistics:
It is the combination of elements meeting specific needs, and identified jointly by the National Government and the FARC-EP that will lead to the successful implementation of everything related with the CFHBD and DA agreement.

Page 10, Laying down of Weapons (DA, Dejación de Armas):
It consists of a technical, traceable, and verifiable procedure, through which the UN receives all of the armament of the FARC-EP to be used in the construction of 3 monuments, agreed between the National Government and the FARC-EP.
The DA of the FARC-EP implies an organised, traceable and verifiable process that develops over two phases, called Arms Control and Laying down of Weapons, integrating the following technical procedures: registration, identification, monitoring and verification of possession, collection, storage, destruction, removal, and disposal.

Page 10, Laying down of Weapons (DA, Dejación de Armas):
[...]
The DA of the FARC-EP implies an organised, traceable and verifiable process that develops over two phases, called Arms Control and Laying down of Weapons, integrating the following technical procedures: registration, identification, monitoring and verification of possession, collection, storage, destruction, removal, and disposal.
• Registration: is the technical procedure of recording the amount and type of weapons received from the FARC-EP by the CI-MM&V.
• Identification: is the technical procedure that allows the CI-MM&V to characterise the FARC-EP weapons. This procedure is done only with individual weapons that the members of the FARC-EP carry within the camps.
• Monitoring and verification of possession: each one of the FARC-EP members that remain in the areas will carry a single weapon within the camp. The CI-MM&V will monitor and verify the possession of such weapons based on registration and identification performed by the same CI-MM&V. Within the camps there will permanently be representatives of the CI-MM&V.
• Collection: is understood as the technical procedure through which the CI- MM&V will receive all the FARC-EP weapons, in line with the procedure described in this Agreement.
[...]
• Removal of weapons: is the technical procedure, headed by the UN, which consists in the physical removal of weapons from the areas. The weapons’ destination shall be decided between the National Government and the FARC-EP alongside the UN, and they will be used to build 3 monuments.
Final disposal of weapons: is the technical procedure through which the FARC-EP are used to build 3 monuments: one at the United Nations headquarters, one in the Republic of Cuba, and another in Colombian territory in place that represents the political organisation that will emerge from the transformation of the FARC-EP, in agreement with the National Government.

Page 11-12, Procedure:
By signing the Final Agreement, the process of Laying down FARC-EP weapons begins, as follows:
For planning and enlistment for the logistics of the DA, the FARC-EP, from day D+5, will supply the CI-MM&V all information that the CI-MM&V deems necessary for transport, registration, identification, monitoring and verification of possession, collection, storage, removal and disposal.
The FARC-EP will contribute in various ways, including providing information, cleaning and decontamination of territories affected by anti-personnel mines (MAP), improvised explosive devices (IEDS), other unexploded devices (UXO) or explosive remnants of war (ERW) in general, taking into account that agreed in points 4 and 5, and that agreed in the point on reintegration into civilian life, in regard to the FARC-EP participation in action against mines.
On day D+5 the FARC-EP units will begin travelling towards the ZVTN. The transportation of individual weapons will also begin. The MM&V will monitor and verify this procedure.
Between day D+7 and Day+30, the transportation of weapons, armament of the militias, grenades and ammunition, will begin, toward the ZVTN and escorted by FARC-EP members, under observance of the security protocol for the transporting weapons. The MM&V will monitor and verify this procedure.
With the arrival of FARC-EP members to the areas, the CI-MM&V will initiate procedures for: recording and storing the appropriate containers for individual weapons of FARC-EP members that are comply tasks related to the peace process, and of FARC-EP members allocated to the MM&V.
Likewise the CI-MM&V will begin monitoring and controlling the possession of individual weapons of FARC-EP members that are staying within the camps, based on registration and identification of said weapons.
The escorted weapons, grenades and ammunition that enter the camps, including weapons from militias, will be stored in temporary armouries under the responsibility of the FARC-EP, until day D+60, when they will be stored in appropriate containers. This procedure will be monitored and verified by the CI-MM&V.
To ensure the effective control of weaponry, in each zone there will be only a single storage place, within one of the camps, where the containers will be located under the permanent monitoring and verification CI-MM&V, in line with the protocols agreed upon between the National Government and the FARC-EP.
[...]
The collection and storage (in containers) of individual weapons, that remain in possession of FARC-EP members within camps in the zones, will be done sequentially and in three phases: Phase 1: D+90, 30%of weapons; Phase 2: D+120, 30% of weapons; and 3 Phase: D+150, the remaining 40% of weapons, according to the schedule agreed by the National Government and the FARC-EP to aid the process of ending the conflict after signing the Final Agreement.
Withdrawal of foreign forces
No specific mention.
Corruption
No specific mention.
Crime/organised crime
No specific mention.
Drugs
No specific mention.
Terrorism
No specific mention.

Transitional justice

Transitional justice general
Page 1, Preamble:
[...]
Additionally, the National Government and the FARC-EP express their commitment to contributing to the emergence of a new culture which would ban the use of weapons when exercising politics, and working together to achieve a national consensus in which all political, economic, and social sectors are agreed upon by exercising politics in which the values of democracy, free exchange of ideas and civilised debate; in which there is no room for intolerance and politically motivated persecution. This compromise is part of ensuring the non-repetition of the events that contributed to armed conflict between Colombians for political reasons.
Amnesty/pardon
Amnesty/pardon proper
Page 6, Transitional (Veredales) Zones of Normalisation:
[...]
Once strengths of the FARC-EP have been identified, the National Government will suspend the arrest warrants of all members of the FARC-EP that are within the ZVTN, on delivery from the FARC-EP of a list of all its members present in each.
FARC-EP members that, by virtue of the amnesty law, have benefited from the release from imprisonment, if they so wish, may integrate into these areas to continue the process of reintegration into civilian life. To this end, places to stay outside the camps within the ZVTN sites will be organised.
Courts
No specific mention.
Mechanism
No specific mention.
Prisoner release
Page 6, Transitional (Veredales) Zones of Normalisation:
[...]
Once strengths of the FARC-EP have been identified, the National Government will suspend the arrest warrants of all members of the FARC-EP that are within the ZVTN, on delivery from the FARC-EP of a list of all its members present in each.
FARC-EP members that, by virtue of the amnesty law, have benefited from the release from imprisonment, if they so wish, may integrate into these areas to continue the process of reintegration into civilian life. To this end, places to stay outside the camps within the ZVTN sites will be organised.
Vetting
No specific mention.
Victims
No specific mention.
Missing persons
No specific mention.
Reparations
No specific mention.
Reconciliation
No specific mention.

Implementation

UN signatory
No specific mention.
Other international signatory
By the Guarantor Countries:
By the Republic of Cuba
By the Kingdom of Norway

By the accompanying countries:
By the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela
By the Republic of Chile
Referendum for agreement
No specific mention.
International mission/force/similar
Page 2, Definitions:
[...]
Laying down of Weapons (DA, Dejación de Armas)
It is a traceable, technical and verifiable procedure through which the United Nations (UN) will receive the entirety of the FARC-EP’s arsenal so it can be used to build monuments.

Page 4-5, Monitoring and Verification:
[...]
With regard to the laying down of weapons, the international component of the MM&V (CI-MM&V) will verify the terms and the appropriate guarantees established in the protocols of the Agreement.
[...]
The MM&V will be a tripartite technical mechanism, and will be composed of representatives of the National Government (the security forces), the FARC-EP, and an international component consisting of a political mission of unarmed observers of the UN, composed mainly of observers from member countries of the Latin American and Caribbean States Community (CELAC).
The International Component presides in all instances the MM&V, and is responsible for settling disputes, submitting recommendations and generating reports, in accordance with the guidelines that they have been given with the aim of ensuring and bringing impartiality and transparency to CFHBD and DA.

Page 7, Transitional (Veredales) Zones of Normalisation
[...]
The FARC-EP members designated for the tasks referred to in the preceding paragraph must immediately store weapons in containers under verification of the CI-MM&V. Likewise so must any FARC-EP member that requires exit to receive emergency medical attention or specialised medical treatment that is not provided within the ZVTN.

Page 8, Beginning of Transit:
On day D+1, a delegate of the National Government and one of the FARC-EP will deliver the coordinates of the location of the Security Forces and FARC-EP units to the CI- MM&V, so as to be able to adopt the necessary measures to enable the movement of the FARC-EP structures to the ZVTN securely, whilst being monitored and verified by the MM&V.

Page 9-10, Logistics:
[...]
The MM&V at the local level will include a logistics section, coordinated by a member of the international component. This Tripartite section of the local verification entity is responsible for defining what (relating to the logistics) is required for the functioning of the ZVTN; it is also responsible for ensuring the adequate and timely arrival of supplies to the ZVTN.

Page 10, Laying down of Weapons (DA):
It consists of a technical, traceable, and verifiable procedure, through which the UN receives all of the armament of the FARC-EP to be used in the construction of 3 monuments, agreed between the National Government and the FARC-EP.

Page 10, Laying down of Weapons (DA, Dejación de Armas):
[...]
The DA of the FARC-EP implies an organised, traceable and verifiable process that develops over two phases, called Arms Control and Laying down of Weapons, integrating the following technical procedures: registration, identification, monitoring and verification of possession, collection, storage, destruction, removal, and disposal.
• Registration: is the technical procedure of recording the amount and type of weapons received from the FARC-EP by the CI-MM&V.
• Identification: is the technical procedure that allows the CI-MM&V to characterise the FARC-EP weapons. This procedure is done only with individual weapons that the members of the FARC-EP carry within the camps.
• Monitoring and verification of possession: each one of the FARC-EP members that remain in the areas will carry a single weapon within the camp. The CI-MM&V will monitor and verify the possession of such weapons based on registration and identification performed by the same CI-MM&V. Within the camps there will permanently be representatives of the CI-MM&V.
• Collection: is understood as the technical procedure through which the CI- MM&V will receive all the FARC-EP weapons, in line with the procedure described in this Agreement.
• Storage of weapons: in each zone, within one of the camps, there will be a place to store weapons received by the CI-MM&V, in appropriate containers. Only the CI-MM&V, which permanently carries out monitoring and verification, will be able to enter this place.
• Removal of weapons: is the technical procedure, headed by the UN, which consists in the physical removal of weapons from the areas. The weapons’ destination shall be decided between the National Government and the FARC-EP alongside the UN, and they will be used to build 3 monuments.
Final disposal of weapons: is the technical procedure through which the FARC-EP are used to build 3 monuments: one at the United Nations headquarters, one in the Republic of Cuba, and another in Colombian territory in place that represents the political organisation that will emerge from the transformation of the FARC-EP, in agreement with the National Government.


Page 11-12, Procedure:
[...]
For planning and enlistment for the logistics of the DA, the FARC-EP, from day D+5, will supply the CI-MM&V all information that the CI-MM&V deems necessary for transport, registration, identification, monitoring and verification of possession, collection, storage, removal and disposal.
[...]
Between day D+7 and Day+30, the transportation of weapons, armament of the militias, grenades and ammunition, will begin, toward the ZVTN and escorted by FARC-EP members, under observance of the security protocol for the transporting weapons. The MM&V will monitor and verify this procedure.

With the arrival of FARC-EP members to the areas, the CI-MM&V will initiate procedures for: recording and storing the appropriate containers for individual weapons of FARC-EP members that are comply tasks related to the peace process, and of FARC-EP members allocated to the MM&V.
Likewise the CI-MM&V will begin monitoring and controlling the possession of individual weapons of FARC-EP members that are staying within the camps, based on registration and identification of said weapons.
The escorted weapons, grenades and ammunition that enter the camps, including weapons from militias, will be stored in temporary armouries under the responsibility of the FARC-EP, until day D+60, when they will be stored in appropriate containers. This procedure will be monitored and verified by the CI-MM&V.
To ensure the effective control of weaponry, in each zone there will be only a single storage place, within one of the camps, where the containers will be located under the permanent monitoring and verification CI-MM&V, in line with the protocols agreed upon between the National Government and the FARC-EP.
Between day D+10 and day D+60 the destruction of unstable weaponry stored in deposits (coves), previously geo-referenced, will be carried out in line with security protocols defined for this purpose. The CI-MM&V will verify the implementation of this procedure.
[...]
After receiving the weapons on day D+150, on no later than day D+180 the weapons removal process must be completed by the United Nations, in line with procedures agreed for this matter. The successful completion of this process must be confirmed by communicating it to the National Government and to the public.
Enforcement mechanism
Page 2, Provision of information:
The National Government and the FARC-EP deliver data gradually, appropriately detailed, and in the moments agreed to facilitate the planning and implementation of:
1. The Mechanism for Monitoring and Verifying (MM&V) 2. Budget and logistics 3. security and field mechanisms 4. Fulfilment of tasks inherent to the CFHBD process; as well as 5. The laying down of weapons and 6. The reintegration of FARC-EP into civilian life.

Page 2, Announcement and Inception of the CFHBD and DA:
[...]
Once the aforementioned announcement has been made, a reasonable timeframe will be established for deploying the MM&V, and for adapting territory-based mechanisms of the FARC-EP and security forces.

Page 3, Timetable:
The National Government and the FARC-EP have agreed to establish a logical sequence for developing the activities of the CFHBD and DA. To this end, they will carry out actions described in the annexed timetable which uses events and dates before day D hour H as reference.
[...]
3. Monitoring and Verification
1. Deployment of MM&V
2. Information Flow
3. Management of strategic communication
4. Recording and analysis of information
5. Monitoring of Arms, Ammunition and Explosives

Page 4, Rules governing the CFHBD and DA:
The rules that govern the CFHBD and DA are all those arising by virtue of this Agreement that seek to avoid breaking the CFHBD and DA, whether they affect the civilian population or the adversary.
The rules that govern the CFHBD and DA aim to identify actions that cause the violation of the ceasefire; monitoring of these actions constitutes the core of the MM&V’s mandate.

Page 4-5, Monitoring and Verification:
For the purposes of implementing this agreement a Monitoring and Verification Mechanism (MM&V) will be established, in charge of verifying the fulfilment of the agreement and allowing management of distinct factors that could put the CFHBD and DA under risk, and particularly define compliance with the rules that Govern the CFHBD and DA. The functions, procedures and scope are set out in the mandate of the MM&V.
This is a technical, efficient and flexible mechanism that contributes to generating transparency, credibility and confidence in the process of implementing the CFHBD.
With regard to the laying down of weapons, the international component of the MM&V (CI-MM&V) will verify the terms and the appropriate guarantees established in the protocols of the Agreement.
The structure of the MM&V is composed of three levels: one at the national level; eight (08) regional verification structures; and a few local verification structures deployed in the identified areas.
The MM&V will be a tripartite technical mechanism, and will be composed of representatives of the National Government (the security forces), the FARC-EP, and an international component consisting of a political mission of unarmed observers of the UN, composed mainly of observers from member countries of the Latin American and Caribbean States Community (CELAC).
The International Component presides in all instances the MM&V, and is responsible for settling disputes, submitting recommendations and generating reports, in accordance with the guidelines that they have been given with the aim of ensuring and bringing impartiality and transparency to CFHBD and DA.
The number of monitoring teams depends on the following criteria: areas, number of people and arms to monitor, topography and risk factors in each of the areas identified for monitoring.
The MM&V has interaction with communities, social organizations, political actors and State institutions, at national, regional and local level, which may contribute to its work by providing information, helping in broadcasting its reports to the public, as well as presenting proposals and suggestions.

Page 5, Dispute settlements for CFHBD and DA:
Regional and National Verification authorities are responsible of observing and verifying the incidents or violations of this Agreement of CFHBD and DA, in accordance with the information documented by the monitoring teams, as well as submitting recommendations to the National Government and the FARC-EP, to prevent or correct acts that violate the CFHBD and DA.

Page 5, Adapting territory-based and area-based mechanisms:
For the purposes of complying with the Agreement on the CFHBD and DA; as well as to advance the preparations for the process of economic, political and social reintegration of the FARC-EP into civilian life, in accordance with their interests, as stated in sub-point 2 of point 3 of the General Agreement for Ending Conflict and Building Stable and Lasting Peace; the National Government and the FARC-EP agree to establish 23 Transitional Veredal Zones [Smallest municipal entity in Colombia] of Normalisation [Spanish Acronym ZVTN], and 8 camps.
Starting from day D+1, security forces will reorganise the presence of the troops to facilitate movement of FARC-EP structures to these areas and to comply with the Agreement on the CFHBD and DA.
For their part, starting from day D+5, the various missions, commissions and Tactical Combat Units (UTC) of the FRAC-EP fronts will be moving toward the previously agreed ZVTN, along routes established by mutual agreement between the National Government and the FARC-EP.
All of the above is monitored and verified by the MM&V; in accordance with the mandate of said mechanism; with the text of this Agreement and with the Protocols agreed upon by the National Government and the FARC-EP.

Page 6-8, Transitional (Veredales) Zones of Normalisation
[...]
These areas are territorial, temporary and transitional, clearly-defined, delimited and previously agreed between the National Government and the FARC-EP, and supported by the monitoring and verification of the MM&V, which in each ZVTN will join forces with Local Verification Teams.
The ZVTN are located by common agreement and have road (accessible by land or fluvial routes) access; their limits correspond to the limits of the ‘veredas’ [Smallest municipal entity in Colombia] where they are located; they may be extended or reduced by mutual agreement depending on the size of the ‘veredas’ where they are located. They also have a reasonable spread that allows monitoring and verification by the MM&V and fulfilment of the objectives of the ZVTN, using geographical features or characteristics of the terrain as reference.
[...]
In developing the Agreement on CFHBD and DA, both security force and the FARC-EP must comply with the rules that govern the CFHBD and DA, as well as with the other chapters and protocols that make up the Agreement on CFHBD and DA. The MM&V has no-limit access to the ZVTN stipulated in annex X to the present agreement, and to the security force units, committed to the mechanisms specified in annex Y of this Agreement.
To ensure the implementation of this agreement, permanent communication between the MM&V and delegates nominated by the National Government and the FARC-EP will be established.
[...]
The FARC-EP members designated for the tasks referred to in the preceding paragraph must immediately store weapons in containers under verification of the CI-MM&V. Likewise so must any FARC-EP member that requires exit to receive emergency medical attention or specialised medical treatment that is not provided within the ZVTN.
[...]
The MM&V’s mission is to monitor and verify the implementation of the Protocols agreed by the National Government and the FARC-EP for the ZVTN and units of the Security Forces involved in the mechanisms set forth in Annex Y of this Agreement.
[...]
In the event of any fact or circumstance arises within a ZVTN that requires the presence of the National Police or any other armed State Authority, this will be done whilst informing the MM&V, so as to be able to coordinate entry in accordance with the protocols agreed by the National Government and the FARC-EP.
[...]
The number of camps within each ZVTN, agreed by the National Government and the FARC-EP, will be determined by the ground conditions and the number of combatants within the area. In any case the camps will be located in such a way that the MM&V can exercise its function of monitoring and verifying the Agreement on CFHBD and DA.
[...]
In each ZVTN, the MM&V will install a local headquarter in a place that allows them to perform their functions efficiently and effectively.

Page 8, Security Zone:
Around each ZVTN a security zone will be established where there can be no security force units, or members of the FARC-EP, with the exception of the monitoring and verification teams escorted by police security when the circumstances so require. Any police proceeding, that does not involve the security of the MM&V, which is required in the security zone, is done with prior coordination with the MM&V and in accordance with the Protocols agreed between the National Government and the FARC-EP. The width of the security zone is of 1 kilometre around each ZVTN.

Page 8, Establishment of Encampment Zones and transit routes:
[...]
The Security Force units subject to monitoring and verification by the MM&V can be found in Annex Y of this Agreement.

Page 8, Beginning of Transit:
On day D+1, a delegate of the National Government and one of the FARC-EP will deliver the coordinates of the location of the Security Forces and FARC-EP units to the CI- MM&V, so as to be able to adopt the necessary measures to enable the movement of the FARC-EP structures to the ZVTN securely, whilst being monitored and verified by the MM&V.
These movements can be made whilst escorted by the MM&V, if the National Government and the FARC-EP so require.

Page 8, Airspace:
Starting from Day D, airspace will be used in the following manner:
Military flights above the ZVTN and security Zones will be restricted to 5,000 feet high. In the event of a disaster, public calamity, or medical emergency, civilian aircrafts will be allowed, subject to coordination between the MM&V and the National Government and FARC-EP.

Page 9, Security:
[...]
Security conditions implemented from the beginning of the CFHBD and DA will guarantee the protection of the monitoring and verification team members, the FARC-EP members, the National Government delegates, the Security Forces delegates, and other participants in the process, as well as the coordination of movements and mechanisms in the field.

Page 9-10, Logistics:
It is the combination of elements meeting specific needs, and identified jointly by the National Government and the FARC-EP that will lead to the successful implementation of everything related with the CFHBD and DA agreement.
The MM&V at the local level will include a logistics section, coordinated by a member of the international component. This Tripartite section of the local verification entity is responsible for defining what (relating to the logistics) is required for the functioning of the ZVTN; it is also responsible for ensuring the adequate and timely arrival of supplies to the ZVTN.

Page 10, Laying down of Weapons (DA):
[...]
The DA of the FARC-EP implies an organised, traceable and verifiable process that develops over two phases, called Arms Control and the Laying down of Weapons, integrating the following technical procedures: registration, identification, monitoring and verification of possession, collection, storage, destruction, removal, and disposal.
• Registration: is the technical procedure of recording the amount and type of weapons received from the FARC-EP by the CI-MM&V.
• Identification: is the technical procedure that allows the CI-MM&V to characterise the FARC-EP weapons. This procedure is done only with individual weapons that the members of the FARC-EP carry within the camps.
• Monitoring and verification of possession: each one of the FARC-EP members that remain in the areas will carry a single weapon within the camp. The CI-MM&V will monitor and verify the possession of such weapons based on registration and identification performed by the same CI-MM&V. Within the camps there will permanently be representatives of the CI-MM&V.
• Collection: is understood as the technical procedure through which the CI- MM&V will receive all the FARC-EP weapons, in line with the procedure described in this Agreement.
• Storage of weapons: in each zone, within one of the camps, there will be a place to store weapons received by the CI-MM&V, in appropriate containers. Only the CI-MM&V, which permanently carries out monitoring and verification, will be able to enter this place.
• Removal of weapons: is the technical procedure, headed by the UN, which consists in the physical removal of weapons from the areas. The weapons’ destination shall be decided between the National Government and the FARC-EP alongside the UN, and they will be used to build 3 monuments.
Final disposal of weapons: is the technical procedure through which the FARC-EP are used to build 3 monuments: one at the United Nations headquarters, one in the Republic of Cuba, and another in Colombian territory in place that represents the political organization that will emerge from the transformation of the FARC-EP, in agreement with the National Government.

Page 11-12, Procedure:
[...]
For planning and enlistment for the logistics of the DA, the FARC-EP, from day D+5, will supply the CI-MM&V all information that the CI-MM&V deems necessary for transport, registration, identification, monitoring and verification of possession, collection, storage, removal and disposal.
[...]
On day D+5 the FARC-EP units will begin travelling towards the ZVTN. The transportation of individual weapons will also begin. The MM&V will monitor and verify this procedure.
Between day D+7 and Day+30, the transportation of weapons, armament of the militias, grenades and ammunition, will begin, toward the ZVTN and escorted by FARC-EP members, under observance of the security protocol for the transporting weapons. The MM&V will monitor and verify this procedure.
With the arrival of FARC-EP members to the areas, the CI-MM&V will initiate procedures for: recording and storing the appropriate containers for individual weapons of FARC-EP members that are comply tasks related to the peace process, and of FARC-EP members allocated to the MM&V.
Likewise the CI-MM&V will begin monitoring and controlling the possession of individual weapons of FARC-EP members that are staying within the camps, based on registration and identification of said weapons.
The escorted weapons, grenades and ammunition that enter the camps, including weapons from militias, will be stored in temporary armouries under the responsibility of the FARC-EP, until day D+60, when they will be stored in appropriate containers. This procedure will be monitored and verified by the CI-MM&V.
To ensure the effective control of weaponry, in each zone there will be only a single storage place, within one of the camps, where the containers will be located under the permanent monitoring and verification CI-MM&V, in line with the protocols agreed upon between the National Government and the FARC-EP.
Between day D+10 and day D+60 the destruction of unstable weaponry stored in deposits (coves), previously geo-referenced, will be carried out in line with security protocols defined for this purpose. The CI-MM&V will verify the implementation of this procedure.
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The MM&V will certify and communicate each of the stages of the laying down of weapons procedure described above.

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