General Headquarters of the Army of Bosnia and Herzegovina (ABiH) and General Headquarters of the Croatian Defense Council (HVO): a signed agreement between the head of GHQ of the ABiH and head of GHQ of HVO

Country/entity
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Yugoslavia (former)
Region
Europe and Eurasia
Agreement name
General Headquarters of the Army of Bosnia and Herzegovina (ABiH) and General Headquarters of the Croatian Defense Council (HVO): a signed agreement between the head of GHQ of the ABiH and head of GHQ of HVO
Date
11/02/1993
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Interim arrangement
No
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Balkan Conflicts (1991 - 1995) (1998 - 2001)
Former Yugoslavia

The disintegration of former Yugoslavia post cold war saw conflicts which became mediated and produced peace agreements in Slovenia (where the brief independence conflict was mediated by the EC Troika in 1991), Croatia (between Croatian and Serb populations 1991-1995), in Bosnia (between Croatian, Serb and Bosniak populations 1992-1995), in Macedonia (where mediation played a key pre-emptive role in preventing large scale conflict in 2001), in Kosovo (between Kosovar Albanians and Serbian population and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY), but also between FRY and NATO, 1998-1999), and a conflict in the Presevo Valley (between Albanians in South Serbia and FRY, 2000-2001). The continued fall-out of the disintegration of former Yugoslavia also saw mediated agreement and ultimate dissolution of the Union between Serbia and Montenegro.

Bosnia-Herzegovina

In 1991, after nationalist parties won the first multi-party elections in the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, a violent process of disintegration commenced. With its mixed population, Bosnia-Herzegovina became the centre of the following civil war that began in 1992 between the newly formed army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (mostly Muslim Bosniacs), and the parastatal forces of self-declared Bosnian Croat (Herzeg-Bosnia) and Bosnian Serb (Republika Srpska) entities within Bosnia-Herzegovina, supported by Croatia and Serbia, with various, often short-lived, coalitions. The General Framework Agreement (Dayton Peace Agreement), signed in 1995, split the country into two ethno-federal entities, the Bosniak-Croat Federation and the Republika Srpska, and included continued peacekeeping and institutional administration by international actors.

Kosovo

The conflict between Serbs and Kosovar Albanians has a long history and always involved territorial disputes as well as ethno-political, cultural and linguistic factors. The most recent phase of the conflict began in November 1997 when the Albanian Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA or UCK) began their campaign for the independence of Kosovo from the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY – then Serbia and Montenegro). The subsequent war lasted until the NATO intervention, which undertook bombing campaigns of Belgrade and other places in Serbia during spring 1999. The main agreements solving the conflict were internationally driven and, finally, a UNSC resolution imposed a post-conflict arrangement in the wake of what was essentially a NATO military victory. In February 2008, Kosovo’s parliament declared independence, but independence is still internationally disputed.

Balkan Conflicts (1991 - 1995) (1998 - 2001) )
Stage
Implementation/renegotiation (Implementation modalities)
Conflict nature
Government/territory
Peace process
125: Bosnia peace process
Parties
Head of General Headquarters of ABiH: Sefer Halilovic
Head of General Headquarters of HVO: Milivoj Petkovic
Third parties
Description
This agreement establishes a joint command and coordination team between the Army of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the HVO in Central Bosnia. It also provides for returning local people to their homes,

Agreement document
BA_930211__Naredjujem - Zapovijedam_tr.pdf []

Agreement document (original language)
BA_930211_Naredjujem - Zapovijedam_CR.pdf []

Groups

Children/youth
No specific mention.
Disabled persons
No specific mention.
Elderly/age
No specific mention.
Migrant workers
No specific mention.
Racial/ethnic/national group
No specific mention.
Religious groups
No specific mention.
Indigenous people
No specific mention.
Other groups
No specific mention.
Refugees/displaced persons
Substantive
Page 1, 1)
The Head of the 3rd Corps of ABiH and Head of the Operation Zone HVO Central Bosnia (Hadzihasanovic and Blaskic) are to form a joint coordination team, comprising three members from each side, and headed by the aforementioned gentlemen. This joint coordination team has the following tasks and authorizations:...
c. To remove all barricades and obstacles in the zone of their responsibility and to urgently ensure the return of the local population into their homes and unimpeded communication along all roads (creating the conditions for a return to the legal governmental authorities).
Social class
No specific mention.

Gender

Women, girls and gender
No specific mention.
Men and boys
No specific mention.
LGBTI
No specific mention.
Family
No specific mention.

State definition

State definition
No specific mention.

Governance

Political institutions (new or reformed)
No specific mention.
Constitution's affirmation/renewal
No specific mention.
Constitutional reform/making
No specific mention.
Elections
No specific mention.
Electoral commission
No specific mention.
Political parties reform
No specific mention.
Civil society
No specific mention.
Traditional/religious leaders
No specific mention.
Public administration
No specific mention.

Power sharing

Political power sharing
No specific mention.
Territorial power sharing
No specific mention.
Economic power sharing
No specific mention.
Military power sharing
Joint command structures
Page 1, 1)
The Head of the 3rd Corps of ABiH and Head of the Operation Zone HVO Central Bosnia (Hadzihasanovic and Blaskic) are to form a joint coordination team, comprising three members from each side, and headed by the aforementioned gentlemen. This joint coordination team has the following tasks and authorizations:
a. To issue joint orders/commands.
b. To issue the command that all units are to immediately abandon any positions that concern conflict between the HVO and ABiH, to bury all trenches and bunkers built for that purpose, and to retreat their troops to positions facing the aggressor.
c. To remove all barricades and obstacles in the zone of their responsibility and to urgently ensure the return of the local population into their homes and unimpeded communication along all roads (creating the conditions for a return to the legal governmental authorities).
d. To issue the command that all units that were brought in from other areas are to retreat to their positions from before the conflict erupted.
e. To visit all locations of conflict, in order to establish the current state of affairs, the reason for conflict and the degree of individuals’ responsibility.
f. To resolve immediately and on the spot any situations and incidents that may occur.
g. To immediately and unconditionally release all prisoners, particularly the imprisoned civilians.
h. The implementation is to commence momentarily, and to be completed by noon, on February 15th 1993, when a written report is to be submitted.

Page 1, 2)
The existing coordination team of the ABiH and HVO in Gornji Vakuf has the same tasks as regulated in point 1) of this command, and is to extend its authority in that regard to the town of Bugojno as well.

Page 1, 3)
The coordination team, formed in Mostar and headed by gentlemen Miljenko Lasic (head of the Operation Area Southeast Herzegovina of the HVO) and Arif Pasalic (head of the 4th Corps of ABiH) will implement the tasks from point 1) of this agreement in their area of responsibility and will immediately direct their activity to the area of Konjic – Jablanica.

Page 1, 4)
All coordination teams from points 1), 2) and 3) of this order have the task to prepare the proposals for the composition of a joint command in the areas of responsibility, based on the agreement between gentlemen Alija Izetbegovic and Mate Boban.

Human rights and equality

Human rights/RoL
No specific mention.
Equality
No specific mention.
Democracy
No specific mention.
Protection measures
No specific mention.
Human rights framework
No specific mention.
Civil and political rights
No specific mention.
Socio-economic rights
No specific mention.
NHRI
No specific mention.
Regional or international human rights institutions
No specific mention.
Mobility/access
Page 1-2, 5)
...All stopped transports are to be allowed to pass through, and impounded goods to be returned to their owners.
Detention procedures
No specific mention.
Media and communication
Other
Page 1, 1)
The Head of the 3rd Corps of ABiH and Head of the Operation Zone HVO Central Bosnia (Hadzihasanovic and Blaskic) are to form a joint coordination team, comprising three members from each side, and headed by the aforementioned gentlemen. This joint coordination team has the following tasks and authorizations:...
c. To remove all barricades and obstacles in the zone of their responsibility and to urgently ensure the return of the local population into their homes and unimpeded communication along all roads (creating the conditions for a return to the legal governmental authorities).

Page 1-2, 5)
All commanders are to implement communication measures in their areas of responsibility so that the lines of communication become open and able to operate normally, as soon as possible. In case of any impediment to free and uninterrupted communications, they are to immediately report to ABiH GHQ and HVO GHQ...
Citizenship
No specific mention.

Justice sector reform

Criminal justice and emergency law
No specific mention.
State of emergency provisions
No specific mention.
Judiciary and courts
No specific mention.
Prisons and detention
No specific mention.
Traditional Laws
No specific mention.

Socio-economic reconstruction

Development or socio-economic reconstruction
No specific mention.
National economic plan
No specific mention.
Natural resources
No specific mention.
International funds
No specific mention.
Business
No specific mention.
Taxation
No specific mention.
Banks
No specific mention.

Land, property and environment

Land reform/rights
No specific mention.
Pastoralist/nomadism rights
No specific mention.
Cultural heritage
No specific mention.
Environment
No specific mention.
Water or riparian rights or access
No specific mention.

Security sector

Security Guarantees
No specific mention.
Ceasefire
No specific mention.
Police
No specific mention.
Armed forces
Page 1, 1)
The Head of the 3rd Corps of ABiH and Head of the Operation Zone HVO Central Bosnia (Hadzihasanovic and Blaskic) are to form a joint coordination team, comprising three members from each side, and headed by the aforementioned gentlemen. This joint coordination team has the following tasks and authorizations:
a. To issue joint orders/commands.
b. To issue the command that all units are to immediately abandon any positions that concern conflict between the HVO and ABiH, to bury all trenches and bunkers built for that purpose, and to retreat their troops to positions facing the aggressor.
c. To remove all barricades and obstacles in the zone of their responsibility and to urgently ensure the return of the local population into their homes and unimpeded communication along all roads (creating the conditions for a return to the legal governmental authorities).
d. To issue the command that all units that were brought in from other areas are to retreat to their positions from before the conflict erupted.
e. To visit all locations of conflict, in order to establish the current state of affairs, the reason for conflict and the degree of individuals’ responsibility.
f. To resolve immediately and on the spot any situations and incidents that may occur.
g. To immediately and unconditionally release all prisoners, particularly the imprisoned civilians.
h. The implementation is to commence momentarily, and to be completed by noon, on February 15th 1993, when a written report is to be submitted.

Page 1, 2)
The existing coordination team of the ABiH and HVO in Gornji Vakuf has the same tasks as regulated in point 1) of this command, and is to extend its authority in that regard to the town of Bugojno as well.

Page 1, 3)
The coordination team, formed in Mostar and headed by gentlemen Miljenko Lasic (head of the Operation Area Southeast Herzegovina of the HVO) and Arif Pasalic (head of the 4th Corps of ABiH) will implement the tasks from point 1) of this agreement in their area of responsibility and will immediately direct their activity to the area of Konjic – Jablanica.

Page 1, 4)
All coordination teams from points 1), 2) and 3) of this order have the task to prepare the proposals for the composition of a joint command in the areas of responsibility, based on the agreement between gentlemen Alija Izetbegovic and Mate Boban.
DDR
No specific mention.
Intelligence services
No specific mention.
Parastatal/rebel and opposition group forces
Page 1, 1)
The Head of the 3rd Corps of ABiH and Head of the Operation Zone HVO Central Bosnia (Hadzihasanovic and Blaskic) are to form a joint coordination team, comprising three members from each side, and headed by the aforementioned gentlemen. This joint coordination team has the following tasks and authorizations:
a. To issue joint orders/commands.
b. To issue the command that all units are to immediately abandon any positions that concern conflict between the HVO and ABiH, to bury all trenches and bunkers built for that purpose, and to retreat their troops to positions facing the aggressor.
c. To remove all barricades and obstacles in the zone of their responsibility and to urgently ensure the return of the local population into their homes and unimpeded communication along all roads (creating the conditions for a return to the legal governmental authorities).
d. To issue the command that all units that were brought in from other areas are to retreat to their positions from before the conflict erupted.
e. To visit all locations of conflict, in order to establish the current state of affairs, the reason for conflict and the degree of individuals’ responsibility.
f. To resolve immediately and on the spot any situations and incidents that may occur.
g. To immediately and unconditionally release all prisoners, particularly the imprisoned civilians.
h. The implementation is to commence momentarily, and to be completed by noon, on February 15th 1993, when a written report is to be submitted.

Page 1, 2)
The existing coordination team of the ABiH and HVO in Gornji Vakuf has the same tasks as regulated in point 1) of this command, and is to extend its authority in that regard to the town of Bugojno as well.

Page 1, 3)
The coordination team, formed in Mostar and headed by gentlemen Miljenko Lasic (head of the Operation Area Southeast Herzegovina of the HVO) and Arif Pasalic (head of the 4th Corps of ABiH) will implement the tasks from point 1) of this agreement in their area of responsibility and will immediately direct their activity to the area of Konjic – Jablanica.

Page 1, 4)
All coordination teams from points 1), 2) and 3) of this order have the task to prepare the proposals for the composition of a joint command in the areas of responsibility, based on the agreement between gentlemen Alija Izetbegovic and Mate Boban.
Withdrawal of foreign forces
No specific mention.
Corruption
No specific mention.
Crime/organised crime
No specific mention.
Drugs
No specific mention.
Terrorism
No specific mention.

Transitional justice

Transitional justice general
No specific mention.
Amnesty/pardon
No specific mention.
Courts
No specific mention.
Mechanism
No specific mention.
Prisoner release
Page 1, 1)
The Head of the 3rd Corps of ABiH and Head of the Operation Zone HVO Central Bosnia (Hadzihasanovic and Blaskic) are to form a joint coordination team, comprising three members from each side, and headed by the aforementioned gentlemen. This joint coordination team has the following tasks and authorizations:...
g. To immediately and unconditionally release all prisoners, particularly the imprisoned civilians.
Vetting
No specific mention.
Victims
No specific mention.
Missing persons
No specific mention.
Reparations
No specific mention.
Reconciliation
No specific mention.

Implementation

UN signatory
No specific mention.
Other international signatory
No specific mention.
Referendum for agreement
No specific mention.
International mission/force/similar
No specific mention.
Enforcement mechanism
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh