Peace Accords for Angola, Lisbon ('Bicesse Accords')

Country/entity
Angola
Region
Africa (excl MENA)
Agreement name
Peace Accords for Angola, Lisbon ('Bicesse Accords')
Date
31/05/1991
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Interim arrangement
No
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Angolan Civil War (1975 - 2002)
The conflict has involved political divisions, and agreements emanate from two dyads. Unita-dyad. Immediately following Angola’s independence in 1975, a civil war broke out between the two main armed independence movements, the (then government) Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA) and the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA). The UN-mediated Lusaka Protocol in November 1994 did not end fighting and another attempt in 1998 failed due to continuous ceasefire violations. After internal splits and the killing of their founder Jonas Savimbi, UNITA was defeated by MPLA forces in 2002.

Cabinda dyad. Additionally, in the Cabinda enclave, the Front for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda (FLEC) fought a low intensity guerrilla warfare against the MPLA government since independence, but by the early 2000s, FLEC had lost significant operational power and in 2006 the group eventually declared a ceasefire.
Angolan Civil War (1975 - 2002) )
Stage
Framework/substantive - partial (Other)
Conflict nature
Government
Peace process
4: Angola: UNITA process
Parties
President of the People's Republic of Angola; President of the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola;
Third parties
Portugal (mediator), US, USSR (observers) [apparently not signatories]
Description
Agreement constitutes four related agreements. First, the head agreement for the various Bicesse Accords. This agreement sets out the parties, and the various sub agreements that constitute the Bicesse Accords, but does not itself contain any substantive provisions. This agreement accepts as binding the following documents, which constitute the Peace Accords for Angola;
(a) The cease-fire agreement (including annexes I and II thereto) [see
attachment I};
(b) Fundamental principles for the establishment of peace in Angola
(including the annex thereto regarding the Joint Political-Military
Commission) [see attachment II];
(c) Concepts for resolving the issues still pending between the
Government of the People's Republic of Angola and UNITA [see attachment III];
(d) The Protocol of Estoril [see attachment IV].

Agreement document
AO_910508_Head_of_Document (Bicesse_Accords).pdf []

Groups

Children/youth
No specific mention.
Disabled persons
No specific mention.
Elderly/age
No specific mention.
Migrant workers
No specific mention.
Racial/ethnic/national group
No specific mention.
Religious groups
No specific mention.
Indigenous people
No specific mention.
Other groups
No specific mention.
Refugees/displaced persons
No specific mention.
Social class
No specific mention.

Gender

Women, girls and gender
No specific mention.
Men and boys
No specific mention.
LGBTI
No specific mention.
Family
No specific mention.

State definition

State definition
No specific mention.

Governance

Political institutions (new or reformed)
No specific mention.
Constitution's affirmation/renewal
No specific mention.
Constitutional reform/making
No specific mention.
Elections
No specific mention.
Electoral commission
No specific mention.
Political parties reform
No specific mention.
Civil society
No specific mention.
Traditional/religious leaders
No specific mention.
Public administration
No specific mention.

Power sharing

Political power sharing
No specific mention.
Territorial power sharing
No specific mention.
Economic power sharing
No specific mention.
Military power sharing
No specific mention.

Human rights and equality

Human rights/RoL
No specific mention.
Equality
No specific mention.
Democracy
No specific mention.
Protection measures
No specific mention.
Human rights framework
No specific mention.
Civil and political rights
No specific mention.
Socio-economic rights
No specific mention.
NHRI
No specific mention.
Regional or international human rights institutions
No specific mention.
Mobility/access
No specific mention.
Detention procedures
No specific mention.
Media and communication
No specific mention.
Citizenship
No specific mention.

Justice sector reform

Criminal justice and emergency law
No specific mention.
State of emergency provisions
No specific mention.
Judiciary and courts
No specific mention.
Prisons and detention
No specific mention.
Traditional Laws
No specific mention.

Socio-economic reconstruction

Development or socio-economic reconstruction
No specific mention.
National economic plan
No specific mention.
Natural resources
No specific mention.
International funds
No specific mention.
Business
No specific mention.
Taxation
No specific mention.
Banks
No specific mention.

Land, property and environment

Land reform/rights
No specific mention.
Pastoralist/nomadism rights
No specific mention.
Cultural heritage
No specific mention.
Environment
No specific mention.
Water or riparian rights or access
No specific mention.

Security sector

Security Guarantees
No specific mention.
Ceasefire
Ceasefire provision
Page 1, Annex, Letter dated 8 May 1991 from the Minister for External relations of Angola to the Secretary-General
... Although the said Accords will be in force after the formal signature at the end of this month, the cessation of the hostilities must be verified "in fact" as of 15 May 1991, at which date the mechanisms of verification should be started.

Page 1, Enclosure, Peace Accords for Angola
The Government of the People's Republic of Angola and the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA), with mediation by the Government of Portugal and the participation of observers from the governments of the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, Accept as binding the following documents, which constitute the Peace Accords for Angola;
(a) The cease-fire agreement (including annexes I and II thereto) [see attachment I];
Police
No specific mention.
Armed forces
No specific mention.
DDR
No specific mention.
Intelligence services
No specific mention.
Parastatal/rebel and opposition group forces
No specific mention.
Withdrawal of foreign forces
No specific mention.
Corruption
No specific mention.
Crime/organised crime
No specific mention.
Drugs
No specific mention.
Terrorism
No specific mention.

Transitional justice

Transitional justice general
No specific mention.
Amnesty/pardon
No specific mention.
Courts
No specific mention.
Mechanism
No specific mention.
Prisoner release
No specific mention.
Vetting
No specific mention.
Victims
No specific mention.
Missing persons
No specific mention.
Reparations
No specific mention.
Reconciliation
No specific mention.

Implementation

UN signatory
No specific mention.
Other international signatory
No specific mention.
Referendum for agreement
No specific mention.
International mission/force/similar
Page 1, Annex, Letter dated 8 May 1991 from the Minister for External relations of Angola to the Secretary-General
... Therefore, I would like to request Your Excellency to inform the Security Council of the necessity to keep the forces of the United Nations Angola Verification Mission (UNAVEM) until the realization of the general elections that will take place between September and November 1992.
Enforcement mechanism
CEASEFIRE AGMT, II.3. provides for release of all civilian and military prisoners, to be verified by the ICRC. Requests the UN to stay in Angola until elections take place.

Page 1, Annex, Letter dated 8 May 1991 from the Minister for External relations of Angola to the Secretary-General
... Therefore, I would like to request Your Excellency to inform the Security Council of the necessity to keep the forces of the United Nations Angola Verification Mission (UNAVEM) until the realization of the general elections that will take place between September and November 1992.

Page 1, Enclosure, Peace Accords for Angola
The Government of the People's Republic of Angola and the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA), with mediation by the Government of Portugal and the participation of observers from the governments of the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, Accept as binding the following documents, which constitute the Peace Accords for Angola;
... (b) Fundamental principles for the establishment of peace in Angola (including the annex thereto regarding the Joint Political-Military Commission) [see attachment II];

The University of Edinburgh