Country/entity
Central African Republic
Region
Africa (excl MENA)
Agreement name
Gambo
Date
18/10/2018
Agreement status
Unilateral document
Interim arrangement
No
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/local conflict (Central African Republic Conflicts (1996 - )
The Central African Republic conflict is one of a set of regionally connected conflicts addressed by the African Great Lakes process. After the country gained independence from France in 1960 it has been ruled by a sequence of autocratic leaders that principally gained power through coups. Since the mid-1990s several waves of internal conflict took place in the Central African Republic, primarily along tribal, and later-on increasingly sectarian, lines. In 1996 and 1997, French troops and soldiers from neighbouring countries intervened to end a mutiny in the capital, Bangui, by factions of the army. The fighting was predominantly along tribal lines, with southern tribes in revolt against the ‘northern’ government. A UN mission was installed in 1998 to secure the truce.
After General Bozizé took control of the country after several coup attempts in 2003, a ‘bush war’ began led by armed opposition forces. From late 2006 onward, government troops with French military support severely weakened the rebels. Following this, a number of agreements were signed during 2007-2008, but not all factions have accepted them. In 2011, Bozizé was re-elected in supposedly fraudulent elections, which resulted in a new wave of uprisings. Séléka, an alliance of northern rebel groups, took over parts of the country and forced Bozizé to agree to a power-sharing deal. However, after this agreement broke down, Séléka took control of Bangui and Bozizé had to flee the country in 2013. Leader of Séléka, Michel Djotodia, took office and officially disbanded Séléka. However, continual violence between ex-Séléka groups and opposing militias, collectively known as ‘anti-balaka’, persisted and Djotodia was forced to resign less than a year later. Catherine Samba-Panza was installed as interim president until Faustin Archange Touadéra was elected in January 2016. In February 2019 an agreement was signed between the government and fourteen armed groups, including ex-Seleka groups, committed to disarmament. However, violence between ex-Seleka groups and anti-balaka continues.
Central African Republic Conflicts (1996 - ) )
Stage
Framework/substantive - partial (Core issue)
Conflict nature
Inter-group
Peace process
155: CAR: Local Processes
Various local processes.
Parties
The President of the Special Delegation
Third parties
Description
This agreement is a communal response to the Pombolo apology. The agreement seems to be part of a wider process to reconcile Gambo and Pombolo.

Agreement document
CF_181018_Gambo_tr.pdf []

Agreement document (original language)
CF_181018_Gambo.pdf []

Groups

Children/youth
Rhetorical
Page 1
We have decided that MUNISCA should organize a round table in Bangassou and transport both of us, the leaders of Pombolo and Gambo, as well as representatives of Selekas and the autodefense groups, OFCA groups, Gambo and Pombolo youth, and Gambo and Pombolo religious groups - We have asked that this gesture of pardon take place before the officials of Bangassou.
Other
Page 1
The whole social stratum - local authorities, OFCA, youth, the president of the autodefense group, religious leaders etc. are pleased to receive for the first time your letter of apology - one does not forgive a second time according to the word of God.
Disabled persons
No specific mention.
Elderly/age
No specific mention.
Migrant workers
No specific mention.
Racial/ethnic/national group
No specific mention.
Religious groups
Rhetorical
Page 1
We have decided that MUNISCA should organize a round table in Bangassou and transport both of us, the leaders of Pombolo and Gambo, as well as representatives of Selekas and the autodefense groups, OFCA groups, Gambo and Pombolo youth, and Gambo and Pombolo religious groups - We have asked that this gesture of pardon take place before the officials of Bangassou.
Indigenous people
No specific mention.
Other groups
No specific mention.
Refugees/displaced persons
No specific mention.
Social class
No specific mention.

Gender

Women, girls and gender
No specific mention.
Men and boys
No specific mention.
LGBTI
No specific mention.
Family
No specific mention.

State definition

State definition
No specific mention.

Governance

Political institutions (new or reformed)
No specific mention.
Constitution's affirmation/renewal
No specific mention.
Constitutional reform/making
No specific mention.
Elections
No specific mention.
Electoral commission
No specific mention.
Political parties reform
No specific mention.
Civil society
No specific mention.
Traditional/religious leaders
Page 1
The whole social stratum - local authorities, OFCA, youth, the president of the autodefense group, religious leaders etc. are pleased to receive for the first time your letter of apology - one does not forgive a second time according to the word of God.

We have decided that MUNISCA should organize a round table in Bangassou and transport both of us, the leaders of Pombolo and Gambo, as well as representatives of Selekas and the autodefense groups, OFCA groups, Gambo and Pombolo youth, and Gambo and Pombolo religious groups - We have asked that this gesture of pardon take place before the officials of Bangassou.
Public administration
No specific mention.

Power sharing

Political power sharing
No specific mention.
Territorial power sharing
No specific mention.
Economic power sharing
No specific mention.
Military power sharing
No specific mention.

Human rights and equality

Human rights/RoL
No specific mention.
Equality
No specific mention.
Democracy
No specific mention.
Protection measures
No specific mention.
Human rights framework
No specific mention.
Civil and political rights
No specific mention.
Socio-economic rights
No specific mention.
NHRI
No specific mention.
Regional or international human rights institutions
No specific mention.
Mobility/access
No specific mention.
Detention procedures
No specific mention.
Media and communication
No specific mention.
Citizenship
No specific mention.

Justice sector reform

Criminal justice and emergency law
No specific mention.
State of emergency provisions
No specific mention.
Judiciary and courts
No specific mention.
Prisons and detention
No specific mention.
Traditional Laws
No specific mention.

Socio-economic reconstruction

Development or socio-economic reconstruction
No specific mention.
National economic plan
No specific mention.
Natural resources
No specific mention.
International funds
No specific mention.
Business
No specific mention.
Taxation
No specific mention.
Banks
No specific mention.

Land, property and environment

Land reform/rights
No specific mention.
Pastoralist/nomadism rights
No specific mention.
Cultural heritage
No specific mention.
Environment
No specific mention.
Water or riparian rights or access
No specific mention.

Security sector

Security Guarantees
No specific mention.
Ceasefire
No specific mention.
Police
No specific mention.
Armed forces
No specific mention.
DDR
No specific mention.
Intelligence services
No specific mention.
Parastatal/rebel and opposition group forces
Page 1
The whole social stratum - local authorities, OFCA, youth, the president of the autodefense group, religious leaders etc. are pleased to receive for the first time your letter of apology - one does not forgive a second time according to the word of God.

We have decided that MUNISCA should organize a round table in Bangassou and transport both of us, the leaders of Pombolo and Gambo, as well as representatives of Selekas and the autodefense groups, OFCA groups, Gambo and Pombolo youth, and Gambo and Pombolo religious groups - We have asked that this gesture of pardon take place before the officials of Bangassou.
Withdrawal of foreign forces
No specific mention.
Corruption
No specific mention.
Crime/organised crime
No specific mention.
Drugs
No specific mention.
Terrorism
No specific mention.

Transitional justice

Transitional justice general
No specific mention.
Amnesty/pardon
No specific mention.
Courts
No specific mention.
Mechanism
No specific mention.
Prisoner release
No specific mention.
Vetting
No specific mention.
Victims
No specific mention.
Missing persons
No specific mention.
Reparations
No specific mention.
Reconciliation
Page 1
In response to your letter asking for reconciliation, social cohesion, peace, brotherly love, and solidarity.

The whole social stratum - local authorities, OFCA, youth, the president of the autodefense group, religious leaders etc. are pleased to receive for the first time your letter of apology - one does not forgive a second time according to the word of God.

Implementation

UN signatory
No specific mention.
Other international signatory
No specific mention.
Referendum for agreement
No specific mention.
International mission/force/similar
Page 1
We have decided that MUNISCA should organize a round table in Bangassou and transport both of us, the leaders of Pombolo and Gambo, as well as representatives of Selekas and the autodefense groups, OFCA groups, Gambo and Pombolo youth, and Gambo and Pombolo religious groups - We have asked that this gesture of pardon take place before the officials of Bangassou.
Enforcement mechanism
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh