Joint Declaration (on normalisation of relations between Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and Bosnia and Herzegovina)

Country/entity
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Yugoslavia (former)
Region
Europe and Eurasia
Agreement name
Joint Declaration (on normalisation of relations between Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and Bosnia and Herzegovina)
Date
03/10/1996
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Interim arrangement
No
Agreement/conflict level
Interstate/intrastate conflict(s) (Balkan Conflicts (1991 - 1995) (1998 - 2001)
Former Yugoslavia

The disintegration of former Yugoslavia post cold war saw conflicts which became mediated and produced peace agreements in Slovenia (where the brief independence conflict was mediated by the EC Troika in 1991), Croatia (between Croatian and Serb populations 1991-1995), in Bosnia (between Croatian, Serb and Bosniak populations 1992-1995), in Macedonia (where mediation played a key pre-emptive role in preventing large scale conflict in 2001), in Kosovo (between Kosovar Albanians and Serbian population and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY), but also between FRY and NATO, 1998-1999), and a conflict in the Presevo Valley (between Albanians in South Serbia and FRY, 2000-2001). The continued fall-out of the disintegration of former Yugoslavia also saw mediated agreement and ultimate dissolution of the Union between Serbia and Montenegro.

Bosnia-Herzegovina

In 1991, after nationalist parties won the first multi-party elections in the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, a violent process of disintegration commenced. With its mixed population, Bosnia-Herzegovina became the centre of the following civil war that began in 1992 between the newly formed army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (mostly Muslim Bosniacs), and the parastatal forces of self-declared Bosnian Croat (Herzeg-Bosnia) and Bosnian Serb (Republika Srpska) entities within Bosnia-Herzegovina, supported by Croatia and Serbia, with various, often short-lived, coalitions. The General Framework Agreement (Dayton Peace Agreement), signed in 1995, split the country into two ethno-federal entities, the Bosniak-Croat Federation and the Republika Srpska, and included continued peacekeeping and institutional administration by international actors.

Kosovo

The conflict between Serbs and Kosovar Albanians has a long history and always involved territorial disputes as well as ethno-political, cultural and linguistic factors. The most recent phase of the conflict began in November 1997 when the Albanian Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA or UCK) began their campaign for the independence of Kosovo from the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY – then Serbia and Montenegro). The subsequent war lasted until the NATO intervention, which undertook bombing campaigns of Belgrade and other places in Serbia during spring 1999. The main agreements solving the conflict were internationally driven and, finally, a UNSC resolution imposed a post-conflict arrangement in the wake of what was essentially a NATO military victory. In February 2008, Kosovo’s parliament declared independence, but independence is still internationally disputed.

Balkan Conflicts (1991 - 1995) (1998 - 2001) )
Stage
Implementation/renegotiation (Addresses new or outstanding issues)
Conflict nature
Government/territory
Peace process
125: Bosnia peace process
Parties
Slobodan Milosevic, Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
Alija lzetbegovic, Bosnia Herzegovina
Third parties
Description
An agreement establishing normalised relations between the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and Bosnia Herzegovina

Agreement document
BA_961003_Joint Declaration.pdf []

Groups

Children/youth
No specific mention.
Disabled persons
No specific mention.
Elderly/age
No specific mention.
Migrant workers
No specific mention.
Racial/ethnic/national group
No specific mention.
Religious groups
No specific mention.
Indigenous people
No specific mention.
Other groups
No specific mention.
Refugees/displaced persons
No specific mention.
Social class
No specific mention.

Gender

Women, girls and gender
No specific mention.
Men and boys
No specific mention.
LGBTI
No specific mention.
Family
No specific mention.

State definition

State definition
Independence/secession
Page 1, IV
The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia will respect the integrity of Bosnia and Hercegovina in accordance with the Dayton Agreement which affirmed the continuity of various forms of statal organization of Bosnia and Hercegovina that the peoples of Bosnia and Hercegovina had during their history. Bosnia and Hercegovina accepts the State continuity of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Both sides agree to resolve issues of succession on the basis of the rules of international law on succession of States and by agreement.

Governance

Political institutions (new or reformed)
No specific mention.
Constitution's affirmation/renewal
No specific mention.
Constitutional reform/making
No specific mention.
Elections
No specific mention.
Electoral commission
No specific mention.
Political parties reform
No specific mention.
Civil society
No specific mention.
Traditional/religious leaders
No specific mention.
Public administration
No specific mention.

Power sharing

Political power sharing
No specific mention.
Territorial power sharing
No specific mention.
Economic power sharing
No specific mention.
Military power sharing
No specific mention.

Human rights and equality

Human rights/RoL
No specific mention.
Equality
Page 1, I
Presidents Slobodan Milosevic and Alija lzetbegovic are firmly committed to peace and strive for lasting stability in Southeast Europe, equality and cooperation of all nations and people.

Page 1, V
Ensuring pre-conditions for resolving all outstanding issues in the spirit of peace and cooperation, the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and Bosnia and Hercegovina will:...-ensure, on the basis of reciprocity, equal treatment for business subjets from the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and Bosnia and Hercegovina in respect to the use of road, railway and other traffic and infrastructure facilities;
Democracy
No specific mention.
Protection measures
No specific mention.
Human rights framework
No specific mention.
Civil and political rights
No specific mention.
Socio-economic rights
No specific mention.
NHRI
No specific mention.
Regional or international human rights institutions
No specific mention.
Mobility/access
Page 1, V
Ensuring pre-conditions for resolving all outstanding issues in the spirit of peace and cooperation, the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and Bosnia and Hercegovina will:
- establish mutual diplomatic relations at the level of ambassadors;
- ensure that citizens can travel across the border without visas or any particular formalities:
- remove all restrictions on free trade and business activities of both sides;
- ensure, on the basis of reciprocity, equal treatment for business subjets from the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and Bosnia and Hercegovina in respect to the use of road, railway and other traffic and infrastructure facilities;
- encourage the development of long-term economic cooperation and provide special facilities for the opening of economic representative offices and other institutions of importance to the development of economic, cultural, scientific, technical and other forms of cooperation.
Detention procedures
No specific mention.
Media and communication
No specific mention.
Citizenship
Citizens, specific rights
Page 1, V
Ensuring pre-conditions for resolving all outstanding issues in the spirit of peace and cooperation, the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and Bosnia and Hercegovina will:
- establish mutual diplomatic relations at the level of ambassadors;
- ensure that citizens can travel across the border without visas or any particular formalities:
- remove all restrictions on free trade and business activities of both sides;
- ensure, on the basis of reciprocity, equal treatment for business subjects from the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and Bosnia and Hercegovina in respect to the use of road, railway and other traffic and infrastructure facilities;
- encourage the development of long-term economic cooperation and provide special facilities for the opening of economic representative offices and other institutions of importance to the development of economic, cultural, scientific, technical and other forms of cooperation.

Justice sector reform

Criminal justice and emergency law
No specific mention.
State of emergency provisions
No specific mention.
Judiciary and courts
No specific mention.
Prisons and detention
No specific mention.
Traditional Laws
No specific mention.

Socio-economic reconstruction

Development or socio-economic reconstruction
No specific mention.
National economic plan
No specific mention.
Natural resources
No specific mention.
International funds
No specific mention.
Business
Page 1, V
Ensuring pre-conditions for resolving all outstanding issues in the spirit of peace and cooperation, the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and Bosnia and Hercegovina will:
- establish mutual diplomatic relations at the level of ambassadors;
- ensure that citizens can travel across the border without visas or any particular formalities:
- remove all restrictions on free trade and business activities of both sides;
- ensure, on the basis of reciprocity, equal treatment for business subjects from the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and Bosnia and Hercegovina in respect to the use of road, railway and other traffic and infrastructure facilities;
- encourage the development of long-term economic cooperation and provide special facilities for the opening of economic representative offices and other institutions of importance to the development of economic, cultural, scientific, technical and other forms of cooperation.
Taxation
No specific mention.
Banks
No specific mention.

Land, property and environment

Land reform/rights
No specific mention.
Pastoralist/nomadism rights
No specific mention.
Cultural heritage
Promotion
Page 1, V
Ensuring pre-conditions for resolving all outstanding issues in the spirit of peace and cooperation, the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and Bosnia and Hercegovina will:
- establish mutual diplomatic relations at the level of ambassadors;
- ensure that citizens can travel across the border without visas or any particular formalities:
- remove all restrictions on free trade and Jusiness activities of both sides;
- ensure, on the basis of reciprocity, equal treatment for business subjects from the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and Bosnia and Hercegovina in respect to the use of road, railway and other traffic and infrastructure facilities;
- encourage the development of long-term economic cooperation and provide special facilities for the opening of economic representative offices and other institutions of importance to the development of economic, cultural, scientific, technical and other forms of cooperation.
Environment
No specific mention.
Water or riparian rights or access
No specific mention.

Security sector

Security Guarantees
No specific mention.
Ceasefire
No specific mention.
Police
No specific mention.
Armed forces
No specific mention.
DDR
No specific mention.
Intelligence services
No specific mention.
Parastatal/rebel and opposition group forces
No specific mention.
Withdrawal of foreign forces
No specific mention.
Corruption
No specific mention.
Crime/organised crime
No specific mention.
Drugs
No specific mention.
Terrorism
No specific mention.

Transitional justice

Transitional justice general
No specific mention.
Amnesty/pardon
No specific mention.
Courts
No specific mention.
Mechanism
No specific mention.
Prisoner release
No specific mention.
Vetting
No specific mention.
Victims
No specific mention.
Missing persons
No specific mention.
Reparations
No specific mention.
Reconciliation
No specific mention.

Implementation

UN signatory
No specific mention.
Other international signatory
No specific mention.
Referendum for agreement
No specific mention.
International mission/force/similar
No specific mention.
Enforcement mechanism
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh