Agreement on Establishing a Ceasefire and Cessation of Hostilities

Country/entity
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Yugoslavia (former)
Region
Europe and Eurasia
Agreement name
Agreement on Establishing a Ceasefire and Cessation of Hostilities
Date
05/10/1992
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Interim arrangement
No
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Balkan Conflicts (1991 - 1995) (1998 - 2001)
Former Yugoslavia

The disintegration of former Yugoslavia post cold war saw conflicts which became mediated and produced peace agreements in Slovenia (where the brief independence conflict was mediated by the EC Troika in 1991), Croatia (between Croatian and Serb populations 1991-1995), in Bosnia (between Croatian, Serb and Bosniak populations 1992-1995), in Macedonia (where mediation played a key pre-emptive role in preventing large scale conflict in 2001), in Kosovo (between Kosovar Albanians and Serbian population and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY), but also between FRY and NATO, 1998-1999), and a conflict in the Presevo Valley (between Albanians in South Serbia and FRY, 2000-2001). The continued fall-out of the disintegration of former Yugoslavia also saw mediated agreement and ultimate dissolution of the Union between Serbia and Montenegro.

Bosnia-Herzegovina

In 1991, after nationalist parties won the first multi-party elections in the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, a violent process of disintegration commenced. With its mixed population, Bosnia-Herzegovina became the centre of the following civil war that began in 1992 between the newly formed army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (mostly Muslim Bosniacs), and the parastatal forces of self-declared Bosnian Croat (Herzeg-Bosnia) and Bosnian Serb (Republika Srpska) entities within Bosnia-Herzegovina, supported by Croatia and Serbia, with various, often short-lived, coalitions. The General Framework Agreement (Dayton Peace Agreement), signed in 1995, split the country into two ethno-federal entities, the Bosniak-Croat Federation and the Republika Srpska, and included continued peacekeeping and institutional administration by international actors.

Kosovo

The conflict between Serbs and Kosovar Albanians has a long history and always involved territorial disputes as well as ethno-political, cultural and linguistic factors. The most recent phase of the conflict began in November 1997 when the Albanian Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA or UCK) began their campaign for the independence of Kosovo from the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY – then Serbia and Montenegro). The subsequent war lasted until the NATO intervention, which undertook bombing campaigns of Belgrade and other places in Serbia during spring 1999. The main agreements solving the conflict were internationally driven and, finally, a UNSC resolution imposed a post-conflict arrangement in the wake of what was essentially a NATO military victory. In February 2008, Kosovo’s parliament declared independence, but independence is still internationally disputed.

Balkan Conflicts (1991 - 1995) (1998 - 2001) )
Stage
Ceasefire/related (Ceasefire)
Conflict nature
Government/territory
Peace process
128: Bosnia Local peace processes
Parties
THE REPUBLIKA SRPSKA, REPRESENTED BY:
‐ The Prime Minister, Prof. Branko Djerić,
‐ Deputy Prime Minister Milan Trbojević,
‐ Commander of the Republika Srspka Army, Lieutenant Colonel General Ratko Mladić,
‐ Minister of Defence of the Republika Srpska, Bogdan Subotić
‐ Koljević [name added by hand]

THE HRVATSKA ZAJEDNICA HERCEG‐BOSNA, REPRESENTED BY: [unsigned]

THIS AGREEMENT IS RATIFIED BY:
1. Dr Radovan Karadžić, President of the Republika Srpska
2. Mate Boban, President of the Council of the Hrvatska Zajednica Herceg‐Bosna
Third parties
Description
Agreement between the Republika Srpska and Hrvatska Zajednica Herceg‐Bosna for an unconditional and complete ceasefire along the current front lines of conflict. Parties agree not to cooperate with a third (Muslim) party against each other, free movement of civilians and humanitarian aid, prisoner exchange, and establishing cross-government bodies to rebuild infrastructure and boundary demarcation.

Agreement document
BA_921005_Sporazum o prekidu vatre i uspostavi primirja zaklucen izmedju ovlascenih predstavnika_tr.pdf []

Agreement document (original language)
BA_921005_Sporazum o prekidu vatre i uspostavi primirja zaklucen izmedju ovlascenih predstavnika_CR.pdf []

Groups

Children/youth
No specific mention.
Disabled persons
No specific mention.
Elderly/age
No specific mention.
Migrant workers
No specific mention.
Racial/ethnic/national group
No specific mention.
Religious groups
No specific mention.
Indigenous people
No specific mention.
Other groups
No specific mention.
Refugees/displaced persons
No specific mention.
Social class
No specific mention.

Gender

Women, girls and gender
No specific mention.
Men and boys
No specific mention.
LGBTI
No specific mention.
Family
No specific mention.

State definition

State definition
No specific mention.

Governance

Political institutions (new or reformed)
No specific mention.
Constitution's affirmation/renewal
No specific mention.
Constitutional reform/making
No specific mention.
Elections
No specific mention.
Electoral commission
No specific mention.
Political parties reform
No specific mention.
Civil society
No specific mention.
Traditional/religious leaders
No specific mention.
Public administration
No specific mention.

Power sharing

Political power sharing
No specific mention.
Territorial power sharing
Other
Page 2, III, 2.
The Parties will establish a joint commission which will work on boundary demarcation; they will also enable the populations in disputed territories to freely express their will on where they want to live, as well as on how they want local and governmental bodies to be formed in these territories.
Economic power sharing
No specific mention.
Military power sharing
No specific mention.

Human rights and equality

Human rights/RoL
No specific mention.
Equality
No specific mention.
Democracy
No specific mention.
Protection measures
No specific mention.
Human rights framework
No specific mention.
Civil and political rights
No specific mention.
Socio-economic rights
No specific mention.
NHRI
No specific mention.
Regional or international human rights institutions
No specific mention.
Mobility/access
Page 1, I, Item 7.
The parties will enable the free supply of humanitarian aid to the affected areas and populations in need.

Page 1, I, Item 8.
The parties will allow free movement of civilians in accordance with their wishes and
needs.
Detention procedures
No specific mention.
Media and communication
Media roles
Page 2, II, 1.
The Parties agree to: Form cross‐government bodies ‐ commissions, which will carry out tasks such as establishing vital energy supplies, water, telecommunications, traffic routes, and other supplies/infrastructure such as are beneficial for the population and economy on both sides. Re‐establishing water, power and gas supplies should be made a priority in order to meet the needs of the populations and economy.
Other
Page 1, I, Item 9.
The parties will establish telephone lines between their respective brigade commanders
and higher command staff.
Citizenship
No specific mention.

Justice sector reform

Criminal justice and emergency law
No specific mention.
State of emergency provisions
No specific mention.
Judiciary and courts
No specific mention.
Prisons and detention
No specific mention.
Traditional Laws
No specific mention.

Socio-economic reconstruction

Development or socio-economic reconstruction
Humanitarian assistance
Page 1, I, Item 7.
The parties will enable the free supply of humanitarian aid to the affected areas and populations in need.
Infrastructure and reconstruction
Page 2, II, 1.
The Parties agree to: Form cross‐government bodies ‐ commissions, which will carry out tasks such as establishing vital energy supplies, water, telecommunications, traffic routes, and other supplies/infrastructure such as are beneficial for the population and economy on both sides. Re‐establishing water, power and gas supplies should be made a priority in order to meet the needs of the populations and economy.
National economic plan
No specific mention.
Natural resources
No specific mention.
International funds
No specific mention.
Business
No specific mention.
Taxation
No specific mention.
Banks
No specific mention.

Land, property and environment

Land reform/rights
No specific mention.
Pastoralist/nomadism rights
No specific mention.
Cultural heritage
No specific mention.
Environment
No specific mention.
Water or riparian rights or access
Page 2, II, 1.
The Parties agree to: Form cross‐government bodies ‐ commissions, which will carry out tasks such as establishing vital energy supplies, water, telecommunications, traffic routes, and other supplies/infrastructure such as are beneficial for the population and economy on both sides. Re‐establishing water, power and gas supplies should be made a priority in order to meet the needs of the populations and economy.

Security sector

Security Guarantees
No specific mention.
Ceasefire
Ceasefire provision
Page 1, I, Item 1.
An unconditional and complete ceasefire and cessation of hostilities will come into force on 7 October 1992, at midnight.

Page 1, I, Item 2.
The specific terms of the unconditional and complete ceasefire are as follows:
‐ current front lines may not be moved,
‐ no arms and equipment may be used,
‐ forces and equipment may not be re‐grouped; forces may not be deployed onto the front line except when this involves replacing or providing rest for the forces, which is to be planned in advance and both parties will be required to give 24 hours’ notice before such activities occur,
‐ parties may not supply forces, arms, ammunition and military equipment to a third (Muslim) party within their own territory.

Page 1, I, Item 3.
All parties to the Agreement are required to give 24 hours’ notice if they want to replace
their forces from the front line or withdraw their forces from the front to the rear.

Page 1, I, Item 4.
All parties will unconditionally withdraw, and may not deploy or use military or
paramilitary forces outside their own territories.
Police
No specific mention.
Armed forces
No specific mention.
DDR
No specific mention.
Intelligence services
No specific mention.
Parastatal/rebel and opposition group forces
Page 1, I, Item 2.
The specific terms of the unconditional and complete ceasefire are as follows:
... ‐ parties may not supply forces, arms, ammunition and military equipment to a third (Muslim) party within their own territory.

Page 1, I, Item 5.
The parties may not cooperate with or engage in any manner with a third (Muslim) party against a party which is a signatory to the Agreement.
Withdrawal of foreign forces
No specific mention.
Corruption
No specific mention.
Crime/organised crime
No specific mention.
Drugs
No specific mention.
Terrorism
No specific mention.

Transitional justice

Transitional justice general
No specific mention.
Amnesty/pardon
No specific mention.
Courts
No specific mention.
Mechanism
No specific mention.
Prisoner release
Page 1, I, Item 6.
The parties agree to an unconditional exchange of all prisoners of war and civilians. The
final deadline for the exchange is 15 October 1992.
Vetting
No specific mention.
Victims
No specific mention.
Missing persons
No specific mention.
Reparations
No specific mention.
Reconciliation
No specific mention.

Implementation

UN signatory
No specific mention.
Other international signatory
No specific mention.
Referendum for agreement
No specific mention.
International mission/force/similar
Page 2, I, Item 10.
International monitoring forces (members of UNPROFOR) will be deployed inside the ceasefire zone to supervise and control the peace agreement.
Enforcement mechanism
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh