The agreement between the Russian Federation, Republic of Kazakhstan, and the People's Republic of China on determining the junction point of the international borders of the three states

Country/entity
China
Kazakhstan
Russia
Region
Cross-regional
Agreement name
The agreement between the Russian Federation, Republic of Kazakhstan, and the People's Republic of China on determining the junction point of the international borders of the three states
Date
05/05/1999
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Interim arrangement
No
Agreement/conflict level
Interstate/interstate conflict (Sino-Soviet Border Conflict (1969 - 1991)
Lasting 7 months, this undeclared border war erupted at the height of the Sino-Soviet split in March 1969 in the area of Zhenbao on the Wusuli River. Ten years earlier, the two allies had stood as champions of communism. Indeed, Soviet Russia played a key role in supporting Communist rebels against the nationalist Koumintang. However, relations soured over differences in ideology and leadership and although a border treaty was drawn up in 1965, Nikita Krushchev refused to sign after allegations by Mao Zedong were leaked that Tsarist Russia had stripped China of its historical territory. Accounts of the conflict vary between Chinese and Russian historians. Nonetheless, a People's Liberation Army raid on a Soviet border outpost on March 2, 1969 left over a hundred dead. Although, the conflict brought both countries to the brink of a greater war, with troops amassing on both sides, this outcome was avoided. The conflict was formally ended in September 1991 with the first border demarcation agreement.Other agreements were signed with formerly-Soviet States included Kazakhstan.
Sino-Soviet Border Conflict (1969 - 1991) )
Stage
Framework/substantive - partial (Core issue)
Conflict nature
Territory
Peace process
19: Russia-China-Central Asian borders interstate process
Parties
For the Russian Federation
For the Republic of Kazakhstan
For the People’s Republic of China
Third parties
Description
Agreement delimiting the border junction between Russian, China and Kazakhstan.

Agreement document
CN_KZ_RU_990505_Agreement between the Russian Federation, the Republic of Kazakhstan, and the Republic of China, on the definition of terms regarding the junction of the borders of the three States.pdf []

Agreement document (original language)
CN_KZ_RU_990505_The agreement between the Russian Federation, Republic of Kazakhstan, and the People's Republic of China on determining the junction point of the international borders of the three states. May 5, 1999.pdf []

Groups

Children/youth
No specific mention.
Disabled persons
No specific mention.
Elderly/age
No specific mention.
Migrant workers
No specific mention.
Racial/ethnic/national group
No specific mention.
Religious groups
No specific mention.
Indigenous people
No specific mention.
Other groups
No specific mention.
Refugees/displaced persons
No specific mention.
Social class
No specific mention.

Gender

Women, girls and gender
No specific mention.
Men and boys
No specific mention.
LGBTI
No specific mention.
Family
No specific mention.

State definition

State definition
Border delimitation
Page 1, Article 1
The point of the border junction of the Russian Federation, the Republic of Kazakhstan and the Republic of China, hereinafter referred to as the point of the meeting of the borders of the three States, is located on the watershed ridge Southern Altai (Altai Territory) of approximately 3km south-west of the height of the mark and 3086 located in the territory of the Russian Federation, approximately 2.90 km to the south-south-east of the height of the mark 3339, located on the territory of the Republic of Kazakhstan, approximately 2.81km north-north-east of the height of the mark 2988, located on the territory of the Republic of China.
The coordinates of the point the mating face of the borders of the three states: Geographical: 49°06,9' north latitude; 87° 17.2' Eastern Longitude; rectangular: X = 5 442 595, Y = 15 520 905, height - 3327.
The coordinates of the mark and heights are given in the Coordinate System 1942 and Baltic system heights.

Page 1, Article 2
The location of the point of the meeting of the borders of the three States shows a red circle on the map scale 1:50000, annexed to this Agreement and part of its integral part.
Referred to in article 1 of this Agreement the distance and the mark Heights, as well as geographic and rectangular coordinates of the mating face of the borders of the three states are defined on the map.

Page 2, Article 3
From the point of the meeting of the borders of the three states of the state borders are as they are defined in treaties on the border between the States concerned.

Page 2, Article 4
In connection with that point of the meeting of the borders of the three states is located on the top of the ridge covered with eternal Surkhob in a location that the High Contracting Parties agreed not to establish at this point in the border mark.

Governance

Political institutions (new or reformed)
No specific mention.
Constitution's affirmation/renewal
No specific mention.
Constitutional reform/making
No specific mention.
Elections
No specific mention.
Electoral commission
No specific mention.
Political parties reform
No specific mention.
Civil society
No specific mention.
Traditional/religious leaders
No specific mention.
Public administration
No specific mention.

Power sharing

Political power sharing
No specific mention.
Territorial power sharing
No specific mention.
Economic power sharing
No specific mention.
Military power sharing
No specific mention.

Human rights and equality

Human rights/RoL
No specific mention.
Equality
No specific mention.
Democracy
No specific mention.
Protection measures
No specific mention.
Human rights framework
No specific mention.
Civil and political rights
No specific mention.
Socio-economic rights
No specific mention.
NHRI
No specific mention.
Regional or international human rights institutions
No specific mention.
Mobility/access
No specific mention.
Detention procedures
No specific mention.
Media and communication
No specific mention.
Citizenship
No specific mention.

Justice sector reform

Criminal justice and emergency law
No specific mention.
State of emergency provisions
No specific mention.
Judiciary and courts
No specific mention.
Prisons and detention
No specific mention.
Traditional Laws
No specific mention.

Socio-economic reconstruction

Development or socio-economic reconstruction
No specific mention.
National economic plan
No specific mention.
Natural resources
No specific mention.
International funds
No specific mention.
Business
No specific mention.
Taxation
No specific mention.
Banks
No specific mention.

Land, property and environment

Land reform/rights
No specific mention.
Pastoralist/nomadism rights
No specific mention.
Cultural heritage
No specific mention.
Environment
No specific mention.
Water or riparian rights or access
No specific mention.

Security sector

Security Guarantees
No specific mention.
Ceasefire
No specific mention.
Police
No specific mention.
Armed forces
No specific mention.
DDR
No specific mention.
Intelligence services
No specific mention.
Parastatal/rebel and opposition group forces
No specific mention.
Withdrawal of foreign forces
No specific mention.
Corruption
No specific mention.
Crime/organised crime
No specific mention.
Drugs
No specific mention.
Terrorism
No specific mention.

Transitional justice

Transitional justice general
No specific mention.
Amnesty/pardon
No specific mention.
Courts
No specific mention.
Mechanism
No specific mention.
Prisoner release
No specific mention.
Vetting
No specific mention.
Victims
No specific mention.
Missing persons
No specific mention.
Reparations
No specific mention.
Reconciliation
No specific mention.

Implementation

UN signatory
No specific mention.
Other international signatory
No specific mention.
Referendum for agreement
No specific mention.
International mission/force/similar
No specific mention.
Enforcement mechanism
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh