Accord de Partage de Pouvoir au Burundi

Country/entity
Burundi
Region
Africa (excl MENA)
Agreement name
Accord de Partage de Pouvoir au Burundi
Date
06/08/2004
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Interim arrangement
No
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Burundian Civil War (1993-2005)
The conflict had an ethnic base between Hutu and Tutsi populations, and is one of a set of regionally connected conflicts also addressed n the Great Lakes process. Since independence in 1972, the Burundian political landscape has been polarised and marked by ethnic-based tensions, political assassinations and large-scale violence. For the following two decades, three Tutsi military regimes associated with the Union for National Progress (UPRONA) ruled the country. During these military dictatorships, numerous waves of mass violence resulted from the attempts of various opposition rebels groups to destabilise the three regimes, and the regimes’ use of violence to repress these attempts. Despite a wave of hope in the early 1990’s, Burundi entered a decade-long civil war in 1993 following the assassination of Burundi’s first democratically elected president, Melchior Ndadaye, from the ethnically-Hutu Front for Democracy in Burundi (FRODEBU) by Tutsi opposition in the military.
In 1998 the Arusha Peace Talks commenced and in August 2000, international pressure resulted in the signing of the Arusha Peace and Reconciliation Agreement for Burundi. However, the National Council for the Defense of Democracy (CNND) did not sign. Additionally, and Party for the Liberation of Hutu People (Palipehutu) did not participate in negotiations. These outsiders continued sporadic violence until 2008. In 2015, a new wave of political violence is taking place after President Nkurunziza, from the CNDD-FDD which has been in power since 2005, won a contested third-mandate.
Burundian Civil War (1993-2005) )
Stage
Framework/substantive - partial (Core issue)
Conflict nature
Government
Peace process
16: Burundi: Arusha and related peace process
Parties
Signatories Parties of Arusha Peace Agreement and Ceasefire Agreements: Abasa, Anadde (listed but not signed), CNDD, CNDD-FDD (listed but not signed), FNL-ICANZO, FRODEBU, FROLINA, Green Party, INKINZO (listed but not signed), KAZA-FDD, PALIPE AGAKIZA, PARENA (listed but not signed), PIT, PL, PRP (listed but not signed), PSD (listed but not signed), RADDES (listed but not signed), RPB, UPRONA (listed but not signed)
Parties Non Signatories (of aforementioned agreements): ALIDE (listed but not signed), MRC (listed but not signed), NADDEBU, PACONA (listed but not signed), PADER, PAJUDE, PPDRR, RUSANGI, SONOVI, UPD
President of the Republic of Burundi: Domitien Ndayizeye
Third parties
Witnesses:
Facilitator of Burundi Peace Process, Representative of African Union, UN Representative
Description
This agreement deals with the power-sharing mechanisms in Burundi's state institutions.

Agreement document
BI_040806_Accord de Partage de Pouvior au Burundi_tr.pdf []

Agreement document (original language)
BI_040806_Accord de Partage de Pouvoir au Burundi_FR.pdf []

Groups

Children/youth
No specific mention.
Disabled persons
No specific mention.
Elderly/age
No specific mention.
Migrant workers
No specific mention.
Racial/ethnic/national group
Rhetorical
Page 1, Article 2:
The representative parties in Burundi agree that they will work together to ensure that their country will never again be exposed to ethnic and political violence, to carnage, insecurity and instability, or to genocide and exclusion.

Page 1, Article 3:
They agree that the constitutional and legal principles which will guarantee this outcome and will be used to design the process of implementation, include:
...
- Protecting and including ethnic, cultural and religious groups in the general system of governance;
- Building a national security and justice system in order to guarantee the security of all Burundians, including ethnic minorities.

Page 3, Article 19:
The composition of the state administration is representative of the Burundian nation, reflecting the diversity of its people, including their gender and ethnicity.

Page 4, Article 23:
They agree that these provisions represent an acceptable compromise and the necessary framework for power sharing in Burundi, creating a new order for the country based on unity, solidarity, cooperation between Burundi’s ethnic groups, democracy, peace and stability.
Substantive
Page 1, Article 5:
Among other things, the Constitution includes a very brief Charter on the fundamental rights and obligations of the individual and the citizen, which guarantees equal rights for all citizens and ethnic groups.

Page 2, Article 7:
Every political party will be open to every Burundian, and their national status will be reflected in their organisational structure. Political parties are strictly forbidden to endorse exclusion, violence or hatred in any form, and in particular when directed at individuals on ethnic, tribal, religious or regional grounds.

Page 2, Article 8:
They also agree that the lists of candidates presented by these parties for the elections which will be held according to the principles of direct universal suffrage should be of an inclusive, multi-ethnic nature and address the imperative of gender equality.

Page 2, Article 10:
...
The Vice-Presidents must come from different ethnic groups and political parties.

Page 2, Article 11:
The Government, made up of a Council of Ministers, includes 60% Hutu Ministers and Vice-Ministers, and 40% Tutsi Ministers and Vice-Ministers.

Page 2, Article 13:
The National Assembly will be composed as follows: 60% of Assembly members will be Hutu, 40% of Assembly members will be Tutsi and 3 Assembly Members will be of the Twa ethnicity. A minimum of 30% of the Assembly members will be women.

Page 3, Article 14:
In order to ensure that the ethnic and gender balance specified in the 2000 Arusha Agreement for Peace and Reconciliation is realised a co-optation mechanism will be used to address any imbalance which may result from the elections.
In this regard, in addition to the directly elected assembly members, a number of seats will be distributed, through the co-optation mechanism, among the parties which reach the threshold.

Page 3, Article 15:
The Senate will be constituted on the basis of 50/50% representation between the Hutus and Tutsis, plus 3 senators of Twa ethnicity. A minimum of 30% of the senators will be women.
Amongst other powers, the Senate will be endowed with the authority to approve amendments to the Constitution and constitutional law, and to monitor compliance with constitutional provisions requiring ethnic, tribal, religious, cultural, regional and gender diversity and balance in all structures and institutions of the state.

Page 3, Article 16:
The municipal administrators will be 67% Hutu and 33% Tutsi, subject to adjustment by the Senate on the basis of ethnic diversity in each commune.

Page 3, Article 18:
State defence and security organisations including Defence, Police and Intelligence Services are staffed according to the allocations approved during the transition period, mindful of the need to ensure ethnic balance and prevent acts of genocide and unconstitutional seizure of power.

Page 3, Article 20:
Reorganisation of state enterprises will be ethnically balanced, using the 60/40 ratio of Hutus and Tutsis as in other state institutions, taking into account all of the actors and competencies in Burundian society.
Religious groups
Rhetorical
Page 1, Article 3:
They agree that the constitutional and legal principles which will guarantee this outcome and will be used to design the process of implementation, include:
....
- Protecting and including ethnic, cultural and religious groups in the general system of governance;
Substantive
Page 2, Article 7:
Every political party will be open to every Burundian, and their national status will be reflected in their organisational structure. Political parties are strictly forbidden to endorse exclusion, violence or hatred in any form, and in particular when directed at individuals on ethnic, tribal, religious or regional grounds.
Indigenous people
No specific mention.
Other groups
No specific mention.
Refugees/displaced persons
No specific mention.
Social class
No specific mention.

Gender

Women, girls and gender
Page 2, Article 8:
They also agree that the lists of candidates presented by these parties for the elections which will be held according to the principles of direct universal suffrage should be of an inclusive, multi-ethnic nature and address the imperative of gender equality.

Page 3, Article 13:
The National Assembly will be composed as follows: 60% of Assembly members will be Hutu, 40% of Assembly members will be Tutsi and 3 Assembly Members will be of the Twa ethnicity. A minimum of 30% of the Assembly members will be women.

Page 3, Article 14:
In order to ensure that the ethnic and gender balance specified in the 2000 Arusha Agreement for Peace and Reconciliation is realised a co-optation mechanism will be used to address any imbalance which may result from the elections.
In this regard, in addition to the directly elected assembly members, a number of seats will be distributed, through the co-optation mechanism, among the parties which reach the threshold.

Page 3, Article 15:
The Senate will be constituted on the basis of 50/50% representation between the Hutus and Tutsis, plus 3 senators of Twa ethnicity. A minimum of 30% of the senators will be women.
Amongst other powers, the Senate will be endowed with the authority to approve amendments to the Constitution and constitutional law, and to monitor compliance with constitutional provisions requiring ethnic, tribal, religious, cultural, regional and gender diversity and balance in all structures and institutions of the state.

Page 4, Article 19:
The composition of the state administration is representative of the Burundian nation, reflecting the diversity of its people, including their gender and ethnicity.
Men and boys
No specific mention.
LGBTI
No specific mention.
Family
No specific mention.

State definition

State definition
Referendum
Page 4, Article 22:
Conscious of the work done by the Facilitator to develop a national consensus, the parties agree that the above-mentioned provisions should be incorporated in the Constitution of Burundi, by referendum and other relevant legislation.

Governance

Political institutions (new or reformed)
General references
Page 1, Untitled Preamble:
Having initiated a long consultation process with the Burundian political parties, and Burundian civil society, on the issue of power sharing, the Facilitators have concluded that the following consensus exists among the Burundian people

Page 1, Article 3:
They agree that the constitutional and legal principles which will guarantee this outcome and will be used to design the process of implementation, include:
- Creating and institutionalising a system of democratic governance;
- Including minority political parties in the general system of governance;
- Protecting and including ethnic, cultural and religious groups in the general system of governance;
- Building a national security and justice system in order to guarantee the security of all Burundians, including ethnic minorities.

Page 2, Article 7:
Every political party will be open to every Burundian, and their national status will be reflected in their organisational structure. Political parties are strictly forbidden to endorse exclusion, violence or hatred in any form, and in particular when directed at individuals on ethnic, tribal, religious or regional grounds.

Page 2, Article 8:
They also agree that the lists of candidates presented by these parties for the elections which will be held according to the principles of direct universal suffrage should be of an inclusive, multi-ethnic nature and address the imperative of gender equality.
New political institutions (indefinite)
Page 2, Article 9:
Burundians also agree that in exercising his executive powers, the President of the Republic, elected by universal suffrage (except in the first elections) will be assisted by two Vice-Presidents.
The President of the Republic will nominate the Vice-Presidents and present their candidature for approval by the two Chambers of Parliament elected by the people.

Page 2, Article 10:
The President of the Republic is authorised to dismiss the Vice-Presidents.
The Vice-Presidents must come from different ethnic groups and political parties.
The Constitution stipulates the specific responsibilities of the President of the Republic and the Vice-Presidents, including their institutional relationships as members of the Presidency, as well as their relations with the Parliament and the rest of the executive.

Page 3, Article 14:
In order to ensure that the ethnic and gender balance specified in the 2000 Arusha Agreement for Peace and Reconciliation is realised a co-optation mechanism will be used to address any imbalance which may result from the elections.
In this regard, in addition to the directly elected assembly members, a number of seats will be distributed, through the co-optation mechanism, among the parties which reach the threshold.

Page 3, Article 15:
...
Amongst other powers, the Senate will be endowed with the authority to approve amendments to the Constitution and constitutional law, and to monitor compliance with constitutional provisions requiring ethnic, tribal, religious, cultural, regional and gender diversity and balance in all structures and institutions of the state.

Page 3, Article 17:
As is normal and acceptable in every democracy, political parties will be free to create their own agreements and coalitions which may affect any power sharing between them, without affecting the shares specified in this document. While these will be permitted, given their private nature, these will be separate from anything stipulated in the Constitution or in legislation.

Page 4, Article 21:
By implementing the essential measures described above, it will be possible to address the four challenges of:
• Reassuring the entire population of Burundi
• Guaranteeing the country’s stability
• Establishing national unity and reconciliation
• Ensuring political, economic and socially inclusive stability.

Page 4, Article 25:
They also agree that within five years of creating the institutions foreseen in the new Constitution, the Government, the Parliament and the appropriate National Committees will carry out an inclusive national consultation, to assess how effectively the above measures have contributed to national objectives like national unity and reconciliation.
This review should enable the people of Burundi to make any constitutional, legal, political and institutional measures needed to ensure that the country attains the fundamental goals of democracy, peace, national unity and reconciliation, and development.
Constitution's affirmation/renewal
No specific mention.
Constitutional reform/making
Page 1, Article 3:
They agree that the constitutional and legal principles which will guarantee this outcome and will be used to design the process of implementation, include:
- Creating and institutionalising a system of democratic governance;
- Including minority political parties in the general system of governance;
- Protecting and including ethnic, cultural and religious groups in the general system of governance;
- Building a national security and justice system in order to guarantee the security of all Burundians, including ethnic minorities.

Page 1, Article 4:
The Post-Transition Constitution fully expounds these principles.

Page 1, Article 5:
Among other things, the Constitution includes a very brief Charter on the fundamental rights and obligations of the individual and the citizen, which guarantees equal rights for all citizens and ethnic groups.

Page 1, Article 6:
The Constitution envisages the establishment of a Constitutional Court which will ensure that the organs of the state, and other institutions and individuals, respect the provisions of the Constitution, including the Charter of Fundamental Rights.

Page 3, Article 15:
The Senate will be constituted on the basis of 50/50% representation between the Hutus and Tutsis, plus 3 senators of Twa ethnicity. A minimum of 30% of the senators will be women.
Amongst other powers, the Senate will be endowed with the authority to approve amendments to the Constitution and constitutional law, and to monitor compliance with constitutional provisions requiring ethnic, tribal, religious, cultural, regional and gender diversity and balance in all structures and institutions of the state.

Page 3, Article 17:
As is normal and acceptable in every democracy, political parties will be free to create their own agreements and coalitions which may affect any power sharing between them, without affecting the shares specified in this document. While these will be permitted, given their private nature, these will be separate from anything stipulated in the Constitution or in legislation.

Page 3, Article 18:
State defence and security organisations including Defence, Police and Intelligence Services are staffed according to the allocations approved during the transition period, mindful of the need to ensure ethnic balance and prevent acts of genocide and unconstitutional seizure of power.

Page 4, Article 22:
Conscious of the work done by the Facilitator to develop a national consensus, the parties agree that the above-mentioned provisions should be incorporated in the Constitution of Burundi, by referendum and other relevant legislation.

Page 4, Article 25:
They also agree that within five years of creating the institutions foreseen in the new Constitution, the Government, the Parliament and the appropriate National Committees will carry out an inclusive national consultation, to assess how effectively the above measures have contributed to national objectives like national unity and reconciliation.
This review should enable the people of Burundi to make any constitutional, legal, political and institutional measures needed to ensure that the country attains the fundamental goals of democracy, peace, national unity and reconciliation, and development.
Elections
Page 2, Article 8:
They also agree that the lists of candidates presented by these parties for the elections which will be held according to the principles of direct universal suffrage should be of an inclusive, multi-ethnic nature and address the imperative of gender equality.

Page 2, Article 9:
Burundians also agree that in exercising his executive powers, the President of the Republic, elected by universal suffrage (except in the first elections) will be assisted by two Vice-Presidents.
The President of the Republic will nominate the Vice-Presidents and present their candidature for approval by the two Chambers of Parliament elected by the people.

Page 2, Article 12:
Any party gaining at least 5% of votes cast for members of the National Assembly is entitled to serve on the Council of Ministers, in proportion to its representation in the National Assembly.

Page 3, Article 14:
In order to ensure that the ethnic and gender balance specified in the 2000 Arusha Agreement for Peace and Reconciliation is realised a co-optation mechanism will be used to address any imbalance which may result from the elections.
In this regard, in addition to the directly elected assembly members, a number of seats will be distributed, through the co-optation mechanism, among the parties which reach the threshold.

Page 3, Article 17:
As is normal and acceptable in every democracy, political parties will be free to create their own agreements and coalitions which may affect any power sharing between them, without affecting the shares specified in this document. While these will be permitted, given their private nature, these will be separate from anything stipulated in the Constitution or in legislation.
Electoral commission
No specific mention.
Political parties reform
Other political parties reform
Page 1, Untitled Preamble:
Having initiated a long consultation process with the Burundian political parties, and Burundian civil society, on the issue of power sharing, the Facilitators have concluded that the following consensus exists among the Burundian people

Page 1, Article 3:
They agree that the constitutional and legal principles which will guarantee this outcome and will be used to design the process of implementation, include:
- Creating and institutionalising a system of democratic governance;
- Including minority political parties in the general system of governance;
- Protecting and including ethnic, cultural and religious groups in the general system of governance;
- Building a national security and justice system in order to guarantee the security of all Burundians, including ethnic minorities.

Page 2, Article 7:
Every political party will be open to every Burundian, and their national status will be reflected in their organisational structure. Political parties are strictly forbidden to endorse exclusion, violence or hatred in any form, and in particular when directed at individuals on ethnic, tribal, religious or regional grounds.

Page 2, Article 8:
They also agree that the lists of candidates presented by these parties for the elections which will be held according to the principles of direct universal suffrage should be of an inclusive, multi-ethnic nature and address the imperative of gender equality.

Page 3, Article 17:
As is normal and acceptable in every democracy, political parties will be free to create their own agreements and coalitions which may affect any power sharing between them, without affecting the shares specified in this document. While these will be permitted, given their private nature, these will be separate from anything stipulated in the Constitution or in legislation.
Civil society
Page 1, Untitled Preamble:
Having initiated a long consultation process with the Burundian political parties, and Burundian civil society, on the issue of power sharing, the Facilitators have concluded that the following consensus exists among the Burundian people:

Page 4, Article 25:
They also agree that within five years of creating the institutions foreseen in the new Constitution, the Government, the Parliament and the appropriate National Committees will carry out an inclusive national consultation, to assess how effectively the above measures have contributed to national objectives like national unity and reconciliation.
This review should enable the people of Burundi to make any constitutional, legal, political and institutional measures needed to ensure that the country attains the fundamental goals of democracy, peace, national unity and reconciliation, and development.
Traditional/religious leaders
No specific mention.
Public administration
Page 3, Article 19:
The composition of the state administration is representative of the Burundian nation, reflecting the diversity of its people, including their gender and ethnicity.

Power sharing

Political power sharing
State level
Summary: The Agreement provides in its entirety for power sharing at the state level, see below.
Sub-state level
Summary: The Agreement provides for power sharing at the sub-state level of the commune, see below.
Executive coalition
Page 2, Article 10:
The President of the Republic is authorised to dismiss the Vice-Presidents.
The Vice-Presidents must come from different ethnic groups and political parties.
The Constitution stipulates the specific responsibilities of the President of the Republic and the Vice-Presidents, including their institutional relationships as members of the Presidency, as well as their relations with the Parliament and the rest of the executive.

Page 2, Article 11:
The Government, made up of a Council of Ministers, includes 60% Hutu Ministers and Vice-Ministers, and 40% Tutsi Ministers and Vice-Ministers.
Proportionality in legislature
Page 2, Article 13:
The National Assembly will be composed as follows: 60% of Assembly members will be Hutu, 40% of Assembly members will be Tutsi and 3 Assembly Members will be of the Twa ethnicity. A minimum of 30% of the Assembly members will be women.

Page 3, Article 14

Article 14
In order to ensure that the ethnic and gender balance specified in the 2000 Arusha Agreement for Peace and Reconciliation is realised a co-optation mechanism will be used to address any imbalance which may result from the elections.

In this regard, in addition to the directly elected assembly members, a number of seats will be distributed, through the co-optation mechanism, among the parties which reach the threshold.

Page 3, Article 15:
The Senate will be constituted on the basis of 50/50% representation between the Hutus and Tutsis, plus 3 senators of Twa ethnicity. A minimum of 30% of the senators will be women.
Amongst other powers, the Senate will be endowed with the authority to approve amendments to the Constitution and constitutional law, and to monitor compliance with constitutional provisions requiring ethnic, tribal, religious, cultural, regional and gender diversity and balance in all structures and institutions of the state.
Other proportionality
Page 3, Article 16:
The municipal administrators will be 67% Hutu and 33% Tutsi, subject to adjustment by the Senate on the basis of ethnic diversity in each commune.

Page 3, Article 19:
The composition of the state administration is representative of the Burundian nation, reflecting the diversity of its people, including their gender and ethnicity.
Other
Article 17
As is normal and acceptable in every democracy, political parties will be free to create their own
agreements and coalitions which may affect any power sharing between them, without affecting the
shares specified in this document. While these will be permitted, given their private nature, these
will be separate from anything stipulated in the Constitution or in legislation.
Territorial power sharing
No specific mention.
Economic power sharing
Fiscal federalism
Page 3, Article 20:
Reorganisation of state enterprises will be ethnically balanced, using the 60/40 ratio of Hutus and Tutsis as in other state institutions, taking into account all of the actors and competencies in Burundian society.
Military power sharing
Merger of forces
Page 3, Article 18:
State defence and security organisations including Defence, Police and Intelligence Services are staffed according to the allocations approved during the transition period, mindful of the need to ensure ethnic balance and prevent acts of genocide and unconstitutional seizure of power.

Human rights and equality

Human rights/RoL
Page 1, Article 5:
Among other things, the Constitution includes a very brief Charter on the fundamental rights and obligations of the individual and the citizen, which guarantees equal rights for all citizens and ethnic groups.

Page 1, Article 6:
The Constitution envisages the establishment of a Constitutional Court which will ensure that the organs of the state, and other institutions and individuals, respect the provisions of the Constitution, including the Charter of Fundamental Rights.

Page 4, Article 24:
They also agree that the provisions concerning the state of law and the protection of human rights, reassure all elements of Burundian society they they will be able to work in conditions of security and dignity.
Equality
Page 1, Article 5:
Among other things, the Constitution includes a very brief Charter on the fundamental rights and obligations of the individual and the citizen, which guarantees equal rights for all citizens and ethnic groups.
Democracy
Page 1, Article 3:
They agree that the constitutional and legal principles which will guarantee this outcome and will be used to design the process of implementation, include:
- Creating and institutionalising a system of democratic governance;

Page 3, Article 17:
As is normal and acceptable in every democracy, political parties will be free to create their own agreements and coalitions which may affect any power sharing between them, without affecting the shares specified in this document. While these will be permitted, given their private nature, these will be separate from anything stipulated in the Constitution or in legislation.

Page 4, Article 23:
They agree that these provisions represent an acceptable compromise and the necessary framework for power sharing in Burundi, creating a new order for the country based on unity, solidarity, cooperation between Burundi’s ethnic groups, democracy, peace and stability.

Page 4, Article 25:
They also agree that within five years of creating the institutions foreseen in the new Constitution, the Government, the Parliament and the appropriate National Committees will carry out an inclusive national consultation, to assess how effectively the above measures have contributed to national objectives like national unity and reconciliation.
This review should enable the people of Burundi to make any constitutional, legal, political and institutional measures needed to ensure that the country attains the fundamental goals of democracy, peace, national unity and reconciliation, and development.
Protection measures
Protection of groups
Page 1,

Article 3
They agree that the constitutional and legal principles which will guarantee this outcome and will be
used to design the process of implementation, include:

• Protecting and including ethnic, cultural and religious groups in the general system of
governance;
Protection of rights and legal frameworks
Page 4,

Article 24
They also agree that the provisions concerning the state of law and the protection of human rights, reassure all elements of Burundian society they they will be able to work in conditions of security and dignity.
Human rights framework
No specific mention.
Civil and political rights
No specific mention.
Socio-economic rights
No specific mention.
NHRI
No specific mention.
Regional or international human rights institutions
No specific mention.
Mobility/access
No specific mention.
Detention procedures
No specific mention.
Media and communication
No specific mention.
Citizenship
Citizens, specific rights
Page 1, Article 5:
Among other things, the Constitution includes a very brief Charter on the fundamental rights and obligations of the individual and the citizen, which guarantees equal rights for all citizens and ethnic groups.

Justice sector reform

Criminal justice and emergency law
No specific mention.
State of emergency provisions
No specific mention.
Judiciary and courts
Page 1, Article 3:
They agree that the constitutional and legal principles which will guarantee this outcome and will be used to design the process of implementation, include:
...
- Building a national security and justice system in order to guarantee the security of all Burundians, including ethnic minorities.
Prisons and detention
No specific mention.
Traditional Laws
No specific mention.

Socio-economic reconstruction

Development or socio-economic reconstruction
Socio-economic development
Page 4, Article 25:
They also agree that within five years of creating the institutions foreseen in the new Constitution, the Government, the Parliament and the appropriate National Committees will carry out an inclusive national consultation, to assess how effectively the above measures have contributed to national objectives like national unity and reconciliation.
This review should enable the people of Burundi to make any constitutional, legal, political and institutional measures needed to ensure that the country attains the fundamental goals of democracy, peace, national unity and reconciliation, and development.
National economic plan
No specific mention.
Natural resources
No specific mention.
International funds
No specific mention.
Business
No specific mention.
Taxation
No specific mention.
Banks
No specific mention.

Land, property and environment

Land reform/rights
No specific mention.
Pastoralist/nomadism rights
No specific mention.
Cultural heritage
No specific mention.
Environment
No specific mention.
Water or riparian rights or access
No specific mention.

Security sector

Security Guarantees
Page 1, Article 2:
The representative parties in Burundi agree that they will work together to ensure that their country will never again be exposed to ethnic and political violence, to carnage, insecurity and instability, or to genocide and exclusion.

Page 1, Article 3:
They agree that the constitutional and legal principles which will guarantee this outcome and will be used to design the process of implementation, include:
...
- Building a national security and justice system in order to guarantee the security of all Burundians, including ethnic minorities.

Page 4, Article 24:
They also agree that the provisions concerning the state of law and the protection of human rights, reassure all elements of Burundian society they they will be able to work in conditions of security and dignity.
Ceasefire
No specific mention.
Police
Page 3, Article 18:
State defence and security organisations including Defence, Police and Intelligence Services are staffed according to the allocations approved during the transition period, mindful of the need to ensure ethnic balance and prevent acts of genocide and unconstitutional seizure of power.
Armed forces
No specific mention.
DDR
No specific mention.
Intelligence services
Page 3, Article 18:
State defence and security organisations including Defence, Police and Intelligence Services are staffed according to the allocations approved during the transition period, mindful of the need to ensure ethnic balance and prevent acts of genocide and unconstitutional seizure of power.
Parastatal/rebel and opposition group forces
No specific mention.
Withdrawal of foreign forces
No specific mention.
Corruption
No specific mention.
Crime/organised crime
No specific mention.
Drugs
No specific mention.
Terrorism
No specific mention.

Transitional justice

Transitional justice general
Page 1, Article 2:
The representative parties in Burundi agree that they will work together to ensure that their country will never again be exposed to ethnic and political violence, to carnage, insecurity and instability, or to genocide and exclusion.
Amnesty/pardon
No specific mention.
Courts
No specific mention.
Mechanism
No specific mention.
Prisoner release
No specific mention.
Vetting
No specific mention.
Victims
No specific mention.
Missing persons
No specific mention.
Reparations
No specific mention.
Reconciliation
Page 4, Article 21:
By implementing the essential measures described above, it will be possible to address the four challenges of:
...
• Establishing national unity and reconciliation

Page 4, Article 23:
They agree that these provisions represent an acceptable compromise and the necessary framework for power sharing in Burundi, creating a new order for the country based on unity, solidarity, cooperation between Burundi’s ethnic groups, democracy, peace and stability.

Page 4, Article 25:
They also agree that within five years of creating the institutions foreseen in the new Constitution, the Government, the Parliament and the appropriate National Committees will carry out an inclusive national consultation, to assess how effectively the above measures have contributed to national objectives like national unity and reconciliation.
This review should enable the people of Burundi to make any constitutional, legal, political and institutional measures needed to ensure that the country attains the fundamental goals of democracy, peace, national unity and reconciliation, and development.

Implementation

UN signatory
Witness:
UN Representative.
Other international signatory
Witnesses:
Facilitator of Burundi Peace Process, Representative of African Union, UN Representative
Referendum for agreement
No specific mention.
International mission/force/similar
No specific mention.
Enforcement mechanism
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh